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Prps Presentation Ficci

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Prps Presentation Ficci

  1. 1. <ul><li>CBRNe Threats and Mitigation </li></ul><ul><li>Presented by </li></ul><ul><li>Firoze Zia Hussain </li></ul><ul><li>CEO Totem International Ltd </li></ul><ul><li>9618621234 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic partner for GE homeland security </li></ul>
  2. 2. Major threats are CBRN Hazards
  3. 3. The Emergency Response Scene
  4. 4. Civil Event with Emergency Response
  5. 5. Accident Result of War What is a Civil Emergency? Terrorist attack Industrial Transportation Medical / Pharmaceutical Natural disaster Result of biological hazard outbreak
  6. 6. Anatomy of a Civil Emergency Incident Primary Secondary Incident Contamination Air/Ground/Water People
  7. 7. <ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>R </li></ul><ul><li>N </li></ul><ul><li>e </li></ul>= Chemical = Biological = Radiological = Nuclear = explosive Hazards
  8. 8. Chemical Warfare Agents Biological Warfare Agents Dirty Bombs Examples of Hazards White Powder Incidents
  9. 9. Chemical warfare agents can be divided into the following: Lethal agents Non lethal agents <ul><li>Incapacitating agents </li></ul><ul><li>Riot Control Agents </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve Agents </li></ul><ul><li>Asphyxiant/blood agents </li></ul><ul><li>Vesicant/blister Agents </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary/choking Agents </li></ul>Chemical Warfare Agents
  10. 10. Affects the communication between nerve cells, causing uncontrollable muscle stimulation <ul><li>Nerve agent types: </li></ul><ul><li>G- Agents </li></ul><ul><li>Tabun (GA) </li></ul><ul><li>Sarin (GB) </li></ul><ul><li>Soman (GD) </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclosarin (GF) </li></ul><ul><li>V Agents </li></ul><ul><li>VE </li></ul><ul><li>VG </li></ul><ul><li>VM </li></ul><ul><li>VX </li></ul>Typical Symptoms: <ul><li>Blurred/dim vision </li></ul><ul><li>Headache </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhoea </li></ul><ul><li>Secretions and sweating </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle twitching </li></ul><ul><li>Laboured breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Seizures </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of consciousness </li></ul>Nerve Agent Chemical Warfare Agents
  11. 11. Biological Warfare Agents Lethal agents <ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Toxins derived from bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Toxins derived from plants </li></ul>Biological warfare agents can be divided into the following:
  12. 12. Dirty Bombs Weapons of Mass Destruction +
  13. 13. Dirty Bombs An Atom 3 Types of Ionising Radiation β Beta Particles γ Gamma Rays & X Rays α Alpha Particles Aluminium Lead Proton (Positive) Nucleus Neutron (Neutral) Electron (Negative)
  14. 14. Dirty Bombs An Atom Effects of Ionising Radiation on the Body <ul><li>Unnatural chemical reactions within cells </li></ul><ul><li>DNA chains break within cells making cells die </li></ul><ul><li>Damaged DNA mutation (cancer) </li></ul><ul><li>General cell malfunction (radiation sickness) </li></ul>Proton (Positive) Nucleus Neutron (Neutral) Electron (Negative)
  15. 15. How Should the Emergency Services Respond?
