6 million square kilometers of ocean and coastlines in Southeast Asia and the PacificOutline of triangle determined by the number of coral species foundIncludes all or part of the countries of Indonesia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Malaysia (only Sabah), East Timor, and the Solomon Islands (CT6)Eventually Fiji and Vanuatu will be added (CT6+2)More than 500 species of corals (example – Caribbean has maybe 100 species of coral and possibly 200 species of fish)More than 1000 species of fish Biodiversity – why it is important. Evolutionary safety net – when things fail, something can take its place. (north Atlantic – in less 50 years, collapse of cod drove failure of fishery)Potential pharmaceutical benefits
NOAA’s role within CTI is to focus on MPAs, CCA, and EAFM. Through the EAFM stream, The IUU team provides technical support and expertise to the planning process for fisheries managers and works with MCS practitioners to develop and strengthen their MCS capabilities
More specifically through CTI, the IUU team goals are to strengthen the capacity of the CT6 nations to combat IUU fishing within their waters and their shared maritime areas within the region. Before effective training could begin, an understanding of the current capacity was needed.
To facilitate gathering consistent information across the region, OLE and the IMCS Network developed an MCS-related questionnaire that walks through a national fishery, gathering information on the types of vessels fishing in domestic waters, target and bycatch species, authorized and illicit activity by foreign vessels, ports and port security, fisheries management practices, international legal obligations, and domestic legal frameworks. Representatives from the IUU team visited each of the CT6 countries to discuss and identify MCS colleagues across the region beginning in 2009 and wrapping up last fall. The MCS colleagues were identified by each country’s CTI national coordinating committee, the program integrator and also through using personal relationships developed over the years working to eliminate IUU Fishing. People present at the CTFF were really helpful, WWF Malaysia, NFA from PNG, WWF Philippines, Sabah Fisheries,
In an attempt to visualize the Summary results from the MCS assessments and identify the state of MCS capacity in each of the countries to develop the regional view of capacity to combat IUU fishing in the region we condensed all the results into a red/yellow/green chart where:Green=present and good to go (or minor tweaks needed)yellow= present but needs workRed=nonexistent, or lackingInput=controlling people who extract from the resource. ie how many boats/fishers are allowed to utilize the resource. Output=controlling what is coming out of the system. Fish extractedCommunication system=internal communications between MCS practitioners, and external communication with stakeholders.
Highlighted in blue are the CT6 requests for assistance which we use in addition to the survey results to ensure that our training plans are driven by the CT6 countries and meet the needs and wants of our country partners.
The most recent EAFM REX was held last month in Kuala Lumpur and an objective developed by the EAFM representatives was to reduce IUU fishing through greater collaboration and increased enforcement and awareness by 2017. The activities the CT6 countries identified as important to reach that goal are: 1,2,3,4,5 and over the course of a working session at the REX they identified key steps to make each of those action items happen. These activities, identified specifically by the CT6 countries in addition to the opportunities identified by the IUU team surveys can perhaps be a jumping off point for the CTFF members to engage with the CTI-IUU team both in the region and also in the broader, global context. From what we’ve discussed here, perhaps number 4 and 5 are a nice place to start.
Overview of the remainder of FY12, which in the US goes through September. FY13 plans have not been finalized but they will carryover on themes developed within this years’ trainings and workshops.
