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  1. 1. Tailoring Strategy to Fit Specific Industry and Company Situations Firdaus Khan, Assoc. Professor, ICBM-SBE
  2. 2. Match the strategy to your stituation
  3. 3. Within which industry life-cycle stage are you operating?
  4. 4. 1. Competing in an Emerging Industry
  5. 5. Features of an Emerging Industry • New and unproven market • Proprietary technology • Lack of consensus regarding which of several competing technologies will win out • Low entry barriers • Experience curve effects may permit cost reductions as volume builds • Buyers are first-time users and marketing involves inducing initial purchase and overcoming customer concerns • First-generation products are expected to be rapidly improved so buyers delay purchase until technology matures • Possible difficulties in securing raw materials • Firms struggle to fund R&D, operations and build resource capabilities for rapid growth
  6. 6. Strategy Options for Competing in Emerging Industries
  7. 7. • Win early race for industry leadership by employing a bold, creative strategy • Push hard to perfect technology, improve product quality, and develop attractive performance features • Move quickly when technological uncertainty clears and a dominant technology emerges • Form strategic alliances with – Key suppliers or – Companies having related technological expertise Strategic Moves
  8. 8. • Capture potential first-mover advantages • Pursue – New customers and user applications – Entry into new geographical areas • Focus advertising emphasis on – Increasing frequency of use – Creating brand loyalty • Use price cuts to attract price-sensitive buyers Strategic Moves
  9. 9. 2.Competing in Turbulent, High Velocity Markets
  10. 10. What makes the industry “High-Velocity”? • Rapid technological changes • Short product life cycles • Frequent launches of new competitive moves • Rapidly evolving customer requirements & expectations
  11. 11. Positioning of Firms to Cope with Rapid ChangePositioning of Firms to Cope with Rapid ChangePositioning of Firms to Cope with Rapid ChangePositioning of Firms to Cope with Rapid Change
  12. 12. Must-have Competence • To constantly reshape firm’s strategy & basis for competitive advantage in response to rapid & sometimes unpredictable changes in competitive conditions
  13. 13. Strategic Options in High-Velocity Markets
  14. 14. Which Position will the company take? • REACT TO CHANGE • ANTICIPATE CHANGE • LEAD CHANGE
  15. 15. Objective: Stay on leading edge of technological advances Translate technological advances into innovative new products Focus R&D on critical areas Deepen expertise by mastering technology & capturing learning curve effects INVEST AGGRESSIVELY IN R&D
  16. 16. DEVELOP QUICK RESPONSE CAPABILITIES – Shift resources – Adapt competencies – Create new competitive capabilities – Speed new products to market RELY ON STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIPS - With other companies to quickly develop technology - With OEMs for components - Backward outsourcing, building internal resources
  17. 17. STAY FRESH • Initiate fresh action, every few months – new/improved products, new geographic markets, refresh existing brands every 2 years. • STAY IN THE LIMELIGHT • STAY INNOVATIVE & WELL-MATCHED TO CHANGES IN MARKET PLACE.
  18. 18. 3.Strategic Options in Mature Industries
  19. 19. Features of a Mature Industry
  20. 20. Strategy Options for Competing in a Mature Industry • Prune marginal products and models • Emphasize innovation in the value chain • Strong focus on cost reduction • Increase sales to present customers • Purchase rivals at bargain prices • Expand internationally • Build new, more flexible competitive capabilities
  21. 21. Strategic Pitfalls in a Maturing Industry • Employing a ho-hum strategy with no distinctive features thus leaving firm “stuck in the middle” • Concentrating on short-term profits rather than strengthening long-term competitiveness • Being slow to adapt competencies to changing customer expectations • Being slow to respond to price-cutting • Having too much excess capacity • Overspending on marketing • Failing to pursue cost reductions aggressively
  22. 22. 4.Strategy in Stagnant or Declining Industries
  23. 23. Features of Stagnant or Declining Industries • Growth in Demand is less than economy’s growth rate. In fact demand could be falling. • Competitive pressures intensify – rival firms fiercely battle for each other’s market share. • Industry consolidation is visible through numerous mergers and acquisitions. No. of firms in the industry gets low.