  16. 16. <ul><li>Who responds and how? </li></ul><ul><li>Different countries; different processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Israel & France: no decontamination at scene etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development of “Zones” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot zone, warm zone, cold zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contaminated, decontamination, clean. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Protection Level A Protection Level B Protection Level C Crowd Control Line Decontamination Line Hot Line Typically SCBA/Gas suits Typically Full-face/ appropriate filter/suit or P&SA/ suit Typically Half-mask/disposable/skin protection – if nec. Exclusion (Hot) Zone Contamination Reduction (Warm) Zone Support (Cold) Zone Access Control Points Wind Drainage
  18. 18. Zone Description
  19. 19. Civil Emergency Response Hot Zone Contaminated Warm Zone Decontamination Area “ Dirty” Cold Zone “ Clean” Fire Service Triage Rescue of Casualties Removal of Bodies INCIDENT Ambulance Service Triage Casualty tagging Public Mass Decontamination Emergency Services Decontamination Police Investigation Evidence and Intelligence gathering Police Property storage & bagging Contaminated body holding Ambulance service Casualty clearing In-depth triage Ambulance Loading Survivor evacuation Police Decontaminated body holding Wind direction
  20. 20. Primary & Secondary Contamination Hospital Personnel Medical Team treating casualties Ambulance Team Injured and infected self presenting to hospitals & doctors surgeries Secondary Contamination Directly from Source Emergency Services arriving on scene Primary Contamination Indirectly via contaminated personnel & equipment
  21. 21. <ul><li>Mass Decontamination </li></ul><ul><li>Mass Decontamination is the task of removing possibly contaminated personnel (public, casualties, ER workers) from the hot zone, and decontaminating them. </li></ul><ul><li>Victims/casualties/personnel could be walking or on stretcher. </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment usually consists of a shower system in a tent, with personnel entering at one end and exiting at the other. </li></ul><ul><li>Shower water will usually contain a decontamination agent to aid removal of the contaminant from the body – often just a surfactant/detergent to reduce surface tension. </li></ul><ul><li>Contaminated clothing articles and water must be collected. </li></ul><ul><li>Plans usually include modesty clothing for personnel. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemprotex PRPS was designed for this application. </li></ul>
  22. 22. How well equipped are the Emergency Services? Hot Zone Contaminated Warm Zone Decontamination Area “ Dirty” Cold Zone “ Clean” INCIDENT Wind direction
  23. 23. <ul><li>Examples of Emergency Service PPE </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Desired Response </li></ul>Fire Service Hot Zone Detection, Identification & Monitoring Reconnaissance Search & Rescue Police Warm & Cold Zone Reconnaissance Crime Scene Management Firearms use Fire & Ambulance Warm Zone Triage Mass Decontamination Casualty Transport
  25. 25. <ul><li>Events </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do occur or are considered likely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Targets? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capability gaps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Governments openly admitting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Government plans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>government planning to improve response process and capability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status today?? </li></ul></ul>Conclusions
  26. 26. Civil Emergency Response (UK) Hot Zone Contaminated Warm Zone Decontamination Area “ Dirty” Cold Zone “ Clean” Fire Service Triage Rescue of Casualties Removal of Bodies INCIDENT Ambulance Service Triage Casualty tagging Public Mass Decontamination Emergency Services Decontamination Police Investigation Evidence and Intelligence gathering Police Property storage & bagging Contaminated body holding Ambulance service Casualty clearing In-depth triage Ambulance Loading Survivor evacuation Police Decontaminated body holding Wind direction
  27. 27. Civil Emergency Response (UK) Public Mass Decontamination Disrobing Responsibilities Police Fire Service Ambulance Service Showering Responsibilities Fire Service Ambulance Service Re-robing Responsibilities Fire Service
  28. 28. <ul><li>Other ER Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Medical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triage, Casualty transport, Emergency Infection control; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autopsy, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fire Service (need D.I.M) (Search/Rescue) </li></ul><ul><li>Police (firearms) </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Defence / Military: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decontamination of vehicles / other items </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Possible Industrial Application </li></ul><ul><li>Plant maintenance / shut-down </li></ul>
  30. 30. Filtration Theory
  31. 31. Particle Filter Gas/vapour Filter Filter structure
  32. 32. Particle Filtration
  33. 33. Four common mechanisms of particle filtration <ul><li>Interception capture </li></ul><ul><li>Inertial impaction </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion capture </li></ul><ul><li>Electrostatic attraction </li></ul>Electrostatic filtration Mechanical filtration
  34. 34. Gas filtration
  35. 35. As a rule of thumb… Organics Tend to come from living or once living material Inorganic Made up of carbon based compounds which can form long chains Compounds of elements other than carbon (e.g chlorine or sulphur) Examples of inorganic compounds are ammonia and sulphur dioxide
  36. 36. Gas filtration Mechanisms for filtering out gases <ul><li>Adsorption </li></ul><ul><li>Chemisorptions </li></ul>
  37. 37. The main ingredient in gas filtration Charcoal is usually the main ingredient in adsorption and chemisorption filters Granulated charcoal is used in JFR 85 filters Activated charcoal granule magnified Surface area!
