Jayson M. Orogo
What is structured cabling?
A structured cabling system is the wiring network that carries all your data, voice, multimedia, security,VoIP, PoE, and
even wireless connections throughout your building or campus. It includes everything from the data center to the
desktop, including cabling, connecting hardware, equipment, telecommunications rooms, cable pathways,work areas, and
even the jacks on the wallplate in your office.
What is network plan?
Network planning and design is an iterative process, encompassing topological design, network-synthesis, and networkrealization, and is aimed at ensuring that a new telecommunications network or service meets the needs of the subscriber
and operator. The process can be tailored according to each new network or service.
Structured cabling plan?
Structured cabling system plan facilitates the continuous flow of information, enables the sharing of resources, and
promotes smooth operations.
Rj45 is a type of connector commonly used forethernet networking. It looks similar to a telephone
jack, but is slightly wider. Since ethernet cables have an rj45 connector on each end, ethernet cables
are sometimes also called rj45 cables.
The "rj" in rj45 stands for "registered jack," since it is a standardized networking interface. The "45"
simply refers to the number of the interface standard. Each rj45 connector has eight pins, which
means an rj45 cable contains eight separate wires. If you look closely at the end of an ethernet
cable, you can actually see the eight wires, which are each a different color. Four of them are solid
colors, while the other four are striped.
The original and most popular version of Ethernet supports a data transmission rate of 10
Mb/while the newer versions of Ethernet called "Fast Ethernet" and "Gigabit Ethernet" support
data rates of 100 Mb/s and 1 Gb/s (1000 Mb/s).
Category 5 cable (Cat 5) is a twisted pair cable for carrying signals. This type of cable is used
in structured cabling for computer networks such as Ethernet. The cable standard provides
performance of up to 100 MHz and is suitable for 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX (Fast Ethernet),
and 1000BASE-T (Gigabit Ethernet). Cat 5 is also used to carry other signals such
as telephony and video.
The cable is commonly connected using punch down blocks and modular connectors. Most
Category 5 cables are unshielded, relying on the twisted pair design and differential signaling for
Enhanced Category 5 (CAT5e/Class D) cable, ratified in 1999, was designed to enable twisted-pair
cabling to support full-duplex, 100-MHz applications such as 100BASE-TX and 1000BASE-T. CAT5e
introduces stricter performance parameters such as Power-Sum Near-End Crosstalk (PS-NEXT),
Equal-Level Far-End Crosstalk (EL-FEXT), and Power-Sum Equal-Level Far-End Crosstalk (PSELFEXT). It also introduces channel and component testing.
Category 6 (CAT6/Class E) cable easily handles Gigabit Ethernet (1000BASE-T) applications. It’s a
100-ohm cable with a frequency of 250 MHz. CAT6 has far more stringent performance
parameters than CAT5e, and is characterized by channel, link, and component testing. In
addition, CAT6 components must be backwardscompatible with lower-level components. It’s
important to note with CAT6, as with all categories, that all the components in a channel must be
of the same level. If not, the channel will perform at the lowest level.
Augmented Category 6 (CAT6a/Class EA), a relatively new standard, is designed to meet or exceed
the requirements of 10-Gigabit Ethernet over copper at 100 meters. It extends the frequency
range of CAT6 from 250 MHz to 500 MHz. Like CAT6, it includes an integrated set of channel,
permanent link, and component requirements. It introduces an Alien Crosstalk (ANEXT)
measurement for closely bundled “six around one” cable configurations. (For information on
ANEXT, see pages 28–29.) Both UTP and F/UTP cables can be used in CAT6a deployments. The
F/UTP cable, though, virtually eliminates the problem of ANEXT.
Ethernet is the most common type of connection computers use in a local area network (LAN). An Ethernet port looks
much like a regular phone jack, but it is slightly wider. This port can be used to connect your computer to another
computer, a local network, or an external DSL or cable modem.