  24. 24. Strategic Options for Competing in a Stagnant or Declining Industry • Apply FOCUS strategy to zero in on the industry’s few fastest growing market segments. • Build DIFFERENTIATION through quality improvement or product innovation to keep one’s customers loyal and locked-in. • Fanatically DRIVE DOWN COSTS – Cut marginal activities from value chain, use outsourcing – Consolidate under-utilized production facilities – Close low-volume, high-cost distribution outlets – Prune marginal products – Redesign internal processes to focus on niche segments
  25. 25. 5.Strategy in Fragmented Industries
  26. 26. Features of Fragmented Industries • No clear market leader. Industry is young and crowded with aspiring contenders • Demand is diverse and geographically scattered • Low entry barriers & absence of scale economies • Buyers usually order in small quantity and require customized or made-to-order products • Product/service may be global in nature, thus putting many companies across the world in the same market arena
  27. 27. Strategy Horizons for Sustaining Rapid Growth
  28. 28. Strategy Based on Role in Industry (Competitive Strategy)
  29. 29. Copyright © 2009 PearsonCopyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. PublishingEducation, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hallas Prentice Hall Industry Concept of Competition • Number of sellers and degree of differentiation • Entry, mobility, and exit barriers • Cost structure • Degree of vertical integration • Degree of globalization
  30. 30. Copyright © 2009 PearsonCopyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. PublishingEducation, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hallas Prentice Hall If Dell wants to expand …
  31. 31. Advantage in the market Share of marketShare of market Share of mindShare of mind Share of heartShare of heart
  32. 32. Hypothetical Market Structure 10% Market Nichers 20% Market Follower 30% Market Challenger 40% Market Leader
  33. 33. Competitive Positions & Moves • Market Challenger - Offensive Strategy: OBJECTIVE(S) • build new or stronger market positions and/or • create competitive advantage • Market Leader - Defensive Strategy: OBJECTIVES • protect competitive advantage • reduce risk of being attacked • discourage the offensive strategies of rivals • Blunt the impact of any attack
  35. 35. Who is a Market Challenger? • Firm has a strong, but not dominant position in the market. • Wants to aggressively gain market share • Typically targets the market leader, but also targets other smaller, more vulnerable companies
  36. 36. Strategizing to Challenge the Market Leader • Define the strategic objective and opponents • Choose a general attack strategy • Choose a specific attack strategy
  37. 37. (A)General Attack Strategies Frontal Attack Encirclement Attack Bypass Attack Flank Attack Guerrilla Warfare
  38. 38. Frontal Attack • Direct, head-on assault on Leader’s star product, prime markets or strategic customers • Rarely used, since it is expensive • Attacking the leader’s strength will require R&D, intensive advertising, better service/quality = ‘Fire Power’ • Be prepared for retaliation from Leader firm
  39. 39. Eg: McDonalds frontal attack on market leader Starbucks by launching McCafe
  40. 40. Frontal Attack best suitable when.. • Market is relatively homogeneous • Brand equity is low or customer loyalty is low • Products have poor/peripheral level of differentiation • Leader has resource constraints, cannot quickly release funds to fight back
  41. 41. Flank Attack • Attack the leader at its weakest point – a blind spot (ignored segment), least important markets or products/brands that have low strategic importance. • Objectives: Gain a foothold before frontal attack Distract the leader
  42. 42. Eg: In terms of the narrow biscuits market, ITC challenged Britannia by a ‘flank’ product – Orange Sunfeast. Cream biscuits was a segment the leader ignored. In terms of terms of broad FMCG market, ITC built a ‘bypass’ biscuits brand Sunfeast (HUL ignored it since it was biscuits segment) then moved to HUL’s domain with ‘frontal attack’ Vivel & Fiama de Wills and ‘flank’ attack Aashirwad staples
  43. 43. Encirclement Attack • Attack strengths & weaknesses of the Leader simultaneously • Surround the leader with issues to that need urgent attention and resources • Challenger must have superior resources and a decentralized structure.
  44. 44. Samsung vs. Apple in Smartphone Market • Samsung gave ‘phablets’ to Asian users (Asian languages have characters that be drawn faster) • It is into chips and display screen, etc. therefore can compete on price and features with Apple. Samsung is the world’s largest chip maker • Advertising budget increased 5 fold & patents filed were the second highest (after IBM) • Adopted android to challenge iOS.