  38. 38. Surface area… The average surface area contained within a pair of healthy adult lungs is roughly equivalent to the area of a singles tennis court What would you estimate the total internal and external surface area of the charcoal in a JFR 85 filter to be? ?
  39. 39. Surface area… The internal/external surface area of the granulated charcoal in the JFR 85 filter is over 306,000m ² … = 40 international sized football pitches! = 80 international sized football pitches!
  40. 40. Gas filter suitability… Filter type Gases filtered out Filtration method A Organic gases Adsorption B Inorganic gases Chemisorption E (Inorganic) acid gases Ammonia gas Chemisorption Chemisorption K
  41. 41. Combination filters Pleated 3M advanced electret particle filtration layer Granulated activated/chemically treated charcoal layer Contaminated air in Filtered air out
  42. 42. <ul><li>The Respiratory Protection System </li></ul><ul><li>Powered Respirator Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Chemprotex PRPS – the Powered Respirator System </li></ul><ul><li>Filtration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filtration Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JFR-85-CE Filter Performance </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. JFR-85-CE Filter Performance <ul><li>The JFR-85-CE filter has been designed specifically for use with the Chemprotex PRPS. </li></ul><ul><li>This module gives an overview of the performance of the JFR-85-CE filter, when used with the Chemprotex PRPS. </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>The Respiratory Protection System </li></ul><ul><li>Powered Respirator Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Chemprotex PRPS – the Powered Respirator System </li></ul><ul><li>Filtration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filtration Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JFR-85-CE Filter Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Particulates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gases </li></ul></ul></ul>JFR-85-CE Filter Performance
  45. 45. <ul><li>Dusts & Liquid aerosols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wood dust, smoke, cement dust </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spores ( e.g. anthrax) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radioactive particles (e.g. caesium 137, polonium 210, strontium 90, etc – dirty bomb particles) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water and oil-based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria, viruses (e.g. Ebola, botulin) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sneezes (loaded with viruses….) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acid & alkaline mists (e.g. sulphuric acid & sodium hydroxide) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mustard gas may contain both a vapour and a mist. </li></ul></ul></ul>JFR-85-CE Filter Performance - Particulates
  46. 46. <ul><li>JFR-85-CE is tested to EN12941 TH3 (PF=500xTLV) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total inward leakage measured against most penetrating aerosol size. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must have max filter penetration of <0.2% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lab results far below this </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>much higher Lab protection factor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100% on-line test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently, we can only claim 500. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working on a plan to claim 2000. </li></ul></ul>JFR-85-CE Filter Performance - Particulates
  47. 47. <ul><li>The Respiratory Protection System </li></ul><ul><li>Powered Respirator Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Chemprotex PRPS – the Powered Respirator System </li></ul><ul><li>Filtration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filtration Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JFR-85-CE Filter Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Particulates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gases </li></ul></ul></ul>JFR-85-CE Filter Performance
