Au Psy492 M7 A3 E Portfolio Hall J. Pppx


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Au Psy492 M7 A3 E Portfolio Hall J. Pppx

  1. 1. 1<br />Undergraduate Studies e-Portfolio<br />John Hall<br />Organizational Psychology<br />2010<br />
  2. 2. Personal Statement<br />Personal Statement<br /> In my journey through life thus far I have managed to accomplish some goals, and I have failed to reach others. I realize that through some of my worst failures, I have learned the greatest lessons. One of my failures was to complete my college education in a field that was of interest to me. At the age of 59, I enrolled as an online student at Argosy University to obtain a BA in Organizational Psychology. I am on schedule to graduate from this institution in December, 2010. I plan to go to graduate school and pursue a Masters Degree in Organizational Psychology. For the last ten years I have worked with adults with Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities. This has been a most rewarding experience for me and I would like the option of being able to continue to work with this population. A Masters in I-O would allow me to become certified as a Qualified Professional. A Qualified Professional in North Carolina is a person who is responsible for seeing that all of the legal rights of clients are being met. Also, a QP does auditing of personnel records for employees, client daily logs (including medication administration, and notes). Also, a QP checks to see that all Policies and Procedures of the managing entity are being met, and all state and federal regulations are being followed. A QP also reviews any disciplinary actions taken against employees to see that they are in order with state and federal regulations. Other areas such as client safety, client goals, and client funds are also monitored by the QP for accuracy and compliance. To become certified as a QP one needs a BA degree in any human service major, including psychology (continued).<br />
  3. 3. Personal Statement<br />Personal Statement (page 2)<br /> If one obtains a Master’s Degree in a human service major such as I-O, the chances for also becoming a Program Manager are greatly enhanced though not required. Also by obtaining a MA in Organizational Psychology, I enhance my chances of employment in other fields, such as human resources. Wherever I am called to serve, I want to remain in the service of others. <br /> I believe that every citizen in our country should accomplish at least three basic things. These three things are: (1) serve your country in some capacity; (2) serve your community through some volunteer activity; (3) and most importantly be available to guide and mentor your children. If we all accomplish these three goals, what a difference we would see in our country, community, and families. Also, I believe that all of us can make a difference in our workplace if we are open-minded, embrace diversity, and work collectively towards a common goal. I believe in social programs that meet and accommodate the needs of the less-fortunate, the disabled handicapped, veterans, and the elderly. I also believe in fiscal responsibility, and support the notion that wasteful spending should be eliminated wherever it is found. Further, I believe that no elected official should ever amass wealth while in office, in fact, they should have made no undue financial gain during the length of their service. (continued)<br />
  4. 4. Personal Statement<br />Personal Statement (Page 3)<br /> In the past, I have had experiences that have prepared me for the type of position that I will seek upon the completion of my education. I have managed a non-profit corporation (arts agency), I have worked for a newspaper and learned the power of the 4th estate, I have also owned my own business and managed employees. I am also a veteran of the Vietnam era, with a distinguished service record while in Vietnam. Through this experience I have a great deal of empathy for our returning veterans from the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. I am also a great believer that war should always be avoided at all costs, due to the astronomically high toll placed on our veterans, and the families and friends of veterans. With the exception of World War’s I and II, I cannot identify any armed conflict that had a positive conclusion for our country or the country that was identified as our enemy. Personally, I have suffered from the after-effects of being involved in an armed conflict, and have seen the devastating effects that these problems can cause veterans, their families, and our communities. A positive result of my experience is that I came away wanting to understand in<br /> (continued)<br />
  5. 5. Personal Statement<br />Personal Statement (Page 4)<br /> in greater depth the causes of some of the psychological effects of veterans such as PTSD. My coursework here at Argosy University has given me much understanding of these conditions. Currently, I am attempting to establish a volunteer program that serves returning veterans who suffer from PTSD. My program involves taking disabled vets out into nature settings, and allowing them to take part in activities such as trout fishing, photography, and nature walks. These activities are thought to give the participant an opportunity to feel more complete by engaging in activities that they would not normally have an opportunity to participate in. Being in nature has a calming effect on the PTSD sufferers, and also gives them an opportunity to converse with others who have similar conditions. By being allowed to be in a non-judgmental atmosphere, many times those involved feel comfortable enough to talk openly about their experiences, past and current. This is my small way of giving back to my community, and my country. <br /> Owning and managing my own business was also a valuable experience for me. I learned that many times it is necessary to work more than 40 hours each week in order to complete a project. Also, I learned about employee recruitment, hiring, scheduling, and discipline. My philosophy concerning discipline is that most employees who are doing a poor job are really a reflection of the employer. <br />
  6. 6. Personal Statement<br />Personal Statement (Page 4)<br /> They simply have not received the proper training and in many cases are afraid that they don’t know how to complete a task. By receiving training instead of punishment, at least initially, they can become contributing members in a team atmosphere, and make valuable contributions. I also have become convinced that diverse organizations have the most chance for success in our current economic and business atmosphere. To ignore this fact is to deny success for your business. My coursework here at Argosy University has taught me that, and through this work I have become familiar with how to build a diverse organization. Throughout my life I have been able to quickly analyze problems within organizations. I would be a valuable asset for an organization who has problems, needs them identified, and requires a plan to solve the problem. To me this satisfies the interest in the construction process. Whether building houses or building diversity, the result is the satisfaction gained from attaining a successful end to a project.<br /> Loyalty, ethical behavior, thoroughness, and being able to build consensus are all strengths that I possess, and would be qualities that I believe would be positive contributions to any organization. I feel a great deal of satisfaction and pride in the fact that I will graduate from Argosy University in December, 2010. I feel that I have been a good role model for my children, and other older adults in my age group. I may not live to accomplish my goals, but, as I have learned, it is the journey that is important. I hope mine never ends.<br />
  7. 7. Resume<br /><br /> <br />The Resume of John Moir Hall, Jr. <br />Objective____________________________________________<br />To obtain admission to the Argosy University Graduate Program and obtain a <br />Masters of Arts in Organizational Psychology<br />Skills_______________________________________________<br />Organizational Skills <br />Administrative Skills<br />Communication Skills<br />Leadership Skills<br />Computer Skills<br />Certified in First Aid, Blood-Bourne Pathogens, CPR, and NCI Training<br />Accomplishments____________________________________<br />Army Commendation Medal for meritorious service w/Bronze Star <br />Founding Member – Elkin Big Band<br />Founding Member – Elkin-Jonesville Rotary Club – Officer & Board Member<br />Member – Elkin Centennial Committee<br />Foothills Arts Council – Member of the Decade 1980 – 1990<br />Employment Experience__________________________________________<br />August, 2009 – Present Care South, Inc. Boonville, NC<br />Position:<br />In-Home Health Care Aid & Human Resources Consultant<br />(continued)<br />
  8. 8. Resume<br />Resume of John M. Hall, Jr. (Page 2)<br />Responsibilities:<br /><ul><li>Work with home-bound clients implementing care plans and goals.