Why do we care? We are all aware of these issues but it’s good to remember that the effects span the entire spectrum from the artisanal fishers, to the small commercial, to the large commercial vessels engaged in the global market. At all levels there are impacts felt in:Economic: loss of revenue, loss of multiplier effects,Loss of potential export revenuesResource: damage to coastal stocks – overfishing, compromised management and assessment Social: conflict with domestic / artisanal fishers, food security/livelihoods jeopardised, undermine rule of lawEcological: damage to sensitive marine ecosystems, birds, turtles, sharks, mammals killed
Outside of the USCTI, NOAA’s role in international fisheries spans numerous Global IUU Initiatives. IMCS Coordination and Information sharing network, INTERPOL fisheries working group that was just established earlier this year and NOAA has been a leading force on the International Port State Measures Agreement to help keep IUU product out of the global market.MCS Network:A voluntary network of member countries committed to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of fisheries-related MCS activities through:
Inspection requirements:Requires annual level of inspections “sufficient to achieve the objectives” of the AgreementRequires Parties to designate ports to which vessels may request entry and ensure sufficient inspection capacity at those portsSets standardized requirements for advance notice of arrivalEstablishes criteria for prioritizing vessels to be inspectedSets minimum standards for the conduct of vessel inspections, including:Inspector training,Required inspection of all relevant areas, gear, equipment, documents, etc.,Inspection reports (completion and dissemination)Denial of Port Entry and Access to Port ServicesRequires Parties to deny entry into port to vessels included on RFMO IUU vessel lists.Port States may allow entry for inspection or other enforcement action.Requires Parties to deny entry into port and/or use of port services where the port State has sufficient proof that the vessel has been engaged in IUU fishing or fishing related activities in support of IUU fishing.Agreement requires Parties to:Require their vessels to cooperate with inspections by other PartiesInvestigate IUU activity detected during a port inspectionTake enforcement action in response to such activity where appropriate and share information about any such enforcement actionsEnsure that its flagged vessels are subject to measures that are at least as effective in preventing, deterring, and eliminating IUU fishing
PSM training is big push for the IUU team in response to the needs and requests of the CT6 nations. There is a training workshop being held in Indonesia this week to assist in developing appropriate legislation for Indonesia to be in compliance with this treaty. Part 2 of this training series will be focused on the operational side and should be happening in August, however the results of the current workshop will really drive that.
Combating IUU Fishing through the CTI
Coral Triangle Fishers Forum IINovotel Lami Bay, Suva, Fiji18-20 June 2012 SESSION 4.2 Combating IUU Fishing through the Coral Triangle Initiative Ann Mooney (NOAA) firstname.lastname@example.org
Coral Triangle Fishers Forum II Novotel Lami Bay, Suva, Fiji 18-20 June 2012 Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries, and Food Security (CTI) Multilateral partnership to safeguard Coral Triangle Region’s marine & coastal biological resources Initiated 2007 by Indonesian President Yudhoyono Launched May 2009, when CT6 heads of state signed CTIThe Coral Triangle is the hotspot of marine biological diversity,shared within the waters of Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New declaration & launched CTIGuinea, Timor-Leste, the Philippines, and the Solomon IslandsImage: www.uscti.org Regional Plan of Action
CTI VISION Improved Management of Biologically and Economically Important Coastal and Marine Resources and its Associated Ecosystems that Support the Livelihoods of Peoples and Economies in the Coral Triangle R1. Regional and national platforms strengthened to catalyze and sustain integrated marine and coastal management in the Coral Triangle NOAA’s focus w/in IR1.1 Policies developed US CTI Results and advanced IR1.2 Institutional capacity and Framework collaboration strengthened IR1.3 Learning and information networks strengthened IR1.4 Public and private sector constituencies engaged IR1.5 Sustainable financing mobilized CTI GOAL 2 EAFM and other marine resources fully applied R2. EAFM improved in CT CTI GOAL 3 MPAs established and effectively managed R3. MPA management CTI GOAL 4 CC adaptation measures achieved R4. Capacity to adapt to improved in CT climate change improved in CTIR2.1 EAFM framework developed and IR3.1 MPA system framework IR4.1 Capacity to apply climate change endorsed developed and endorsed adaptation strategies increasedIR2.2 Fisheries management capacity IR3.2 MPA management capacity IR4.2 Climate adaptation strategies increased increased applied in priority geographiesIR2.3 Enforcement capacity increased IR3.3 MPA effectiveness improved inIR2.4 EAFM applied in priority geographies priority geographies