  48. 48. <ul><li>Mostly based on organophosphate chemistry (pesticides) </li></ul><ul><li>Highly toxic (obviously!) </li></ul><ul><li>Some toxic by inhalation – volatile; some by skin contact – not volatile </li></ul><ul><li>Can be mixed with a “carrier” – e.g. to make it more adhesive </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly simulants are tested, and not live agents </li></ul>Chemical Warfare Agents
  49. 49. Measuring Permeation
  50. 50. 480 Time in minutes 60 120 180 240 300 360 420 Permeation Rate ( µg/cm²·min) 1.0 0.1 MDPR ASTM F739 EN374-3 SSPR Measuring Permeation
  51. 51. Powered Respirator Theory
  52. 52. How can we provide protection? What are the key principles we can adopt to protect against CBRN Hazards
  53. 53. Protection principles <ul><li>Avoid coming into contact with the substance </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid inhaling the substance </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid ingesting the substance </li></ul>
  54. 54. For 100% protection 2 choices: Total protection from contamination <ul><li>Avoid entering the contaminated area </li></ul>X
  55. 55. For 100% protection 2 choices: Total protection from contamination <ul><li>Avoid entering the contaminated area </li></ul><ul><li>Create a protective barrier between the worker and the contamination </li></ul>X
  56. 56. Total protection from contamination Fundamental flaws… <ul><li>Unable to move about </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to interact with environment </li></ul><ul><li>The user will be suffocated within a few minutes </li></ul>
  57. 57. Respiratory protection/air supply options <ul><li>Compressed airline system </li></ul><ul><li>Self contained breathing apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>Powered respirator system with filters </li></ul>
  58. 58. Compressed airline system <ul><li>Could be demand valve or constant-flow </li></ul><ul><li>Large volume of clean-air air provided if constant-flow </li></ul><ul><li>Could be facepiece or loose-fitting </li></ul><ul><li>Severely limited mobility </li></ul>Compressor Clean-air intake
  59. 59. SCBA within the bubble <ul><li>Limited volume of clean air available </li></ul><ul><li>Demand valve required </li></ul><ul><li>Bubble filled with exhaled air </li></ul><ul><li>Exhalation valve to outside environment required </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy load on user </li></ul>
  60. 60. Powered air within the bubble <ul><li>Large volume of filtered air provided </li></ul><ul><li>Bubble filled with exhaled air and excess airflow </li></ul><ul><li>Air management required </li></ul><ul><li>Exhalation valve to outside environment required </li></ul>
  61. 61. Make the bubble fit a person <ul><li>Allows movement </li></ul><ul><li>Allows interaction with the environment </li></ul>
  62. 62. Make the bubble fit a person <ul><li>Allows movement </li></ul><ul><li>Allows interaction with the environment </li></ul>
  63. 63. Protection from contamination How do powered respirators provide protection?
  64. 64. Powered respirator key components <ul><li>Electric motor and fan </li></ul><ul><li>Rechargeable battery </li></ul><ul><li>Face seal </li></ul><ul><li>Filter </li></ul>
  65. 65. How does the flow of air protect the user? Air flows through the headtop at 135-230 l/min The face seal maintains a slightly higher air pressure inside the headtop Exhaled and excess air is flushed out through exhalation holes or valves Any face seal leaks should normally leak - clean air out
  66. 66. The benefits of a powered respirator <ul><li>Airborne hazard protection </li></ul><ul><li>Normal breathing effort </li></ul><ul><li>A refreshing flow of filtered air </li></ul><ul><li>Exhaled air is flushed out </li></ul><ul><li>Long operating times </li></ul><ul><li>Light weight/portable </li></ul>