  9. 9. Consult on an as-needed basis assisting with Policies and Procedures Manual.
  10. 10. Consult on an as-needed basis assisting with Human Resources Issues</li></ul>April, 2005 – April, 2009 Carolina Residential Services, Inc. Boonville, NC<br />Position:<br />Direct Care Technician<br />Responsibilities:<br /><ul><li>Responsible for all phases of group home management for the mentally retarded and the developmentally disabled. 
  11. 11. Directly involved in personal care plan goal setting and implementation. 
  12. 12. Directly involved in planning activities and implementing activities. 
  13. 13. Directly responsible for the administration of all consumer medications. 
  14. 14. Directly responsible for planning and implementing consumer transportation. 
  15. 15. Directly involved in dietary planning and implementation.
  16. 16. Responsible for upkeep of the building and grounds and vehicles.</li></ul> <br />
  17. 17. Resume<br />The Resume of John M. Hall, Jr. (Page 3)<br /> <br />July 1996 – March 2005 Yadkin Valley Realty & Development Co. Elkin, NC<br /> Position: Co-Owner<br /> Responsibilities: <br /><ul><li>Managed all phases of business activity for the company including sales and personnel management. 
  18. 18. Directly involved in all phases of new home construction, sales, and service</li></ul>_____________________________________________________________________________<br />September, 1987 – July, 1996 The Foothills Arts Council, Inc. Elkin, NC <br /> Position: Executive Director<br /> Responsibilities: <br /><ul><li>Responsible for all phases of office management and community arts education.
  19. 19. Directly involved in all aspects of committee planning, fund-raising, budget planning.
  20. 20. Involved in all phases of membership and board member and officer recruitment.</li></ul> <br />
  21. 21. Resume<br />The Resume of John M. Hall, Jr. (Page 4)<br />Education___________________________________________________________________<br /> <br />August, 1964 – June, 1967 Elkin High School Elkin, NC<br />High School Diploma<br />College Prep. – Football 1, 3, 4. Golf 1,2,3,4. Monogram Club, Music Club.<br />_________________________________________________________________________<br />June, 1967 – December 1967 Pfeiffer University Misenheimer, NC<br /> Degree: none _________________________________________________________________________ <br /> November 1969 –January 1970 U.S. Army Accounting School<br /> January 1970 – March 1970 U.S. Army Mechanized Stock Control School<br />Certificate of Completion _________________________________________________________________________<br /> August, 2008 – December, 2010 Argosy University Online Phoenix, AZ <br /> Graduated – December, 2010 Degree Awarded: BA Organizational Psychology<br /> <br />
  22. 22. Resume<br />The Resume of John M. Hall, Jr. (Page 5)<br />Military Service______________________________________<br /> <br />US Army – 1969 – 1972<br /> Vietnam Veteran – 1970- 1971<br />References___________________________________________<br /> <br />References furnished upon request<br /> <br />
  23. 23. Reflection<br />Reflections<br /> During my two years at Argosy in the Organizational Psychology Undergraduate Program I have been able to develop my skills through the guidance of some excellent professors, the coursework discussions with classmates, and the readings and written assignments for all the courses. <br /> In the area of critical thinking I recognize that I have much more to learn, but I have received a solid foundation from the work here. The requirement of writing so many assignments has served to enhance my critical thinking abilities, and also to learn from the input of others. Having classmates who had differing viewpoints from mine was valuable in requiring me to evaluate my opinions, and also to rework many initial thoughts due to their input. <br /> It is a requirement of anyone who wants to do the work of an Organizational Psychologist to have the necessary cognitive ability to interpret research findings from a wide range of psychological perspectives and theories within written and oral presentations. Through trial and error I feel that again, the input of classmates and the guidance of faculty have served me well in developing these abilities. <br /> Research methods remains my weakest area in Organizational Psychology. I would rate my ability to interpret scholarly research as slightly above average, and my ability to design research studies as only average. I have challenged myself to put forth more effort while in graduate school to refine and enhance my knowledge in this most important area. <br /> In the areas of written and oral communication , I would rate my current abilities as above average in both. Through the years I have always been able to communicate through the written word, and through the coursework here at Argosy, I feel that my skills have been enhances greatly, again due to the faculty guidance, observing and discussing the work of others, and from the sheer <br />(continued)<br />
  24. 24. Reflection<br />Reflections (Page 2)<br /> volume of written assignments that we have been required to complete. Although our discussions have been in written form, I feel that these opportunities to communicate with classmates has been valuable. Oral communication has been enhanced by written discussions, which have required us to think before we speak which is a valuable attribute to possess. Recently I can recall many instances where I have stopped and formulated an answer before speaking. I feel that this is a result of our discussion forums. Once you speak in this format, there is a written record, and it’s hard to take anything back. <br /> As a lifelong learner, I have developed several interests over the years that have greatly enhanced my life. These include interests in art, music, reading, and nature. One of my favorite classes here was the non-required course , “The History of Science”. Through the eyes of Professor Bruce Brazell, I gained new perspectives and was exposed to the overall wonder of science. In the past I have always been interested in new discoveries, either in nature, physical science, and chemistry. Also, I have a long-standing interest in medicine from the influence of my father who was a physician. From him also, I was introduced to fly-fishing for trout here in North Carolina. This love of nature enables me to embrace the theory that our natural resources have to be conserved and managed for many, many reasons. I have also learned about the healing power of being in nature. Currently I hope to continue to work with some of our veterans from Iraq and Afghanistan who have returned home with severe mental and physical problems. As a fellow veteran, I support these heroes to the utmost. <br /> Being a husband and father has also taught me many lessons that cannot be learned from any book. I have learned about love, loss, and acceptance, and through the influences of my wife and children, I have learned that all of us are valuable, important, and worth any effort to assist. Hopefully, as I enter graduate school here at Argosy, I can continue to learn, refine, and enhance the knowledge that I have gained through my interaction with so many wonderful people.<br />
  25. 25. Table of Contents<br />Table of Contents<br />Critical Thinking and Information Literacy – Walmart Gets a New Health Care <br />Research Skills – The Killings At Columbine High – A Literature Review<br />Communication Skills – Letter of Recommendation<br />Ethics and Diversity Awareness – An Informational Handout<br />Foundations of Psychology – The Effectiveness of Drug Replacement Therapy<br />Applied Psychology – The Best Substance Abuse Recovery Program<br />Interpersonal Effectiveness – Selection Methods<br />
  26. 26. Critical Thinking<br />A New Health Care Plan at Wal-Mart<br />John Hall<br />Argosy University<br />
  27. 27. Critical Thinking<br />A New Health Care Plan at Wal-Mart<br />Recently, Wal-Mart changed it health benefits package for employees. They reduced the waiting time from two years to one year for new employees. They also eliminated the $1,000 deductibles for hospital care and outpatient surgery. In addition, now all Wal-Mart employees can now choose from a list of over 2400 generic prescription drugs for only $4.00, which will result in a considerable savings for employees. Wal-Mart has also given its employees the option of choosing what premiums they will pay each month for health care insurance. The higher the premium paid, the lower the deductable. In total, employees can now customize their health care options in over 50 ways, choosing the amount of premiums, deductibles, and the amount of health care credits they can accrue. These credits are generally used for preventative measures or employee wellness programs. As a result of these changes, Wal-Mart executives announced that the number of all employees with health care coverage from all sources rose from 90.4% to 92.7% with around 50% of the employees receiving their health insurance through Wal-Mart (Noe et al, 2009).<br /> In most organizations, employees have come to expect that benefit packages offered by employers will help them maintain economic security. Wal-Mart came under heavy criticism from some employee watchdog organizations for their limited health care benefits for employees. Under Wal-Mart's limited health care coverage, part-time employees had to wait two years before they were eligible for health benefits. Once they had coverage there were still high deductions of $1,000 that had to be paid for hospitals and out-patient surgery. Since most of Wal-Mart's employees are paid a fairly low hourly rate, these deductions could add up to as much as 20% of their entire yearly income. Also, if an employee with less than two years of service became sick, and had to visit a doctor, or had to have surgery, or be put in the hospital unless they had health insurance through some other<br />
