Individual Product Decisions This CTR corresponds to Figure 8-2 on p. 244 and relates to the material on pp. 244-255. Instructor’s Note: The CTR provides an overview on each of the decision areas. Each area is covered in more detail on subsequent CTRs. Product Attribute Decisions Product Quality . Product quality stands for the ability of a product to perform its functions. Quality includes the attributes of overall durability, reliability, precision, ease of operations, and quality consistency -- the ability to maintain the targeted level of quality in delivering benefits to consumers. The importance of quality has lead to widespread adoption of Demings Total Quality Management, first by the Japanese and now increasingly by U.S. firms. Product Features. The number and combination of product features offered consumers are assessed in terms of customer value versus company cost . Consumers seek value and need-satisfaction. Features irrelevant to consumers are undesirable. Also, additional features cost money to produce and higher quality features are more costly still. Product feature decisions must be carefully tied to consumer needs and consumer perceptions of received, affordable value. Product Design. Product design combines attention to style (appearance) with enhanced performance. Style alone may attract attention but not improve performance. Discussion Note: You may wish to discuss how style may adversely affect perceptions of product performance. Good styling may inadvertently lead to higher performance expectations on the part of the interested consumer. For this reason, product attribute decisions incorporating a marketing perspective should focus on product design over style alone.
Brands This CTR relates to the material on pp. 245-247. Brands A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of these intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors. Powerful brands names have consumer franchise -- they command consumer loyalty. Levels of Brand Meaning Attributes. A brand elicits certain product attributes in the minds of consumers. The company may use one or more of these attributes in its advertising to reinforce these perceptions in the consumer. Benefits. Consumers buy benefits, not attributes. A key aspect of a successful marketing program is linking attribute perceptions to tangible product benefits. The benefits may produce objective need-satisfiers, such as increased safety, or psychological benefits, such as enhanced self-esteem. But in both cases, the actual benefit must be available in the product. Values. Brands communicate information about the buyer’s values. The benefits of the brand indicate that these things are important to the consumer who chooses them. Some consumers, especially those of luxury goods, often select a particular brand in part because of what it communicates to others about the owners values. Personality. Brands project a personality. People personify brands and products. Psychologists have pointed out that we tend to be attracted to those like us, those we aspire to be like, and those we want others to view us as being like. Brands can help people, almost literally, become the type of person the want to be. Brand Equity Brands are used to create awareness , build preference , and ultimately, to command loyalty among consumers. Companies with strong brands often attempt to build brand portfolios by acquiring brands with strong brand equity from other companies.
The Product Life-Cycle This CTR corresponds to Figure 9-2 on p. 288 and relates to the material on pp. 287-293. Instructor’s Note: This CTR can be used to overview the life cycle concept. Strategies appropriate for each stage are discussed on the following CTRs. Product Life Cycle Stages Product Development. Development begins when the company finds and develops a new product idea. During development the product has costs but no sales. Development costs must be strategically weighed against the projected length of the product's PLC. Introduction. During the introduction of new products initial sales growth is slow as the market is just becoming aware of the product. Profits are usually nonexistent at this stage due to heavy promotional spending. Growth. This stage is characterized by rapid market acceptance of the product and increasing profits. Maturity . In maturity there is a slowdown in sales growth as the product has achieved acceptance by most potential customers. Profits may level off or decline as marketing costs increase to defend existing market share. Decline. In this period sales begin to fall off and profits decline dramatically.
Merek Nama, istilah, tanda, simbol, atau desain, ataukombinasi dari keseluruhannya yang dimaksudkanuntuk mengindentifikasi barang atau jasa daripenjual atau sekelompok penjual, agar dapatdibedakan dari kompetitornya. Sebuah merek yang terkenal dan terpercayamerupakan aset yang tidak ternilai Produk itu bs tdk dikash nama disebut no FrillProduct maka product itu tdk akan terkena brandcrisis krn akan sulit diidentifikasi. Brand crisis bicara tentang product yg memilikibrand.
Ekuitas Merek Menurut perspektif konsumen: sebuahmerek memiliki ekuitas sebesarpengenalan konsumen atas merektersebut dan menyimpannya dalammemori mereka beserta asosiasimerek yang mendukung, kuat, danunik
Individual ProductDecisionsIndividual ProductDecisions Product AttributesProduct AttributesBrandingBrandingPackagingPackagingLabelingLabelingProduct Support ServicesProduct Support Services
Berapa nilai sebuah merek? Merek global seperti Coca-Colamemiliki harga sekitar US$70 miliar Microsoft nilai mereknya bernilaiUS$56 miliar Nilai merek PT HM Sampoerna saatdibeli Philip Moris bernilai Rp39 Triliun
Berapa biaya membangunmerek? HM Sampoerna diperkirakanmengeluarkan uang Rp2 Triliun untukmembangun A-Mild Wings group untuk membangunmerek Mie Sedap menghabiskanratusan milliar dalam 2 tahun pertamapeluncurannya
Kasus: Krisis kepercayaan konsumenAmerika terhadap industri otomotif lokal Bagaimana Amerika memproteksimerek otomotif lokal mereka dariserbuan mobil-mobil Jepang? Amerika mengirim delegasi ke Jepangdgn sebuah tuduhan bahwa Jepangmempunyai aturan berlapis2.
Strategi perluasan merek Line extension (perluasan lini) Brand extension Transferability of competence Complementary Downscaling Up scaling Co-branding
Brand StrategyBrand Strategy Line ExtensionLine Extension Existing brand names extended to new forms,sizes, and flavors of an existing product category.Cth: Cocacola zero sugar, mie sedap Goso. Brand ExtensionBrand Extension Existing brand names extended to new productcategories. MultibrandsMultibrands New brand names introduced in the same productcategory. New BrandsNew Brands New brand names in new product categories.
Memilih nama merek Mudah diingat Relevansi terhadap kategori produk Tingkat keunikan nama Konsistensi dengan strategipositioning Cakupan distribusi
Keputusan nama merek Nama merek individual. Dlm nama kel berguna utkmengantisipasi apabila terjadi krisis pd suatu brandproduk, maka produk yg lain bs diisolasi agar tetapsurvive.Cth: Unilever Nama kelompok digunakan untuk semua produkcth: samsung, LG. (agar lbh terkenal utkmenghilangkan cost yg lbh mahal utk produknyadlm launch product) Nama kelompok yang berbeda untuk semuaproduk. Cth: Bakrie Nama dagang perusahaan dikombinasi dengannama produk individu. Cth: Toyota (avanza), Honda(Crv)
Product LifeCycleProduct LifeCycleTimeProductDevelop-mentIntroductionProfitsSalesGrowth Maturity DeclineLosses/Investments ($)Sales andProfits ($)Sales and Profits Over the Product’s Life FromIntroduction to Decline