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  1. 1. Faculty of Administrative Science and Policy Studies (AM 110) GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS (PAD 170) Political parties are essential in a democratic countries. Select any one of the political parties in Malaysia and its roles and strategies use to influence voters. Prepared By : MUHAMMAD IZZAT HAFIZUDDIN 2011135943 MUHAMMAD AZRUL BIN HALEM 2011137817 FIRDAUS BIN PAAT Date of Submission : 11 MARCH 2013 2011986417
  2. 2. 1.0 INTRODUCTION A political party is an autonomous group of citizens having the purpose of making nominations and contesting elections in hope of gaining control over governmental power through the capture of public offices and the organization of the government. (Robert Hucksorn, 1984). But is that really so ? As students of political parties are well aware, many legitimate political parties exist for reasons that have little to do with winning elections. So, our group choose United Malays National Organization (UMNO) to discuss how their roles and strategies uses to influence the voters in Malaysia. On May 11, 1996, UMNO already established for about 50 years in Malaysia. if human being, they already grown matured enough In that amount of time. They enjoy life, self-trust and steady enough in term of characteristic and personality. The goods that spread since start shines with benefits. In the other hand, the mistakes and failures taught them more in life. Moreover, it concludes as one of the parties that hold the world record between the rest that rules continuously from time to time. Political parties integrates Malay’s citizen and replication the dignity as one of the dominant races in their homeland, overcome what they are fighting for their country, to be the head that elevate Islam, language, culture, self-identity, to increase economic status, education and Malay’s social life and their countries, to determine stabilization politics, keeping the the peace among the people of Malaya and Malaysia. and placing the country among developed countries, and respected neighbor with other countries.
  3. 3. 2.0 Background Of UMNO 2.1 Before The Independence After the British returned to Malaya in the aftermath of World War II, the Malayan Union was formed. However, the Union was met with much opposition due to its constitutional framework which allegedly threatened Malay sovereignty over Malaya. A series of Malay congresses were held, culminating in the formation of the nationalist party, UMNO on May 10, 1046 at the third Malay Congress in Johor Bahru, with Dato’OnnJaafar as its leader. UMNO strongly opposed the Malayan Union, but originally did not seek political power. UMNO has no choice with continuously to play its supporting roles to the British rulers. The British cooperated with UMNO leaders and helped to defeat the communist insurgency. In 1949, after the Malayan Union had been replaced by the semi-autonomous Federation Of Malaya, UMNO shifted its focus to politics and governance. The Malay people thus search for their birth-rights since the government of Malaya did not proclaim it openly, resulting in a confusing situation.However it is crucial that UMNO’s struggle is apparently not racial based. As they also fought for other races once they are at the helm of the country. In 1951, Dato’ OnnJaafar left UMNO after failing to open its membership to non-Malay Malayans to form the Independence of Malaya Party (IMP). Tunku Abdul Rahman replaced Dato’ Onn as UMNO President. That same year, the Radical Party won first election in Malaya – the George Town municipal council election- claiming six out of the nine seats available. However, the following year, UMNO formed an agreement with the Malayan Chinese Association (MIC) issued a manifesto stating its goals of achieving independence by 1959, requiring a minimum of primary school education for all children, protecting the rights of the Malay rulers as constitutional monarchs, ending the communist emergency, and performing the civil service through the hiring of more Malayans as opposed to foreigners. When the result were released, it emerged that the Alliance had won 51 of 52 seats contested, with the other seat going to PAS (the Pan –Malayan Islamic Party, a group of islamic that split from UMNO). The Tunku became the first Chief Minister of Malaya .
  4. 4. In 1956,theTunku led a group of negotiators, comprising Alliance politicians and representatives of the Malay rulers, to London. There, they brokered a deal with the British for independence. The date of independence was set as August 31, 1957 on the condition that an independent commission is set up to draft a constitution for the country. The Alliance government was also required to avoid seizing British and other foreign assets in Malaya. The Reid Commission, led by lord William Reid, was formed to draft the constitution. Although enshrining concepts such as federalism and a constitution monarchy, the proposed constitution also contained provisions protecting special rights for the Malays, such as Quotas in admission to higher education and the civil service, and making island the official religion of the federation. It also made Malay the official language of the nation, although the right to maintain the Malay language is not that easy.
  5. 5. 2.1 The Independent In Malaya’s First general elections in 1959, the Alliance coalition led by UMNO won 51.8% of the votes, resulting in 74 out of 104 seats, enough for an absolute two-thirds majority in Parliament, which would not only allow them to form the government again but amend the constitution at will. However, for the Alliance, the election was marred by internal strife when MCA leader Lim Chong Eu demanded his party be allowed to contest 40 of the 104 seats available. When the Tunku rejected this, Lim and his supporters resigned, many of them running in the election as independents, which cost the Alliance some seats. In 1961, the Tunku mooted the idea of forming ‘Malaysia’, which would consist of Singapore, Sabah, Sarawak and Brunei, all of which were the British colonies. The reasoning behind this was that this would allow the central government to control and combat communists activites, especially in Singapore. It was also feared that if Singapore achieved independence, it would become a base for Chinese chauvinists to threaten Malayan sovereignty. To balance out the ethnic composition of the new nation, the other states, whose Malay and indigenous populations would balance out the Singaporean Chinese majority, were also included. After much negotiation, a constitution was hammered out. Some minor changes had been made – for instance, the Malay privileges were now made available to all ‘Bumiputera’, a group comprising the Malays and other indigenous peoples of Malaysia. However the new states were also granted some autonomy unavailable to the original nice states of Malaya. After negotiations in July 1963, it was agreed the Malaysia would come into being on August 31, 1963, consisting of Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak. Brunei pulled out after Parti Rakyat Brunei staged an armed revolt, which, though it was put down, was viewed as potentially destabilizing to the new nation. To reflect the change of name to Malaysia, UMNO’s coalition partners promptly altered their names to the Malaysian Chinese Association and the Malaysian Indian Congress, Several political parties in East Malaysia, especially Sarawak, also joined the Alliance to allow it to contest elections there.