  28. 28. Critical Thinking<br />A New Health Care Plan at Wal-Mart (2)<br /> venue, he/she would have to pay the entire cost out of pocket. The lack of benefits, and the long waiting period did nothing to promote a positive image to potential employees that Wal-Mart was a good place to work. It also did not help in retaining employees for the first two years. Lastly, employees who were stuck with high medical bills for health care treatment could have a higher than normal stress level which could have affected their job performance and had a direct effect on the profitability of the company. <br /> By changing their health benefits package to hold down the cost of deductibles, purchase drugs for $4.00, give wellness credits, and allow the employees the option to choose the level of premiums they wanted to pay, Wal-Mart boosted their reputation as being an organization that was responsive to the current high costs of health care insurance. It helped with upgrading their reputations as being a good place to work. By changing their health care insurance options they rewarded the employees with better benefits without having to give higher than normal pay raises. By holding down payroll costs, Wal-Mart did not have to increase the amount of matching funds they are legally required to pay for social security and unemployment insurance (Noe et al, 2009). Under this plan, they were able to gain positive public opinion, raise employee morale and hold down payroll costs. Additionally, Wal-Mart has helped its employees immensely by offering generic prescriptions for $4.00. With the high cost of medicine, this has to bolster employee confidence in Wal-Mart as a caring, employee-oriented organization. Along with this goodwill from the employees, coincidentally, Wal-Mart has begun offering the same discount to the general public. By being assured that its thousands of employees are going to be taking advantage to this great program, the income of Wal-Mart Pharmacies is going to rise. Combined with the income this program will generate from the public, Wal-Mart can again use the sheer volume of drugs that it will be purchasing as a bargaining tool to get lower prices from drug-makers. They accomplish two things by implementing this program, they drive prices down through volume purchasing, and they<br />
  29. 29. Critical Thinking<br />A New Health Care Plan at Wal-Mart (3)<br /> increase profits by adding thousands of employee purchasers as pharmacy customers. This appears to be a win-win situation for all concerned. Also by enrolling more employees in the health care insurance program, Wal-Mart could negotiate a cheaper rate for health care premiums (Noe et al, 2009). Since Wal-Mart has the sometimes dubious reputation for hard-nosed bargaining, it can be assumed that they used this opportunity as a hammer to secure cheaper premiums. In the end, this new employee benefit now sets Wal-Mart even further apart from other discount merchandisers in terms of being pro-active in behalf of its employees. <br /> In order to address the needs of all employees, Wal-Mart empowered all its employees by offering flexible benefits instead of a single benefits package for everyone. This is called a cafeteria-style plan. Under this plan, employees have alternatives to choose from which deal with the type of benefit desired and the amount they want to pay. By giving employees the option of choosing only the options they need, the company is not required to pay for some benefit that might never be used or appreciated. Another reason that they chose this option could have been that by allowing the employees the option of choosing their own options, the employees felt empowered since they could control their own health care destiny (Noe et al, 2009). This increased empowerment contributes to an overall higher level of morale and job satisfaction. When employee morale is raised, then there is every chance they will increase their productivity rate which affects the profitability of Wal-Mart. <br /> One negative aspect of the cafeteria-style plan is that the administrative costs are higher especially in the formation, and the early stages of changing over to the new plan. To minimize these costs, organizations can utilize standard software packages that have been developed for implementing a cafeteria-style plan. Another problematic aspect of the cafeteria-style plan is that the employee selection of different benefit options will increase the overall costs of the program since the employees will be selecting the types of benefits they will use the most. For example, an employee<br />
  30. 30. Critical Thinking<br />A New Health Care Plan at Wal-Mart (4)<br />with hypertension will most likely purchase a benefit that lowers the deductible for doctor, hospital, and surgery benefits since he or she will have to be monitored. If the condition worsens, the employee with a lower deductible will be able to spend less out of pocket money if they have to go to the hospital or have surgery as a result of this condition. This heavy usage could drive up the cost of the premiums that Wal-Mart has to pay. Costs are always going to be difficult to estimate when employees are allowed to select their own benefits (Noe et al, 2009).<br /> In order for Wal-Mart's employees to appreciate and value the new options and benefits they now have in their health care plan, it is crucial that Wal-Mart communicate with, and provide educational venues for their employees. There are many options for communicating these new benefits. Combining different media is a good way to make sure that all employees will receive and understand the new employee benefits. The use of company intranet sites, brochures, departmental meetings with representatives from the HRM department, memos, e-mails, and updated employee handbooks in combination will increase the chances that all employees will be exposed to the new options open to them, and how to select them. Another option would be to create a human resources hotline specifically set up to answer questions from employees about the new health care benefits, and also how to go about selecting them. Also, Wal-Mart could use its employee newsletter, and paycheck inserts to alert the employees that there are changes in their health care program, and give them the contact information concerning where to look, where to call, and who to talk with about their health benefit changes, and the new options available. By creatively combining all these different types of media, there should be no gap in communicating with employees. This investment in communication with the employees will pay positive dividends in the form of appreciative, satisfied and productive workers (Noe et al, 2009).<br />
  31. 31. Critical Thinking<br />A New Health Care Plan at Wal-Mart (5)<br />Reference<br />Noe, R., Hollenbeck, J., Gerhart, B., & Wright, P. (2009) Fundamentals of human resource management.(3rd Ed). McGraw-Hill. <br />
  32. 32. Research Skills<br />The Killings at Columbine High – A Literature Review<br />John Hall<br />Argosy University<br />