Coral Triangle Fishers Forum II Novotel Lami Bay, Suva, Fiji 18-20 June 2012 CT6/Partner Coordination• Current IUU Group: – CT6 MCS Organizations • Sabah Fisheries, Sabah Parks • Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources • KKP – NOAA Office of Law Enforcement – NOAA Office of General Counsel for Enforcement – US Coast Guard – US Dept. Of Justice – International MCS Network – Australia MCS Organizations• Identify Additional CT6 MCS contacts
Coral Triangle Fishers Forum IINovotel Lami Bay, Suva, Fiji18-20 June 2012NOAA-IUU team:Todd Dubois (Assistant Director, NOAA Fisheries Enforcement)Meggan Engelke-Ros (NOAA General Counsel for Enforcement)Frank Giaretto (Pacific Island Division, NOAA Fisheries Enforcement)Gregg Casad (US Coast Guard)Ann Mooney (NOAA Fisheries Enforcement)
Coral Triangle Fishers Forum IINovotel Lami Bay, Suva, Fiji18-20 June 2012 Coral Triangle InitiativeIUU Team Goals – CT6 Participation in International MCS Networks – Integrated Fisheries MCS – Coordinated Regional MCS Operations (where appropriate) – Harmonization of Legal Frameworks/Fisheries Laws – Self Sustained Fisheries MCS Training Program
Coral Triangle Fishers Forum IINovotel Lami Bay, Suva, Fiji18-20 June 2012 Monitoring Control and Surveillance Surveys
Coral Triangle Fishers Forum II Novotel Lami Bay, Suva, Fiji 18-20 June 2012 Goals of the MCS Assessment: Identify Areas of Known or Suspected IUU Fishing Activity Identify Fisheries MCS Capacity and Gaps Identify Applicable Fisheries Legislation/Laws and Gaps Identify Fisheries MCS Training Needs
Coral Triangle Fishers Forum IINovotel Lami Bay, Suva, Fiji18-20 June 2012 MCS Assessment Results (Preliminary) Papua New Guinea Solomon Islands Timor-Leste Philippines Indonesia Malaysia Foreign Vessels Input : rules and regulations Domestic Vessels catch accounting gear closed areas output: rules and regulations electronic monitoring at-sea shoreside legal Enforcement System: communication
Coral Triangle Fishers Forum IINovotel Lami Bay, Suva, Fiji18-20 June 2012 CT6 requests for assistance Papua New Guinea Solomon Islands Timor-Leste Philippines Indonesia Malaysia Foreign Vessels Input : rules and regulations Domestic Vessels catch accounting gear closed areas output: rules and regulations electronic monitoring at-sea shoreside legal Enforcement System: communication Foreign Vessels Observer Program: presence Domestic Vessels
Coral Triangle Fishers Forum IINovotel Lami Bay, Suva, Fiji18-20 June 2012 EAFM REX I/II Objective 2: Reduce IUU fishing through greater collaboration and increased enforcement and awareness by 2017 1. Strengthen regional MCS through the RPOA IUU 2. Convene an MCS practitioner workshop (REX) 3. Develop best practices for MCS within CT 4. Develop proposal for Regional IUU information centre 5. Analyse markets/trade routes of IUU to/from CT
Coral Triangle Fishers Forum IINovotel Lami Bay, Suva, Fiji18-20 June 2012June 2012 IUU Team Activities Port State Measures Training 1 (Jakarta) Coral Triangle Fishers Forum-IUUJuly 2012 Legal workshop (Washington, DC)August 2012 Transboundary training (Philippines) Port State Measures Training 2 (tbd)
Coral Triangle Fishers Forum IINovotel Lami Bay, Suva, Fiji18-20 June 2012 Impacts of IUU Fishing Worldwide: Up to US$23B lost annually due to IUU activities Economic Resource Social Ecological 13
Coral Triangle Fishers Forum IINovotel Lami Bay, Suva, Fiji18-20 June 2012 Global IUU Initiatives International Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS) Network: – enhanced cooperation – coordination – information collection/ exchange INTERPOL IUU Working Group – Initiated an ad hoc working group on IUU Fishing (Bangkok – March 2012) – Seeking international collaboration on criminal IUU activity International Port State Measures Agreement
Coral Triangle Fishers Forum IINovotel Lami Bay, Suva, Fiji18-20 June 2012 PSM Agreement Objectives • First binding global instrument focused specifically on combating IUU fishing • Intended to combat IUU fishing by eliminating “ports of convenience,” thereby preventing IUU fish from entering the stream of commerce. • Sets minimum standards for effective port state controls
Coral Triangle Fishers Forum IINovotel Lami Bay, Suva, Fiji18-20 June 2012Port State Measures Agreement Training Todd.Dubois@noaa.gov Curriculum addresses: • Inspection • Denial of entry into port or access to port services to IUU vessels • Flag State control • Information sharing • Capacity building
Coral Triangle Fishers Forum IINovotel Lami Bay, Suva, Fiji18-20 June 2012 Opportunities for collaboration between CTFF and CTI-IUU team Information sharing network/databases Relationships/open dialogue outside G to G Ideas??