  45. 45. Samsung’s new ads directly compare Apple’s iPhone5S to Galaxy S III
  46. 46. Bypass Attack • Challenger diversifies products into markets and segments overlooked by Leader • Challenger wants to avoid a head-on collision with leader, does not have enough resources or wants to creep up to the leader through stealth. • The objective is to confront the leader indirectly and it surprise it
  47. 47. • As discussed earlier, ITC bypassed HUL by building a biscuits brand – Sunfeast. • Then it added other food items under Sunfeast such as Pasta, used Shahrukh as brand ambassador. It also built classmates brand • Having built a stronghold in FMCG business, it attacked HUL in shampoos, soaps, skincare, staples, etc. • Sun bypassed Star & Zee by getting into regional south Indian languages for expat viewers across the world & gaining in numbers
  48. 48. Guerilla Attack • Challenger launches small, intermittent hit-and-run attacks to harass and destabilize leader • Attack across unpredictable geographies and in different forms • Objective: keep the leader busy in putting out small bush fires so that overall strategic focus wanes • It is not a long term strategy, has limited usefulness
  49. 49. (B) Specific Attack Strategies • Price discounts • Lower-priced goods • Value-priced goods • Prestige goods • Product proliferation • Product innovation • Improved services • Distribution innovation • Manufacturing-cost reduction • Intensive advertising promotion
  50. 50. Offensive Strategies for Runner-Up Firms• Best “mover-and-shaker” offensives – Pioneer a leapfrog technological breakthrough – Get new/better products into market ahead of rivals and build reputation for product leadership – Be more agile and innovative in adapting to evolving market conditions and customer needs – Forge attractive strategic alliances with key distributors and/or marketers of similar products – Find innovative ways to dramatically drive down costs to win customers from higher-cost rivals – Craft an attractive differentiation strategy
  52. 52. The firm with Industry Leadership has • A strong to powerful market position • A well-known reputation • A proven strategy
  53. 53. Key strategic concern of Leader- How to sustain dominant leadership position?
  54. 54. 7. Strategic Options for Industry Leaders Stay-on-the-offensive strategy Fortify-and-defend strategy Muscle-flexing strategy
  55. 55. Copyright © 2009 PearsonCopyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. PublishingEducation, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hallas Prentice Hall Figure 11.6 Six Types of Defense Strategies
  56. 56. POSITION DEFENSE • Position defense involves occupying the most desirable market space in the minds of the consumers, making the brand almost impregnable. • Dettol (“Be 100% sure)
  57. 57. FLANK DEFENSE The market leader should erect outposts to protect a weak front or possibly serve as an invasion base for a counterattack. Eg: Flipkart found small challengers such as Jabong & Myntra driving online shoppers to their sites based on fashion, so Flipkart decided to remedy this neglected category.
  58. 58. PRE-EMPTIVE DEFENSE • A more aggressive strategy is to attack before the challenger launches its offense. • Eg: Sam Walton in early days – Ben & Franklin stores restrained Dunham’s Sterling Store • Phil Knight of Nike has an aggressive celebtity endorsement strategy. • Xerox has 500+ patents to deter rivals from entering market • MS ploy to bundle internet explorer with Windows os.
  59. 59. COUNTER OFFENSIVE DEFENSE • When attacked most market leaders will respond with a counterattack. • P&G’s Oral B launch • Inundate market with products • BOGO strategy • 4.5mn retail outlets, P&G was elbowed out of shelf space
  60. 60. Counter-Offensive Defense • It is throwing toothbrushes, pastes, and brand events and promotions with trade partners, and discounts, all to deny or delay giving P&G even a toehold • Colgate has hiked its advertising and promotion spends by 31% during the first half of this calendar year.