  33. 33. Research Skills<br />The Killings at Columbine High – A Literature Review<br /> Abstract<br /> Dylan Klebold and Michael Harris planned and carried out of the worst school shootings in history on April 20, 1999, at Columbine High School in Middleton, CO. What caused the two to carry out such an act against their fellow students and teachers? A review of the available literature offers a variety of explanations concerning the event. Some of the earliest reasons given were: revenge for being bullied by jocks; they were reacting to the isolation they experienced at school; Michael Harris was taking a prescription antidepressant; they wanted to kill Christians; they were influenced by the violent video games played online; they were harassed and called gay by classmates; they embraced the tenets of Adolph Hitler; they were mentally ill with Harris being identified as a psychopath; they envied and wanted to copy the Oklahoma bomber, Timothy McVeigh; and they suffered from parental neglect. The opinions of an FBI panel which consisted of mental health experts, and FBI profilers, came to the conclusion that all reasons previously put forth should be discounted, and identified the reason for the killings was the fact that Klebold was a depressive, easily-led, and under the influence of Harris. Harris was pictured as a cold, clever, calculating psychopath with a dual personality. He presented the “nice” side of himself to the world, but in reality was suffering from a high grade superiority complex that caused him to see all people as beneath him, and wanted to send a message to society in general to express his disdain. After a review of the material, it was concluded that perhaps all theorists were correct to some degree. All of the external negative events combined with the internal mental illness of both shooters, ignited a murderous rage with tragic results that could have been much worse if the boys’ plan had been executed to completion. <br />
  34. 34. Research Skills<br />The Killings at Columbine High – A Literature Review<br />Introduction<br /> On April 20, 1999, Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris entered the grounds of their school, Columbine High School, in Littleton, CO armed with knives, propane pipe bombs, a 9mm semi-automatic pistol, two 12 gauge sawed-off shotguns, and a 9mm semi-automatic carbine (No name, 2010) . As soon as they entered the building they began to shoot students and faculty in an indiscriminate manner, and attempted to set off the bombs they had brought onto the school’s property. When they finally took their own lives, 12 students, and 1 teacher, were dead, and 39 were wounded. It could have been worse. The bombs they planted were poorly constructed, and failed to detonate in most cases, causing little or no damage. In the days and months that followed, there were many theories as to why they committed this act. Many came to believe that they were reacting to the bullying that had occurred in each of their lives. Many others thought they were members of a “goth” cult called the “trench coat mafia”, and others wondered if they were just seeking a way to gain celebrity, shock the world, and go out in a blaze of glory holding the record for the most people killed in a mass murder (No name, 2009). Later research by the FBI and world-renowned mental health professionals has shown that it is necessary to evaluate the actions of these teenagers separately, not collectively. The motivations that propelled each boy to commit this one act need to be seen through the eyes of each individual (Cullen, 2004). <br /> By reviewing the current literature available, it should be possible to review the findings of the local and national media, school officials, as well as research results published by mental health experts, law enforcement, and other sources in order to separate myth from fact in regard to the events that provoked the shootings.<br /> <br />
  35. 35. Research Skills<br />The Killings at Columbine High – A Literature Review (Page 2)<br />Initial Findings<br />In the first days and weeks after April 20, 1999, the day that Dylan Klebold and Michael Harris entered Columbine High School in Littleton, CO armed with knives, a 9 mm pistol, two shotguns, a semi-automatic rifle, and propane pipe bombs and killed 13 people and wounded 39, most close to the situation offered the theory that both boys had been bullied, and isolated from the other students. Revenge for being picked on and ignored was seen as the primary motivation of the two boys. Others pointed to the fact that they were members of the “Trenchcoat Mafia”, a loose-knit collection of student outsiders who often wore black trenchcoats to school. Others speculated that the pair was after “white hats”. It is generally known at Columbine anyone wearing a white hat was a “jock”. Authorities also found an “enemies list” consisting mostly of names of “jocks’ that the two had prepared early in their preparation to assault the school. Because one of the victims was asked by the shooters if she believed in God, and her answer was “yes”, several Christian groups theorized that the two were targeting Christians. Although there was confusion over which victim was questioned, credit was given to two different girls, and both girls were viewed as “martyrs”. Friends of the boys’ parents expressed shock, and dismay, even describing Klebold’s family as being “perfect”. Klebold’s parents expressed the thought that they never saw any early warning signs that their son could have committed such an act (Chronology of Events, 2009). <br />
  36. 36. Research Skills<br />The Killings at Columbine High – A Literature Review (Page 3)<br />A Clearer Picture Emerges<br />As authorities began to sift through the journals of both boys, view information on their websites, and watch the two videos produced by Harris and Klebold, they began to see other factors concerning the motivation, planning, and overall goals of the two shooters. Investigators discovered that the plan of the boys was to place their bombs at strategic locations around the school, wait for them to explode, and shoot anyone who tried to escape. The goal was to kill 500 people, highjack a plane and fly to New York City, NY, and end their lives in a fiery crash, killing even more people. In interviews with school officials and a review of their own files produced more evidence that this was no random act. In fact, the two boys planned the assault for over a year, experimenting with making bombs, procuring their weapons with the help of fellow student, Robyn Anderson. Anderson was first described as Klebold’s girlfriend, but later information revealed that the two had never been romantically involved, but had been friends for some time (Chronology of Events, 2009). <br /> Investigators also looked into each boy’s medical history. It was found that Harris had been treated for depression and prescribed the anti-depressant drug, Luvox. Some researchers theorized that one of the side effects of Luvox, a lack of empathy for others, might have been a contributor to Harris’s actions on April, 20, 1999, but many others viewed this claim as irresponsible without further research into the drug’s side effects. However, Harris’s history of depression is seen as factual. Klebold, is seen by most as bright, shy, and easily led, particularly by Harris, whom he seemed to be enamored of after two became friends in middle school. <br /> Other facts were discovered that might have been seen as early warning signs that both boys were experiencing problems. First was the discovery that the two boys had been arrested in<br />
  37. 37. Research Skills<br />The Killings At Columbine High – A Literature Review (Page 4)<br /> 1997 for trying to steal tools from a van. They were both ordered to participant in a program for juvenile offenders. Showing their “good” side to program directors, the two were given an early release from the program because of their good behavior. The second, and most revealing fact about the actions of Harris was the discovery that in 1997, the father of Brooks Brown, a former friend of the boys, reported to the Jefferson County Sheriff’s Department that Eric Harris had been making threats against his son over a falling-out the two had experienced. The investigator assigned to check out the complaint became alarmed after visiting Harris’s personal website where he found some of Harris’s links were connected to websites with violent content. Harris and Klebold also had linked their two personal computers, and for several years participated in violent online video games. The investigator filled out the paperwork for a search warrant in order to seize Harris’s personal computer, but the warrant was never served (4-20-1999 A Columbine Shooting, 2010).<br />At this point there were many theories as to why these two individuals carried out their attack on Columbine High School. Bullying, isolation, prescriptions drugs, violent video game addiction, depression, and remarks about the two’s sexuality were all considered and rejected as being the one contributing factor that caused the Columbine shootings. <br />The Experts Weigh In<br />The most in-depth look at the events leading up to and after the Columbine shootings was conducted in by a team of FBI investigators and world-renowned mental health professionals at a conference convened in Leesburg, VA in 1999, three months after the shootings. The findings of the panel were that most of the initial theories about the two shooters were incorrect. The report details the individual problems that each boy was experiencing prior to the shootings at Columbine High School. According these experts there was no validity in the theories concerning the “trenchcoat mafia”, abuse from “jocks”, <br />
