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ASIS CCCT Workshop: Wireless Security & Surveillance


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Wireless transmission options for security & surveillance: point-to-point, point-to-multipoint, mesh - pros and cons of each; mistakes to avoid; steps to successful wireless deployment; case studies; questions to ask your wireless technology provider.

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ASIS CCCT Workshop: Wireless Security & Surveillance

  1. 1. Wireless Infrastructure for Security and Surveillance Ksenia Coffman, Firetide ASIS CCTV Workshop, Las Vegas, NV 10/26-29 1
  2. 2. Agenda Why wireless? Wireless options Considerations for wireless video systems Case studies Municipal public safety; Campus security; Critical infrastructure/industrial operations; Transportation security; Mobile video Planning a successful wireless system Q&A 2
  3. 3. Why Wireless? Cost savings Deploy virtually anywhere Mobility and flexibility Extend or back-up wired infrastructure 3
  4. 4. Who Needs Wireless Security & Surveillance? Public Safety Education Industrial Transportation Retail Hospitality Healthcare Government Utilities 4
  5. 5. Wireless Challenges Availability of channels & spectrum RF interference Dynamic RF & physical environment “Trust but verify” attitude required 5
  6. 6. Wireless Options 6
  7. 7. Wireless Frequency Bands Licensed? Line of site Advantage Disadvantage 900 MHz Unlicensed Not required Improved street-level Lower throughput penetration for video compared to other bands 2.4 GHz Unlicensed Required Better penetration Interference from compared to 5 GHz consumer devices 4.9 GH Licensed Required Reserved for public Requires frequency safety; less coordination with interference other agencies 5 GHz Unlicensed Required Better range and less Lower penetration interference than 2.4 GHz compared to 2.4 GHz 7
  8. 8. Point to Point Pros Dedicated connection Highest bandwidth for backhaul Cons Does not scale; no flexibility Single point of failure 8
  9. 9. Point to Multi-Point Pros Simplicity of design Cost effective when tall assets are available Cons Limited scalability: bandwidth divided by # of subscribers LOS required to each subscriber unit Base station creates a single point of failure 9
  10. 10. Multi-Point to Multi-Point (Mesh) Pros Reach & scalability with multi-hop connections Flexibility – can be deployed a PtP, PtMP or mesh Cons Variable performance from different vendors More complex design vs PtP or PtMP 10
  11. 11. What About Throughput? Point to point Up to 1 Gig+ Point to multi-point 20-30 Mbps total capacity typical (divided by # of subscribers) Wireless mesh Can deliver up to 250-300 Mbps in PtP mode or 100-150 Mbps sustained over multiple hops Varies greatly by vendor: from 10-15 Mbps to 100-150 Mbps sustained Numbers listed are usable throughput, not theoretical data rate 11
  12. 12. Deployment Scenario: Mesh & PtP 12
  13. 13. Deployment Scenario: PtMP 13
  14. 14. Deployment Scenario: Linear Mesh Linear mode takes advantage of dual-radio capabilities District 5 District 4 District 3 District1 District 2 14
  15. 15. Not All ‘Wireless Mesh’ Created Equal 15
  16. 16. Imagine a Traditional Wired Switch Most efficient mesh utilizes L2 distributed wireless switch architecture (Wired Ethernet infrastructure) 16
  17. 17. Now, Give Each Port Wireless Capability (Wired Ethernet infrastructure) 17
  18. 18. Separate the Ports… Bingo, a Virtual Ethernet Switch! (Wired Ethernet infrastructure) 18
  19. 19. Considerations for Wireless Video 19
  20. 20. Key Requirements for Video High throughput Low latency < 1.5 ms per hop Low packet jitter (variation in latency) Support for multicast traffic End-to-end QoS & traffic prioritization 20
  21. 21. Caution About AP-based Systems Not suitable for professional-grade video surveillance Typically shared with other traffic: unpredictable bandwidth Limited QoS or traffic prioritization Multicast traffic brings effective bandwidth to 6 Mbps 2.4 GHz band deployments are especially risky Result: packet loss, jitter and high latency = unusable video Wi-Fi enabled cameras only suitable for indoor, small-scale surveillance Caution: Many of the above limitations apply to “Mesh APs” as well 21
  22. 22. But Wi-Fi Access Can Be Useful Live video in Wi-Fi ‘hot spots’ Laptops, PDAs Local and remote viewing Wi-Fi enabled Radio, AP & Camera patrol car 22
  23. 23. A Word on WiMAX & 4G Fixed WiMAX – unlicensed spectrum (2.4/4.9/5 GHz) You own the infrastructure Point to multi-point topology Typically 4.9 GHz & 5.8 GHz spectrum; could be separate HW Throughput limitations compared to high-end mesh Mobile WiMAX/4G – licensed spectrum License held by operators (Sprint, Clearwire, etc) Service model similar to cellular data; available in a few major cities 3-4 Mbps downstream; 1 Mbps upstream Okay for 1 or 2 covert cameras but not for critical deployments: outages, downtime for service, etc. 23
  24. 24. Mistakes You Can Make Mistakes You Can Make 24
  25. 25. RFP Process Not verifying claims/performance Not talking to users with like-size systems Specifying solution based on a 3-camera trial Not being clear on requirements Accepting the lowest bid without making apples-to-apples comparison 25
