Cess

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Cess

  1. 1. Chapter 11 PERSONALITY Presented by: Princess A. De Jesus Nina Jennica Reyes
  2. 2. <ul><li>The term personality is often used in everyday conversation. Its importance cannot be denied. </li></ul><ul><li>In our society, people put a high premium on the good or pleasing personality. </li></ul>
  3. 4. What is Personality? <ul><li>Is defined as a set of traits and characteristics that an individual possess that makes him/her unique . </li></ul><ul><li>Etymologically, it comes from the Lt. word “ persona ” which connotes a mask . </li></ul>PERSONALITY
  4. 5. Explanations of the Rudiments of Personality Theoretical Models
  5. 6. PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES
  6. 7. <ul><li>Sigmund Freud </li></ul><ul><li>Founder of psychoanalytic school of thought. </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on unconscious psychological conflicts. </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed the three significant components of human personality. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Eros” and “Thanatos”. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychosexual stages of personality development. </li></ul>PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIST To Freud, “ sexuality ” refers to all kinds of pleasurable feelings experienced by the human body.
  7. 8. <ul><li>The Id (Pleasure Principle) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demanding immediate gratification of its needs regardless of the external environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Ego (Reality Principle) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Realistically meets the wishes and demands of the Id in accordance with the outside world. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Superego (Conscience) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inculcates moral judgment and societal rules upon the ego, thus forcing the demands of the Id to be met not only realistically but also morally. </li></ul></ul>Three Significant Components of the Human Personality
  8. 9. Major Components of Freud’s Theories Eros (sex; instinctual self-perseveration) Thanatos (death; instinctual self-anhilation)
  9. 10. <ul><li>Alfred Adler </li></ul><ul><li>believed that birth order may influence personality development </li></ul>PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIST
  10. 11. Adler’s Birth Order Personality Theory
  11. 12. <ul><li>Heinz Kohut </li></ul><ul><li>His thoughts are similar of Freud’s idea of transference . </li></ul><ul><li>He used narcissism as a model of how we develop our sense of self. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced what he called the “self-object transferences” of mirroring and idealization </li></ul>PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIST
  12. 14. <ul><li>Karen Horney </li></ul><ul><li>Is credited with the development of the “ideal self” and “real-self”. </li></ul>PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIST
  13. 16. HUMANISTIC THEORIES
  14. 17. <ul><li>Abraham Maslow </li></ul><ul><li>Studied what he called “self-actualizing persons,” those who are “fulfilling themselves and doing the best they are capable of doing.” </li></ul>HUMANISTIC THEORIST
  15. 18. - active, creative, experiencing human being who lives in the present and subjectively responds to current perceptions, relationships, and encounters. - dark, pessimistic outlook Maslow and Roger’s View of a Person
  16. 19. <ul><li>Carl Rogers </li></ul><ul><li>Stressed the reflective or empathetic response as a new approach to therapy </li></ul>HUMANISTIC THEORIST
  17. 20. “ It seems you are feeling anxious about your upcoming marriage.” <ul><li>REFLECTIVE / EMPATHETIC RESPONSE - refers to the type of response that takes the client’s viewpoint and reflects back to his or her feeling and the context for it. </li></ul>
  18. 21. BIOLOGICAL THEORIES
  19. 22. Phineas Gage
  20. 23. <ul><li>Richard Davidson </li></ul><ul><li>(University of Wisconsin - Madison) </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and amygdala in manifesting human personality </li></ul>Commonly Used Techniques to Study Personality Traits in the Brain
  21. 24. BEHAVIORIST THEORIES
  22. 25. <ul><li>B. F. Skinner </li></ul><ul><li>Developed and put forth a model which emphasized the mutual interaction of the person or “the organism“ with its environment . </li></ul>BEHAVIORIST THEORIST
  23. 26. <ul><li>Ivan Pavlov </li></ul><ul><li>Is well known for his classical conditioning experiments involving dogs. </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered the foundation of behaviorism as well as classical conditioning. </li></ul>BEHAVIORIST THEORIST
  24. 27. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
  25. 28. <ul><li>Albert Bandura </li></ul><ul><li>Suggested that the forces of memory and emotions worked in conjunction with environmental influences. </li></ul><ul><li>He is known mostly for his “Bobo Doll experiment.” </li></ul>SOCIAL LEARNING THEORIST
  26. 29. BOBO DOLL EXPERIMENT Observational Learning Modeling
  27. 31. <ul><li>Erick Erickson </li></ul><ul><li>Credited for creating a theory that encompasses the entire life cycle and recognizes the impact of society, history and culture on personality. </li></ul><ul><li>Best known for his concept of “identity crisis.” </li></ul>
  28. 32. Erick Erickson’s Psychosocial Stages of Development
  29. 33. QUIZ TIME!
  30. 34. THANK YOU and GOOD DAY!

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