  38. 38. Research Skills<br />The Killings At Columbine High – A Literature Review (Page 5)<br /> and a “goth” mentality on the part of either boy. The panel also discounted the thought that this was just a random school shooting. Most school shootings are done in a reactionary manner, occurring quickly after the shooter feels he or she has been abused in some way. Klebold and Harris planned their attack for over a year, detailing how they would carry out the attack, highjack a plane, and end their lives in a fiery crash in New York City, NY. Both shooters looked at the students and faculty dead and wounded as collateral damage. Their attack was on a much grander scale and aimed at society in general. Further, the team sets the two apart in terms of motivation. Klebold, they thought, was easy to figure out. He is seen as a depressed, suicidal hothead who blamed himself for his problems, and was manipulated by Harris.<br />Harris, on the other hand, was harder to figure out. He was described by many as “nice’, but the team found that underneath, he was a cold, calculating, manipulative, psychopath. One confirmation of this diagnosis is pointed out from Harris’s journals. One psychiatrist called his journal rantings a “messianic-grade superiority complex”. Although it may seem from his writings that Harris hated everyone around him, and everything, he actually was expressing his contempt for others, and wanted to demean them. Further, Harris confirms that he lies about almost everything he does. He loves to lie, and his pleasure in telling lies is called “duping delight” by one of the team psychologists. He also loved to manipulate people, and felt no remorse for doing so. In a marriage of contempt, lies, and a total lack of empathy, Harris’s actions are diagnosed as those of a psychopath (Cullen, 2004). <br />
  39. 39. Research Skills<br />The Killings At Columbine High – A Literature Review (Page 6)<br />Conclusion<br /> There seems to be an amazing convergence of environmental and psychological events that played a role in motivating Klebold and Harris. Mental illness resulting from unknown developmental trauma, or genetic in nature on the part of both shooters served as the powder keg to the negative environmental stimuli, and the availability of the materials and weapons needed to carry out their psychotic plan, all caused both shooters to reach a pathetic boiling point, resulting in a “perfect storm” that gave a stage to their rage and disdain of society in general with horribly tragic results. It seems that most all theorists are correct to some degree. Most of the assertions that were put forth, meshed with the psychotic mindset of both boys, resulting in an event that is difficult to comprehend. Bullying, verbal harassment, parental neglect, police blunders, failure of school administrators to see warning signs, violent video games, lack of gun control, internet instructions for bomb-building, prescription drugs, and mental illness all could be considered as contributors to the third largest school shooting in Middleton, CO in 1999. Even more frightening is the fact that if the two had carried out their plan to its completion, the results would have been far more devastating.<br />
  40. 40. Research Skills<br />The Killings At Columbine High – A Literature Review (Page 6)<br />References<br />Cullen, D., The depressive and the psychopath. At last we know why the columbine killers did<br /> it. (2004). Retrieved from<br />4-20-1999 A columbine site. (2010)No Name. Retrieved from <br /><br />No name. (2009). A chronology of events. Retrieved from <br /><br />No name. (2010). What they carried. Retrieved from<br /><br />No Name. (2010). 18 minutes of terror. Retrieved from <br /><br /> <br /> <br />
  41. 41. Communication Skills<br />Request for a Letter of Recommendation<br />John Hall<br />Argosy University<br /> <br /> <br />
  42. 42. Communication Skills<br />Request for a Letter of Recommendation<br />November 22, 2010<br />Dear ___________,<br />I am writing you to ask if you would be willing to recommend me to the Argosy University Online Graduate Program in Organizational Psychology as an addition to my application for admissions. <br /> As you may recall, I have taken two courses under your direction while here at Argosy. I completed ____ during the Summer Term of 2010. My grade was an ___ Currently, I am completing ___under your direction. This course will be complete on December 16, 2010. Currently, I have an ____in this class also. Your support and genuine encouragement have both been motivating factors for my success in both classes. My cumulative GPA is currently ____. <br /> My overall experience here at Argosy University has been extremely uplifting. At my age I feel as if I am currently in the midst of the best time of my life, and Argosy University plays a large part in that experience. In addition to you, I have asked _______to recommend me also. He was my course facilitator in Organizational Behavior, and also, Human Resource Management. I received an __ in each of these courses also. My third reference hopefully will be my supervisor, at ______, located in ________.She has known me for several years, and has provided a lot of support during the time when I had both school and work to balance. We have talked about allowing me to consult on some Human Resources Matters, to assist with an upcoming certification, and begin training to become a Qualified Professional. <br /> If you agree to recommend me to the Masters of Arts Program in Organizational<br />
  43. 43. Communication Skills<br /> I have attached a recommendation sheet with this letter. If you could fill it out and return it by fax to my application counselor, I would be grateful for any consideration that you might choose to give me in this process.<br /> Thank you for your continuing support.<br /> Sincerely, <br /> <br /> John M. Hall, Jr.<br /> Attachment: 1- Recommendation Form<br />
  44. 44. Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br />An Informational Handout<br />John Hall<br />Argosy University <br /> <br />
  45. 45. Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br />An Informational Handout<br />CREATING A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE THROUGH A DIVERSE WORKFORCE<br />THE GENERAL MOTORS MODEL<br />TO: All Staff<br />From: Human Resources Department<br />Objective: To Examine the Opportunities That Exist for Success Through Diversity<br />Reference: The General Motors Model for A Competitive Edge Through Diversity<br />General Motors embraces the concept of maintaining a diverse workforce in order to be competitive in today’s global economy. In this handout we will outline the basic concept of GM’s model, and provide references for your further investigation. <br />I. General Motors Diversity Mission Plan for Diversity.<br /> A.” Establish a winning culture of inclusion that naturally enables GM employees, suppliers, <br /> and communities to fully contribute to the success of GM around the world” (Diversity <br /> Initiatives, 2010).<br /> B. Actions that will drive diversity.<br /> 1. Listen and engage for inclusion of all employees.<br /> 2. Lead with cultural competence.<br /> 3. Leverage diversity for business success.<br /> 4. Build diversity throughout company. <br /> C. Principles that guide diversity.<br /> 1. Respect and inclusion begin with each individual.<br />
  46. 46. Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br />An Informational Handout (Page 2)<br />2. Cultural competence is essential for global growth.<br /> 3. Diversity and inclusion create innovation, great products, and strong brands. <br />II. Primary Dimensions and Advantages of Diversity.<br /> A. Age – When the experience and knowledge is combined with the energy and innovation<br /> of youth, a stronger workforce is created.<br /> B. Race – Discrimination based on one’s race serves no purpose. The similarities of all races<br /> are celebrated in the diverse workplace.<br /> C. Ethnicity – A diverse workplace is a reflection of today’s multiethnic society and gives <br /> opportunities for total inclusion to all multiethnic workers.<br /> D. Gender – Organizations are more effective with a combination of female and male <br /> work-styles. <br /> E. Physical Disabilities – Diverse organizations do not recognize differences between workers<br /> that are considered to be disabled because technological advances now allow all workers <br /> to be included in a diverse workplace (Argosy University. 2010). <br />III. GM’s Tools for Developing Diversity.<br /> A. Produced a comprehensive written policy on employee rights. <br /> 1. Included legal definitions concerning:<br /> a. Individual Civil Rights.<br />