  61. 61. MOBILE DEFENSE • In mobile defense, the leader stretches its domain over new territories that can serve as future centers for defense and offense through market broadening and market diversification. • Market broadening involves shifting focus from the current product to underlying generic need. ( Example. Petroleum companies get involved into oil, coal, nuclear and hydroelectric industries. • Market diversification involves shifting into unrelated industries ( Reynolds, Philips, cigarette companies, moved to produce beer, liquor, soft drinks and frozen industries)
  62. 62. 8.Market Follower Strategies Counterfeiter Cloner Imitator Adapter
  63. 63. 9. Niche Specialist Roles • End-User Specialist • Vertical-Level Specialist • Customer-Size Specialist • Specific-Customer Specialist • Geographic Specialist • Product-Line Specialist • Job-Shop Specialist • Quality-Price Specialist • Service-Specialist • Channel Specialist
  64. 64. 10. Strategy for Crisis-ridden, Weak businesses
  65. 65. Strategic Options • Launch an offensive turnaround strategy (if resources permit) or • Employ a fortify-and-defend strategy (to the extent resources permit) or • Pursue a fast-exit strategy or • Adopt an End-Game strategy
  66. 66. (A) Undertaking a Turnaround • Sell off assets to generate cash and/or reduce debt • Revise existing strategy • Launch efforts to boost revenues • Cut costs • Combination of efforts
  67. 67. (B) Liquidation Strategy • Wisest strategic option in certain situations – Lack of resources – Dim profit prospects – May serve stockholder interests better than bankruptcy • But unpleasant in implementing – Hardship of job eliminations – Effects of closing on local community
  68. 68. (C) End-Game Strategy • Steers middle course between status quo and exiting quickly • Involves gradually sacrificing market position in return for bigger near-term cash flow/profit • Objectives – Short-term - Generate largest feasible cash flow – Long-term - Exit market
  69. 69. When Is End-Game Strategy the Choice ? • Industry’s long-term prospects are unattractive • Building up business would be too costly • Market share is increasingly costly to maintain • Reduced levels of competitive effort will not trigger immediate fall-off in sales • Firm can re-deploy freed-up resources in higher opportunity areas • Business is not a major component of diversified firm’s portfolio of businesses
  70. 70. 11. Making Cooperative Moves • Share resources, not duplicate • Learn from each others’ strengths • Share risks……However, • Loss of control over operations • Possible transfer of valuable trade secrets • Threat of partner taking undue advantage
  71. 71. • (A) JOINT VENTURE Sun Pharma & Merck – to create & sell generic drugs in developing countries SAB Miller & Molson Coors Brewing co. – new JV for US operations to challenge giant rival Anheuser Busch Options in Cooperative Moves
  72. 72. • (B) STRATEGIC ALLIANCE - June 2011 Twitter announced a strategic alliance with Yahoo! Japan regarding tweets under various functions in Yahoo! Japan - Merck & PAREXEL – contract manufacturing of biosimilars Options in Cooperative Moves
  73. 73. • (C) CO-LOCATION - Clustering of fast-food brands/restaurants/automobile manufacturing in a particular location - Ramkote – second-hand two wheelers & components market - Dharavi – largest slum, but more known now for export quality leather business. - Oxford street, Bond street, Fashion street, etc Options in Cooperative Moves
  74. 74. • (D) CO-OPETITION - Put aside rivalry for critical initiatives - Merck & Roche developing tests to detect cancer & to promote Hepatitis treatment - NEC, Japan & HP are frenemies. 3 relationships: Customer, Supplier & Competitor. - NUMMI, California manufactures Toyota & GM cars ( to compete against Honda & Nissan) Options in Cooperative Moves
  75. 75. 10 Commandments for Crafting Successful Business Strategies 1. Its always about improving CORE COMPETENCE ….therefore enhancing SUSTAINABLE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE 2. Necessary skill – PROMPTNESS… in adapting & responding to changing market conditions such as unmet customer needs & buyer wishes for something better, emerging technological alternatives, new initiatives of rivals.
  76. 76. 10 Commandments (contd) 3. Look at the business environment realistically: Hope for the best but PREPARE FOR THE WORST 4. NEVER UNDERESTIMATE YOUR OPPONENT’S RETALIATORY POWER & RESOLVE 5. NEVER indulge in a price war. Cut prices ONLY through an established cost advantage 6. Continuously scan for strategic gaps, avoid red oceans
  77. 77. 10 Commandments 7. Keep making incremental improvements if not exponential ones. Running a business = treadmill 8. Keep focus on the strategic buyer and engage all stakeholders, use cooperation strategies 9. A happy/committed employee is the best customer! 10. Its all about the MISSION….what is your “raison d’etre”? Why are you here?