  26. 26. Design & Deployment Skipping a formal, professional site survey Not securing access to camera sites & power ahead of time Not taking seasonal variations into account 4.9 GHz users – not verifying spectrum availability Using non-manufacturer-approved accessories (i.e. antennas) Not planning for future growth 26
  27. 27. Operation Not securing a maintenance agreement with the integrator Not purchasing spares and Who will clean the cameras? 27
  28. 28. Case Studies 28
  29. 29. Public Safety and Security Hospital Ambulance Fire Station Public Park Police Station City Hall Police Car 29
  30. 30. Los Angeles County Sheriff Narcotics, prostitution, gang retaliations 30 cameras trained on priority locations: key intersections, parks, schools, hospitals Linear mesh topology due to lack of fiber points of presence 30
  31. 31. Wireless-enabled Campus 31
  32. 32. Cal State Long Beach PD 37 cameras How used Overt surveillance Integrated with dispatch Wireless offload for ALPR cameras Funding PD budget 32
  33. 33. Critical Infrastructure & Industrial Ops 33
  34. 34. Construction – Dubai Tower Radio over IP Video surveillance 34
  35. 35. Open Pit Mining Diagnostics & weight data Video surveillance – operator safety & location 35
  36. 36. Transportation Security 36
  37. 37. Steveston Harbor, BC, Canada Overt surveillance Fixed and PTZ, megapixel cameras 37
  38. 38. Wireless ‘Look-in’: MBTA, Boston • 500 busses, 8 cameras each • Mobile-to-mobile surveillance • Passenger and operator safety; liability protection 38
  39. 39. Mobile Video Security Monitors Internet Internet Gateway 39
  40. 40. Outfitting Patrol with Mobile Video 40
  41. 41. Wireless Gear 41
  42. 42. Radio Equipment Indoor Radios Outdoor Radios Custom or Integrated Enclosures 42
  43. 43. Antenna Types Omni-directional - doughnut-shaped radiation pattern Sector – Broadcast signal in one general direction Patch/Panel – Moderately-directional “spotlight’ pattern Yagi – Directional antenna used for point to point Parabolic – high-gain, highly directional 43
  44. 44. Use Directional Antennas for Video Sector antenna for head end Patch antenna for street level 44
  45. 45. Planning a Successful Wireless System Business objectives Future System growth requirements Deployment Site survey RF/Network design 45
  46. 46. Requirements Application – what do you want to do? Real-time video vs R&R (“recording & retrieval”) operation Any data or voice requirements? Is there a need for roaming or mobility? Bandwidth – how many video streams? What frame rate? Logistics Permits, approvals Access to mounting locations: rooftops, light poles, towers Future changes: construction? expansion? Facility – consider differences: Ports, construction sites – moving objects, unpredictable LOS Shopping centers – people absorb RF Special events – ad-hoc, remote and on-site command centers 46
  47. 47. Site Survey The #1 ingredient to a successful system Results Detailed layout prepared Required network throughput determined Potential interference identified Power sources identified Available frequencies identified BOM and deployment plan created 47
  48. 48. Design Determine bandwidth requirements Analyze bandwidth per radio link • Per stream & aggregate Adjust proposed layout as required Get a map, plan, aerial photograph Use directional antennas Plot camera and other equipment location Add intermediate nodes Develop a proposed layout Increase bandwidth • Node types Route around obstacles • Antennas and directions Make sure you have enough • Head-end/wired infrastructure head-end bandwidth connections 48
  49. 49. Deployment Use experienced installers who are certified on the equipment 49
  50. 50. Bad Radio Placement – Wall Mount Multipath due to wall reflections Metal objects near antenna Wrong antenna for position • Sector would be better choice 50
  51. 51. Bad Antenna Placement – Toll Booth Antenna obstructed by AC unit LOS is compromised 51
  52. 52. Good Intersection Camera Design Sector to head node Omni mounted on bracket • approx. 2 feet away from pole • 4 feet below sector antenna 52
  53. 53. Good Pole Mount Design Patch instead of omni RF cables less than 10 feet 53
  54. 54. Future Growth Make sure the network can scale Engage other departments / entities to fund or support the system Evaluate new applications Cameras technology: ALPR, infrared, HD, megapixel Other services: Wi-Fi access, VoIP Mobility: real-time mobile video 54
  55. 55. Questions to Ask Your Wireless Vendor What is usable throughput per link/total capacity? (not ‘data rate’) How do you handle multicast traffic? What is the latency per hop/per 5 hops? Max number of hops before backhaul is needed? What QoS mechanisms do you support? What security mechanisms have you implemented? What is the largest install do you have in terms of # of cameras? Can I contact your customers? 55
  56. 56. Wireless Saves Time, Money LA County Sheriff’s Dept. Buffalo, NY Rockford, IL Denver / DNC ‘08 Dallas, TX NASA Dryden Yuma Intl Airport Downtown Chicago 56
  57. 57. Thank You! For a copy of the presentation, please contact: Ksenia Coffman, Firetide See more case studies at: Follow Firetide on twitter: 57