  47. 47. Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br />Informational Handout (Page 3)<br /> b. Detailed a zero tolerance policy concerning racial, religious, sexual ethnic,<br /> and disability-based bias.<br /> B. Used the Loden & Rosener Diversity Dimension Tool as a model for diversity.<br /> C. Included minority and female-owned suppliers as part of their diversity initiative.<br /> D. Provided training programs for minority-owned dealerships in order to prepare them <br /> to operate a dealership, and to ensure the sustainability of the dealership. <br /> E. Initiated a program to develop employment opportunities for women in dealerships, <br /> and create a more attractive dealership environment for women (Diversity Initiatives,<br /> 2010).  <br />Conclusions:<br />From this meeting and through the model of General Motor’s diversity initiative we have seen <br />how a corporate giant has developed an effective model for workplace diversity. We can also <br />see that our initial meeting only scratches the surface for learning about all the aspects of a <br />diverse workplace, and how it is established. Subjects for future meetings include learning <br />about the secondary dimensions of diversity (Argosy University, 2010), and how they can be <br />advantageous in today’s global economy. Also included in this handout you will find references <br />that may be of interest for further investigation about gaining a competitive edge through a <br />diverse organization. <br />
  48. 48. Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br />Informational Handout (Page 4)<br />For More Information on Diversity Search the Following Websites:<br /> GM Diversity Index – <br /><br />Managing Diversity – <br /><br />Diversity in the Workplace: A Guide for Managers –<br /><br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
  49. 49. Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br />References<br />Argosy University Lecture Online. (2010).MGT 450. Module 2. Retrieved from<br /><br />Carr-Ruffino, N. (2007). Managing diversity: people skills for a multicultural workplace. (2007). <br /> (7th ed.). New York, NY. Pearson Custom Publishing. <br />No name. (2010). General Motors diversity initiatives. Retrieved from <br /><br /> <br />
  50. 50. Foundations of Psychology<br />The Effectiveness of Drug Replacement Therapy<br />John Hall<br />Argosy University<br />
  51. 51. Foundations of Psychology<br />The Effectiveness of Drug Replacement Therapy<br /> Drug replacement therapies are usually used for both the detoxification and maintenance phases of drug addiction. Detoxification is the first and immediate goal in which replacement drugs can be used following the abrupt stoppage of drug use. For example, a nicotine patch could be used if someone were in the initial phase of smoking cessation. Many times the same drug which is used in the detoxification phase is used in the maintenance phases of treating drug addiction (Hart, Ksir, & Ray, 2009). <br />In agonist or substitution therapy, a replacement drug is used to induce a cross tolerance for the drug that is being abused. For instance, Methadone, a long acting opioid agonist, is used as a substitute for heroin addiction in maintenance treatments to lessen the chance of relapse in people who are attempting to stop heroin usage. Although methadone has its own dangers, it is usually administered in a safer manner (orally) than other delivery methods for heroin such as intravenous injection. It also has a longer half-life which means that its effects are not as strong and are delivered over a longer period of time than heroin. Also, the danger of an overdose is less because the methadone is procured through legal means, thus assuring that the strength (dosage) and quality of the drug have been checked (Hart et al, 2009). <br />In the treatment of alcohol dependence, pharmacotherapies have been used in the initial phases of alcohol withdrawal because of the dangerous side effects suffered by the dependent drinker. These include tremors, rapid heartbeats, hypertension, sweating, inability to sleep, hallucinations, and seizures. Because of the risk of such withdrawal symptoms during detoxification, many times people are hospitalized in order to safely reduce the autonomic hyperactivity, and monitor the patient for seizures. For these reasons, benzodiazepines are administered during the detoxification process. Using such<br />
  52. 52. Foundations of Psychology<br />The Effectiveness of Drug Replacement Therapy (Page 2)<br />such medications as clonazepam or oxezepam, are effective because benzodiazepines have a high degree of cross-tolerance with alcohol. Also, unlike some benzodiazepines like alprazolam, these two particular medications have a relatively slow onset period, and are less likely to cause the alcohol-dependent patient to become dependent on another medication. This class of drugs is also helpful in lessening the autonomic hyperactivity associated with alcohol withdrawal because of the increased GABA-ergic transmission that is thought to diminish the stress response (Hart et al, 2009). <br />Operant conditioning which is based the law of effect, states that a particular stimulus that generates a positive experience will result in the experience being remembered. If a specific stimulus generates a negative experience, then the experience will either be forgotten or avoided. The law of effect can be seen in drug abusers reactions to certain triggers which might influence them to buy and use drugs. For example if a crack user generally makes his buys on a particular street , in a particular place, he will most likely remember the high he got from the crack whenever he or she visits that particular place and want to repeat the experience. The fact that they may have overdosed and ended up in the hospital is forgotten, while the initial high that was experienced was remembered by the crack user. The self-administration of drugs is, unfortunately, a very good example of operant conditioning. The user remembers the quick high they received from injecting their drug of choice. Future drugs is very likely to occur because if there were any negative occurrences during the previous time of drug use, they are quickly forgotten, and the user is motivated to use again, seeking the high that was experienced previously. Because most replacement drugs are slow acting with a long half-life, they cannot be expected to keep a person from relapsing without other concurrent therapy and monitoring by others (Argosy University, 2010).<br />
  53. 53. Foundations of Psychology<br />The Effectiveness of Drug Replacement Therapy (Page 3)<br />Classical conditioning and its four components play a huge part in drug addiction. Once a drug is taken, it produces changes in the body’s biological systems which are predictable and systemic. The faster a drug produces effects, the faster associations with the effects are formed. Fast acting drugs such as heroin produce euphoria, and other biological changes, almost immediately. The user associates these changes with the introduction of the drug. With repeated use, associations or pairings are formed between the introduction of the drug and the drug’s effects. Because the user has formed neural associations with a particular drug, or learned its effects, they become classically conditioned to experience the drug-induced biological changes that are going to occur, and look forward to them, much as Pavlov’s famous experiments with dogs. In these experiments he rang a bell before feeding dogs (Argosy University, 2010). After a certain length of time, the dogs began to salivate every time they heard a bell ring whether they were fed or not. <br /> The four components of Classical Conditioning can be clearly seen as a person begins to abuse drugs. A specific drug (an unconditioned stimulus) produces changes in the brain such as euphoria and other biological changes (an unconditioned response). Eventually, with repeated drug use, such things as locations where a person has used or purchased drugs, or the sight of drug paraphernalia, produces a conditioned stimuli, resulting in a craving for the specific drug of choice, which can be termed as a conditioned response.<br /> The strengths of drug replacement therapies are that they can alleviate the severe withdrawal symptoms associated with illicit drugs and alcohol withdrawal. They can also aid in the recovery from drug addiction by giving the addict a chance to undergo counseling and make the behavioral changes necessary in order to stop using drugs. The weakness of drug replacement therapy is that without some other type of concurrent therapy, they will only become a temporary substitute for the original abused drug. Also, in the case of benzodiazepines, and opioid-like drugs, the user may just switch from one drug to another, and will continue to abuse the replacement drug. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
  54. 54. Foundations of Psychology<br />References<br />Argosy University Online Lecture. (2010). PSY 480. Module 3. Retrieved from <br /><br />Hart, C., Ksir, C., Ray, O. (2009). Drugs, society & human behavior. (13th ed.). New York,NY. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.<br />