  67. 67. Protection from contamination + + <ul><li>Face seal </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing tube/connectors </li></ul><ul><li>Headtop leaks </li></ul><ul><li>Exhalation holes </li></ul><ul><li>Filter efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Face seal </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing tube/connectors </li></ul><ul><li>Headtop leaks </li></ul><ul><li>Exhalation valves </li></ul><ul><li>Filter efficiency </li></ul>Inward leakage paths of a Powered Respirator Inward leakage paths of a Powered Respirator inside a gas tight suit
  68. 68. The suit and attachments What is protecting the user from making physical contact with the toxic substances
  69. 69. The Chemical Protective Clothing System
  70. 70. Tychem ® TK Tychem TK features <ul><li>Outstanding chemical barrier properties </li></ul><ul><li>Light weight, supple and flexible </li></ul><ul><li>High material strength and tear resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Physical properties maintained over a wide temperature range </li></ul><ul><li>Non halogenated barrier films </li></ul>
  71. 71. Tychem ® TK Polymer coating 1 st barrier film 2 nd barrier film
  72. 72. Tychem ® TK Polyester nonwoven Polymer coating 1 st barrier film 2 nd barrier film 0.72mm
  73. 73. Tychem ® TK permeability Dimethylamine (Gas) BS EN374-3 breakthrough time > 480 minutes
  74. 74. Trapezoidal tear test Tychem TK has passed the 200N tear test
  75. 75. Flex cracking test Tychem TK has gained class 1 performance: >1000 flexing cycles without damage
  76. 76. Seam design
  77. 77. Seam design Typical external seam Typical internal seam Effective glue thickness
  78. 78. Zip
  79. 79. Zip flap
  80. 80. Visor 480 minute chemical permeation protection
  81. 81. Visor design PVC base material Chemical protective layer Unobstructed field of vision
  82. 82. Boot attachment
  83. 83. Boot <ul><li>Chemical Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Injection moulded seamless construction </li></ul><ul><li>Upper and sole oil resistant to EN345-S5 </li></ul><ul><li>Boot compound surpasses NFPA 1991 requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical permeation resistance to EN374-3 </li></ul><ul><li>Safety features </li></ul><ul><li>Slip & oil resistant sole </li></ul><ul><li>Stainless steel toecap (200 joule) </li></ul><ul><li>Stainless steel midsole </li></ul>
  84. 84. Glove attachment
  85. 85. Additional chemical resistant lining Gloves Heavy duty Neoprene glove Lighter duty Neoprene glove Optional cotton glove
  86. 86. Valve
  87. 87. Valve Wide flange Valve cover Rear facing exhalation vents Labyrinth Rubber gasket
  88. 88. Suit sizes S M L XL XXL <ul><li>Glove and boot sizes </li></ul><ul><li>We can provide standard size combinations to match the suit </li></ul><ul><li>We can offer individual glove, boot and suit size combinations to accommodate customer preferences </li></ul>
  89. 89. POWERED RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE SUIT [ N B C ] <ul><li>BATTERY POWERED 3M JUPITER ER TURBO FITTED. </li></ul><ul><li>HIGHLY CHEMICAL RESISTANT FABRIC WITH HAZMAX SHOE FITTED. </li></ul><ul><li>TWO FILTER ATTACHED TO FILTER C B R N. </li></ul><ul><li>RECHARGABLE BATTERY TIME 4 HOURS </li></ul><ul><li>NO NEED OF BA SET OR AIRLINE . </li></ul><ul><li>AS PER EN 464:1994 </li></ul><ul><li>REMOTE ALARM DEVICE . </li></ul><ul><li>WIDELY USED BY FIRE SERVICES, PHARMA, DISASTER MANAGEMENT </li></ul>
  90. 90. RESPIREX TRAINING AND SERVICE CENTRE INDIA <ul><li>LEAK TEST GAS TIGHT SUIT TO EN 464:1994 </li></ul><ul><li>CARRY OUT ROUTINE MAINTENANCE </li></ul><ul><li>REPORT AND RACTIFY ANY DEFECTS </li></ul><ul><li>REPAIR OF GARMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>INTERNALLY SANITIZE AND DECONTAMINATION OF THE GARMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>PROVIDE FULL SAFETY AUDIT ON GARMENT. </li></ul><ul><li>ADVISE & TRAINING ON SUIT CLEANING, STORAGE AND WEARING </li></ul><ul><li>ANNUAL MAINTAINCE CONTRACTS </li></ul>
  91. 91. Suit gas testing
  92. 92. <ul><li>THANKYOU </li></ul>

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