Two widely-used forms of Ethernet are 10BaseT and 100BaseT. In a 10BaseT Ethernet connection, data transfer speeds
can reach 10 mbps (megabits per second) through a copper cable. In a 100BaseT Ethernet connection, transfer speeds
can get up to 100 mbps. There is also a new technology called "Gigabit" Ethernet, where data transfer rates peak at 1000
Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) is a version of Ethernet that supports data transfer rates of one gigabit (i.e., one billion bits) per
Ethernet is by far the most commonly used local area network (LAN) architecture. It features high speeds, robustness (i.e.,
high reliability), low cost and adaptability to new technologies. Prior to gigabit Ethernet, the fastest Ethernet was fast
Ethernet, with a capacity of 100 Mbps (million bits per second).
Gigabit Ethernet is carried primarily on optical fiber, although it can be used with Cat 5 cable (the standard twisted
pair copper wire used for Ethernet LANs) for short distances.
Gigabit Ethernet is compatible with other Ethernet standards because it uses the same CSMA/CD (carrier sense multiple
access/collision detection) and MAC (media access control) protocols. Many gigabit Ethernet components are backward
compatible with fast Ethernet and standard Ethernet (10 Mbps), and existing Ethernet LANs with 10 and 100 Mbps cards
can feed into a gigabit Ethernet backbone.
The first gigabit Ethernet standard was agreed upon in June 1998, and gigabit Ethernet was soon deployed mainly for high
capacity backbone backbone links in enterprise networks. In the past few years it has also become a built-in feature in an
increasing number of personal computers.
Gigabit Ethernet is no longer the fastest Ethernet standard, with the ratification of 10 gigabit Ethernet in 2002. However,
it is not yet known to what extent this new standard will be deployed.
Difference between Ethernet and Gida Ethernet
The original and most popular version of Ethernet supports a data transmission rate of 10 Mb/while the newer versions of
Ethernet called "Fast Ethernet" and "Gigabit Ethernet" support data rates of 100 Mb/s and 1 Gb/s (1000 Mb/s).
A common connection point for devices in a network. Hubs are commonly used to
connect segments of a LAN. A hub contains multiple ports. When a packet arrives at one port, it is
copied to the other ports so that all segments of the LAN can see all packets.
A passive hub serves simply as a conduit for the data, enabling it to go from one device (or segment)
to another. So-called intelligent hubs include additional features that enables an administrator to monitor the traffic
passing through the hub and to configure each port in the hub. Intelligent hubs are also called manageable hubs.
A third type of hub, called a switching hub, actually reads the destination address of each packet and then forwards the
packet to the correct port.
A device that filters and forwards packets between LAN segments. Switches operate at the
data link layer and sometimes the network layer of the OSI Reference Model and therefore
support any packet protocol. LANs that use switches to join segments are called switched
LANs or, in the case of Ethernet networks, switched Ethernet LANs.
A router is a device that forwards data packets along networks. A router is connected to at
least two networks, commonly two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISP's network. Routers are
located at gateways, the places where two or more networks connect.
Routers use headers and forwarding tables to determine the best path for forwarding the
packets, and they use protocols such as ICMP to communicate with each other and configure
the best route between any two hosts.
Short for port-switching hub, a special type of hub that forwards packets to the
appropriate port based on the packet's address. Conventional hubs simply rebroadcast every
packet to every port. Since switching hubs forward each packet only to the required port,
they provide much better performance. Most switching hubs also support load balancing, so
that ports are dynamically reassigned to different LAN segments based on traffic patterns.
Some newer switching hubs support both traditional Ethernet (10 Mbps) and Fast
Ethernet (100 Mbps) ports. This enables the administrator to establish a dedicated, Fast Ethernet channel for high-traffic
devices such as servers.
Difference between Switch and Hub
One of the main differences between the two is network traffic. The hub sends packets to all of the connected ports,
creating unnecessary traffic. The switch determines which port the packet is destined for and only sends the packet to
Another significant difference is bandwidth. The hub shares the available bandwidth between all of the connected ports,
while the switch sends the full bandwidth to each port. Therefore, computers connected to a hub experience slower
performance when several computers send data simultaneously, while computers connected to a switch have full use of
the available bandwidth of the switch.
Hubs operate at half duplex, which means that a computer connected to a hub can either receive data or transmit data,
but not both at the same time. Switches, on the other hand, operate at full duplex, allowing computers to receive and
transmit data simultaneously. This means faster response times in a LAN connected to a switch compared to the hub