  55. 55. Applied Psycholgy<br />The Best Substance Abuse Recovery Program<br />John Hall<br />Argosy University<br /> <br />
  56. 56. Applied Psychology<br />The Best Substance Abuse Recovery Program<br /> There are many effective types of therapy or treatment for people with substance abuse problems. Matching the abuser to the appropriate type of program can often prove difficult because of a person’s individual characteristics. The better the match equals better long-term outcomes and many times treatment fails or is shown to have little effect in assisting a person deal with their substance abuse problems. Sometimes outside factors such as insurance coverage, where a person lives, employer and family support, and the timing of treatment all can have a negative impact on the effectiveness of substance abuse treatment. Matching a person with specific programs to specific types of treatment is an excellent goal before making a decision on which type of treatment one might use. It is preferential to both the patient and the agency or facility which is delivering the services because the treatment has a better chance of being effective because of this initial effort (Argosy University, 2010). <br /> There are basically four types of treatment programs available to someone who has an addiction to a substance. These programs are inpatient, outpatient, partial hospitalization (Recovery Connection, 2010), and self-help programs, and under each one of these types of programs there are many different types of treatment.<br />Inpatient programs require a person to actually live in a facility for a period of time. People placed inpatient programs are generally suffering from a serious addiction and possible other medical complications. Patients in an inpatient program might have worked their way up through a self-help program, and an outpatient treatment program, both of which were not effective. Inpatient facilities have a restricted, structured, and protective environment that can continually monitor the actions and immediate health of the patient. Unfortunately, these types of programs are tremendously expensive, and also can disrupt a person’s work and family life. Also many people who suffer from addiction are concerned<br />
  57. 57. Applied Psychology<br />The Best Substance Abuse Recovery (Page 2)<br /> about the stigma that “going to re-hab” can bring. They are reluctant to enter inpatient facilities because of the stigma that will now be attached to them after people learn about their stint in an inpatient facility (Argosy University, 2010).<br /> Outpatient programs are services that are delivered to a patient for some part of the day. Residence in a facility is not required. Many times publically and privately funded outpatient facilities serve as lifeline to people who have a substance abuse problem, but do not have the funds to pay for the services they require to conquer their problems. Most of these programs have several aspects in common such as the involvement of professionals who are trained to work with patients who have drug addiction or substance abuse problems. Also, they provide a person with a healing atmosphere and allow the patient to set and reach goals that will allow them to live an abuse-free life. Outpatient clinics can offer a variety of different types of treatment all tailored to give the individual the best chance for success. A person might need to participate in individual, family or group therapy to get the support and knowledge they need to conquer an addiction. Some advantages of outpatient therapy include: a person can receive therapy without leaving their family or work; they are cheaper than inpatient programs; outpatient programs are flexible and available to more people who have demanding lifestyles (Argosy University, 2010).<br /> Some treatment programs require patients spend each night in a facility for a specific length of time. During the day, many patients can work, and also be available for individual, family, and group therapy on a pre-determined schedule. Although they can still have supervised contact with family and friends, a person who is battling substance abuse or drug addiction can be monitored and given limited freedom which is not as disruptive as complete hospitalization (Recovery Connection, 2010).<br />
  58. 58. Applied Psychology<br />The Best Substance Abuse Recovery Program (Page 3)<br /> Self-help programs such as Alcoholics Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous, or Narcotics Anonymous is technically an outpatient program, but there are no professionals available to offer specific types of therapy. Self-help groups attempt to support, guide, and make internal changes which result in complete sobriety. In AA there are group meetings, and also each person has a sponsor who has a longer term of sobriety and offers more intense one on one contact and monitoring. Many self-help programs view addiction as a disease of the spirit, not of mind or body. Because they are spiritual in nature, many people with substance abuse problems feel alienated by this concept and do not seek help from these organizations. One advantage of a self-help treatment program such as AA is that they are free, and they allow a person to remain anonymous, only using their first name while at meetings. The primary goals of self-help management of abuse problems are to foster an atmosphere of complete abstinence; manage cravings; look at, and solve underlying problems that cause substance abuse; and work to create a balanced lifestyle. In many cases, for people who are willing to assume responsibility for their addiction and cessation of abuse, this is the most beneficial type of program (Argosy University, 2010).<br /> One aspect of therapy that anyone who is seeking treatment should consider is the question of whether or not their particular program offers a dual-diagnosis and treatment component as a part of therapy. Most substance abusers and drug addicts have an underlying psychological issue which needs to be addressed as aggressively as the treatment for drug or alcohol abuse (Recovery Connection, 2010). <br />
  59. 59. Applied Psychology<br />The Best Substance Abuse Recovery Program (Page 4)<br />If a person does not have a history of relapses and other attendant medical problems that need to be monitored I would rank outpatient therapy as the best type of treatment for substance abuse. It offers the following advantages:<br />1. Lower cost than inpatient or partial hospitalization programs. <br />2. Outpatient programs not as disruptive as other programs and lets the person remain with family and continue to work.<br />3. Treatment can be conducted in one’s own community, therefore eliminating the need for reintroduction into a community after therapy is over.<br />4. Offers more flexibility in the types and frequency of treatments that are available to individuals with demanding lifestyles <br />5. Outpatient programs give a person access to a host of professionals who are trained in treating patients with addiction and abuse problems.(Argosy University, 2010).<br />I would rank partial hospitalization type treatments such as half-way houses as the second most effective type of treatment. Its advantages included:<br />1. Monitoring of patients on a daily basis and at night when relapses are more likely to occur.<br />2. Less expensive than inpatients programs.<br />3. Allows patients who other medical problems to be monitored on a daily basis. <br />4. Allows a person to have contact with family and friends in a controlled atmosphere.<br />5. It is possible for a person to work during this type of therapy.<br />6. Patients are given goals to accomplish outside the facility on a daily basis. <br />
  60. 60. Applied Psychology<br />The Best Substance Abuse Recovery Program<br />I would rank inpatient treatment programs as the third most desirable type of treatment plan, although I do realize that for people with severe addiction or abuse problems, and other medical problems, this may be the only option to the patient. Some advantages of this type of treatment program are:<br />1. Twenty-four hour monitoring for patients.<br />2. Availability of de-tox programs for severely addicted patients.<br />3. Offers a restricted, structured, protective environment to patients.<br />4. Offers treatment by professionals who are trained to treat people with abuse, addiction, or other medical problems (Argosy University, 2010).<br /> I would rank self-help programs fourth on my list of most effective types of substance abuse problems. Because there are no professional counselors available, and total abstinence is the goal of self-help programs, it would seem that the chance for relapse is much greater because a person is not given enough tools to conquer their abuse problems. Some of the advantages of self-help programs are:<br />1. They are usually free.<br />2. A person can remain anonymous during meetings. <br />3. Many people benefit from the spiritual atmosphere of self-help groups. <br />4. Abuse is not seen as an illness or disease, but is viewed as a spiritual failing reducing the stigma of being an abuser.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br />. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
