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  1. 1. READING
  2. 2. <ul><li>I. What is reading? </li></ul><ul><li>Reading is the cognitive process of deriving meaning from written or printed text. It is a means of language acquisition, of communication, and of sharing information and ideas. Effective readers use decoding skills (to translate printed text into the sounds of language), use morpheme, semantics syntax and context cues to identify the meaning of unknown words, activate prior knowledge (schemata theory), use comprehension, and demonstrate fluency during reading. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>II. Rates </li></ul><ul><li>Rates of reading include reading for memorization (under 100 words per minute (wpm)), reading for learning (100–200 wpm), reading for comprehension (200–400 wpm), and skimming (400–700 wpm). Reading for comprehension is the essence of most people’s daily reading. Skimming is sometimes useful for processing larger quantities of text superficially at a much lower level of comprehension (below 50%). </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Advice for the appropriate choice of reading rate includes reading flexibly, slowing down when the concepts are closer together or when the material is unfamiliar, and speeding up when the material is familiar and the material is not concept rich. Speed reading courses and books often encourage the reader to continually speed up; comprehension tests lead the reader to believe their comprehension is constantly improving. However, competence in reading involves the understanding that skimming is dangerous as a default habit. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>There are several strategies that will help you succeed on reading. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Preview </li></ul><ul><li>It is easier to understand what you are reading if you begin with a general idea of what the passage is about. Previewing helps you form a general idea of the topic. To preview, </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the title and headings </li></ul><ul><li>Read the first sentence of every paragraph. </li></ul><ul><li>Read the last sentence of the passage. </li></ul><ul><li>This time you are looking for the main idea. </li></ul>Reading strategies:
  6. 6. <ul><li>2. Read faster </li></ul><ul><li>To read faster , read for meaning. Try to understand sentences or even paragraphs, not individual words. You should read phrases instead of reading word by word. Practice using the vision that allows you to see on either side of the word you are focusing on with your eyes. This is called peripheral vision. If you do not know the meaning of the word but you understand the sentence, move on. </li></ul><ul><li>Use peripheral vision </li></ul><ul><li>Read for meaning </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>3. Use contexts </li></ul><ul><li>A context is the combination of vocabulary and grammar that surrounds a word. Context can be a sentence or a paragraph or a passage. Context helps you make a general prediction about meaning. You have to know some of the words in order to have a context for the words that you don’t know. That means that you need to work on learning a basic vocabulary, and then you can make an educated guess about the meaning of new words by using the context. </li></ul><ul><li>- Learn basic vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>- Learn new words in context </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>4. Make inferences </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes you will find a direct statement of fact in a reading passage. Other times, you will not find a direct statement. Then you will need to use the facts as evidence to make an inference. An inference is a logical conclusion based on evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Locate the evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Draw conclusions. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>5. Summarize </li></ul><ul><li>A summary includes only the main idea and major points of a passage. Although a passage may contain many points, only the most important are included in a summary. When you are reading a content material in textbooks or on examinations, pause at the end of a section to summarize. First, re-read the title or the section heading. Then, summarize the major points from that section. </li></ul><ul><li>- State the main idea </li></ul><ul><li>- List the major points. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>1. Taking notes </li></ul><ul><li>For some people, taking notes while they read the passage is a good strategy. For other people, it is not a good use of their time. The way that you use is a very personal choice. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Paraphrasing </li></ul><ul><li>This is the most important academic skill for reading. Your ability to recognize paraphrases will be essential for you to read well. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Summarizing </li></ul><ul><li>You will be required to summarize the passage either by classifying information or by distinguishing between major points and minor points. Your skill in summarizing will be important. </li></ul>Applying the academic skills