  61. 61. Applied Psychology<br />References<br />Argosy University Online Lecture. (2010). PSY 480. Module 6. Retrieved from <br /><br />No Name. (2010). Substance abuse programs: how do I choose the best one?). Retrieved<br /> from<br />
  62. 62. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />Selection Methods<br />John Hall<br />Argosy University<br />
  63. 63. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />Selection Methods<br />All of the selection methods for narrowing down the list of candidates would be appropriate. In evaluating the candidates it could be valuable to set a minimum score for each test. After the minimum scores have been determined, then the test scores of each candidate could be banded together. All of the candidates who are at least minimally qualified would be compared and based on the highest scores on the test that is considered to be a measure of intangibles such as integrity or personality the final four candidates would be selected. In other words, all things being equal among the candidates, the four who score the highest on the integrity and personality would be considered to be the final candidates. Although banding often leads to a qualified applicant not being hired, this position is too important to the success of the company. In this case , because the risk of hiring an unqualified person could have a very negative effect on the company, it is considered best to keep strict selection standards in order to avoid making this mistake. (Argosy University, 2009)<br />Group interviews can be valuable because of the personal differences between interviewers could lessen personal bias on the part of one member of the interview panel. It also avoids making a snap judgment being made by an individual interviewer. Unfortunately it is possible for all the members of an interview panel to be biased or to share some stereotypical generalizations about people in general. These type interviews are time-consuming and costly. It is important that this interview be used as an assessment tool and not some free-wheeling, seat of the pants discussion. Each applicant should be subjected to the same questions and treated in the same manner. In some cases, if the job is technical in nature, a face to face interview with either a panel or an individual is not considered to be a predictor of how the applicant will perform on the job. (Riggio, 2007) Another disadvantage of using a panel of interviewers is that the applicant may be made uncomfortable by an unfamiliar group of people and because of this discomfort, may not perform as well as they would with just one interviewer. <br />
  64. 64. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />Selection Methods (Page 2)<br /> Individual interviews are one-on-one meetings between an interviewer and an applicant. This setting can be more comfortable for the applicant because of the individualized nature of the setting. If using a single interviewer, it is important that the interview be used as an assessment tool, and the interviewer be trained in interview techniques. Any decisions as to employment as a result of the interview should be held to the same hiring criteria of reliability, validity, and predictability as any other screening test. A disadvantage of the personal interview is the chance that the interviewer may be biased in ways that are unknown even to themselves. Also, the interview is subject to get of the main thrust of the scripted questions, wasting time on getting information that is not pertinent to the interview. (Riggio, 2007) <br /> Cognitive testing would be a must for the position of Senior Staffing Manager. A minimum score could be set for applicants, and anyone not meeting at least the minimum score would be ruled out as a potential employee. This testing might cause some qualified applicants to be excluded because of certain factors that might be present on the day of the test. The applicant might not test well as a rule, they could be sick, or they could be distracted by some personal situation. Generally, the cognitive test could not be ruled out as a screening mechanism for selecting the Senior Staffing Manager. This is a key position and the importance that cognitive abilities are needed for the manager position outweigh the fact that certain applicants might be excluded from being selected for the position. (Riggio, 2007)<br />Along with the other screening tests, conducting a personality test on the final eight candidates will give the company more data about the applicants. A managerial position will require the successful candidate to be able to lead, communicate with, and assess their employees and applicants for positions as well. The company should have an I/O psychologist design a template listing the personality traits that are desirable for the Senior Staffing Manager. This will ensure that when added<br />
  65. 65. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />Selection Methods (Page 3)<br /> to the other assessments, the most desirable candidate will emerge from the rest of the group. Again, some qualified applicants may not be considered for the position because of certain personality traits the might possess. Also personality tests require a lot of time and are expensive to administer. <br /> Integrity testing will give the company an idea of the moral compass of each applicant. This test will also give some valuable information as to whether or not the applicants meet the moral and ethical standards of the company. Again, some qualified applicants might be eliminated because of their integrity test scores. This could result due to the fact that the applicant might have cultural, religious, or ethical differences which are identified on the test. It is not an indicator their moral integrity, just an identification that they are different. <br /> One reason that the company might want to pare down the number of applicants to four is that the process is time-consuming and expensive. . By setting minimal standards for the preliminary tests, and banding the results of the interview, the personality test, the cognitive test, and the integrity test, they can put forward the most qualified four candidates for the final round of interview exercises. During the final assessment exercises the four applicants could be subject to hypothetical situations and asked to give an account of how they would handle the scenario that is given. They could also be interviewed again to gain further information about past employment, educational, job responsibilities, or to clear up any questions that occurred to their interviewer, after the initial interview. These final assessments could also let the interviewer know how adept each candidate is at situational assessment. At this point the company is looking for positive intangibles that one candidate might have in abundance over the other three.<br /> I believe that all the above-listed tests are appropriate for the position of Senior Staffing Manager. When the results of all of the tests are considered together, they can give a rich picture of the qualifications, cognitive abilities, ethical and moral make-up, and personality traits each<br />
  66. 66. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />Selection Methods (Page 4)<br /> candidate possesses. I do not believe there is a need to add any more testing to the battery of tests listed for all the applicants. There should be more than enough information given to make a decision as to which four candidates are selected for assessment exercises. <br /> <br />
  67. 67. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />References<br />Argosy University Online Lecture. (2009). PSY 320. Module 5. Retrieved from <br /><br />Riggio, R.E. (2007). Introduction to industrial/organizational psychology. (5th ed.). <br /> New York, NY. Pearson Higher Learning.<br />
  68. 68. My Future in Learning<br />Life-Long Learning <br /> For most of my life I have been interested in many subjects. There is never enough time to read or see even a fraction of what is available to us through all the different media sources we now have. If you had told me twenty five years ago that we could hook a box up to a cable and do all the things that we can do with the internet, I would have wondered about your sanity. For the foreseeable future I plan to continue here at Argosy University and will beginning grad school in the near future. To me this opportunity is a miracle, and although I have much on my platter, I plan to savor every moment that I can. <br />
  69. 69. Contact Me<br />Thank you for viewing my ePortfolio.<br />For further information, please contact me at the e-mail address below. <br /><br />