Introduction:Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) (Linnaeus, 1758) the mostfreshwater fish that inhabits in every place of Japan, China and most ofEurope including Russia (Copp & Sayer, 2010). The Crucian Carp is thesmallest of the Carp family It is easily distinguished from a small commoncarp by the absence of barbels. They live in lakes or stagnant areas ofrivers. This fish small head and mouth and an up-turned lower lip. It tends tobe rusty-bronze in color with a gold-orange colored belly (Jasim,2009). Basiccyprinid characteristics include no teeth on the jaws, a single dorsal fin,pelvic fins in an abdominal position, pectoral fins low on the side, and noadipose fin. (Aydin, et al., 2011 & Pamela, et al., 2006). Crucian carp cangrow to about (20-30) cm maximum length, they can live up to 10 years,although older-living individuals have been known (Taran, et al., 2000).Crucian carp prefer small, nutrient-rich ponds and lakes. They are very hardyfish: has an amazing ability to survive for months with almost no oxygen.This is an adaption to allow survival in ponds that are frozen over andcovered with snow - survive water temperatures up to (38oC) (Yilmaz, et al.,2004). and can live in acidic waters where the pH can be as low as 4.Crucian carp are also very tolerant of pollution, especially organic types(Radi,2012). 2
Distribution:Source: (Pamela, et al., 2006).Figure (4): Native distribution of Crucian carp (in dark blue). 7
Main producer countries :Source: (Freyhof & Kottelat, 2008).Figure (5): Crucian carp inhabits lakes, rivers and reservoirsin various countries in Asia and Europe. (in orange).8
Figure (6): Global aquaculture production of Crucian carp. 9Source: (Freyhof & Kottelat, 2008).
Crucian carp in Turkey:C. carassius is native to Turkey. Species of the genusCarassius were transported to numerous inland waterbodies throughout Turkey perhaps because of the physicalsimilarity of the species to the native common carp(Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758). As a result of mis-identification, the expansion of species were not noticed.These species are now common in natural habitats, alteredwaters, park and garden ponds in various parts of Turkey.(Innal,2011) Introduction of fish species in Turkey, likeelsewhere in the world, has had both positive and negativeimplications. But the impact of most introductions of fishes isstill unknown. Abundance and distribution of Carassiusspecies in Turkey continuous to increase steadily, and arenow considered a threat factor for native fish species.10
Ecosystem typeCityLocalitiesReservoir‐PondBalıkesirİkizcetepelerReservoir‐Pond & Natural LakeIspartaKaracaören I & KovadaNatural LakeBurdurKarataşStream‐CreekKarsKarsReservoir‐PondKütahyaKayaboğazıReservoir‐Pond & RiverAntalyaKöprüçay Kepez INatural LakeAdapazarıKüçük AkgölNatural LakeManisaMarmaraReservoir‐PondSinopMuhsinli & NisaReservoir‐PondMuğlaMumcular11Source: (Innal,2011)Table (1): Distribution of C. carassius in theinland waters of Turkey:
Table (1): Distribution of C. carassius in theinland waters of Turkey:Ecosystem typeCityLocalitiesNatural LakeVanNazikLagoonEdirnePamukluNatural LakeAdapazarıSapancaReservoir‐PondAfyonSelevirNatural LakeAdapazarıTaşkısığıNatural LakeBursaUluabatReservoir‐PondHatayYarseliReservoir‐PondKütahyaYedigölllerNatural LakeBoluYeniçağaStream‐CreekKayseriZamantı12Source: (Innal,2011)
Table (2): Environmental characteristics ofCrucian carp:ReferenceCharacteristics5,18Adapt to natural waters4Adapt to altered waters4,5,18Adapt to various physical and chemical factors5High reproductive potential3,4,5,18Dominancy5Invasive tendency3, 5,19Harmful competition with native species5Hybridization with native species2,12Host or a intermediate host of parasites5Interspecific competitionReferences included in Table (2): ,  Aydogdu, (2006);  Balik & Ustaoglu,(2006);  Becer et al., (1998);  Cetinkaya et al., (1999);  Koyun, (2001); Taran et al., (2000);  Yilmaz, (2004).13
Crucian carp in Iraq:C. carassius is one of the scavengers fish. It can eatanything in the aquatic body like brushwood. This fishmaturate in less than one year while other local fishmaturation extend four years like shabout & Gattan or twoyear like Bunni. (Radi, 2012). Inhabit and sweeping ofenvironment affecting on the growth and life of original fishes.Because all local Iraqi fish dont tolerate turbidity because thistype is bottom-feeder besides the ability of crucian toreproduce with other cyprinids type making sterileindividuals in some cases (Fahd, 2012). So, it is important toobtain the balanced between this fish and other original fishesby controlling the release of this fish from Turkish dams andother aquatic bodies in order not to invade these bodies byforeign type with decreasing the main fish types.(Mohamed etal., 2006). 14
No. Fish type %1. Crucian Carp 70%2. Common carp 15%3. Shabout 4%4. Toueni 3%5. Gattan 3%6. Bizz 2%7. Catfish 2%8. Beyah 1%Table (3): The ratio of crucian carp against thenative Iraqi fishes.Source: Radi,(2012)15Source: EPIB & Al-Jader, (2013).
Figure (7): Length groups of the crucian carp. 16Crucian carp is fishing all the year. Length group (10-20) cm mostdominant group which contain (78.6%) from total fishing.Source: Mohamed et al., (2006)
Country Lmax (cm) Wmax (Kg)Iraq 25.7 2.6Turkey 23 2.1Finland 64 6.4Poland 41 3.9Netherlands 43 4.2Denmark 40 3.2China 14.8 1.4Nepal 17.5 1.7Sources: Fahd,(2012), Onsoy et al.,(2011) & Aydin et al.,(2007)17Source: EPIB & Al-Jader, (2013).Table (4): Length and weight of Crucian carp byCountries.
Food Ingredients:Table (5) : Main foodfor crucian carpjuveniles & adults.Age stage DietJuvenile ZooplanktonAdults mollusks, worms,various insects,crustaceans and someplant materialNotes: opportunistic feeders, utilizeany available food source, suckingbottom sediments while feeding.18Video (2): Showing theCrucian carp FeedingFrenzy - YouTube.
1. This fish consider chieftain of Tigris & Euphrates fishes.2. The Crucian carp was introduced to Iraq by unintentional releasefrom Turkish dams throw 2005.3. Tolerant and hardy fish that thrive in a wide variety of aquatichabitats.4. Strongly compete with the young of most cyprinid fish species forfood and space.5. Crucian carp is known as one of the most hazardous fish speciesfor native fish communities.6. Currently the largest (3/4 of all fish production is crucian carp).7. It appears to occupy an unexpected ecological niche or even leadto unexpected changes in the behavior of native species.8. Predate heavily on phytoplankton and zooplankton.9. Appear to be a serious competitor of native fish species.10. Population density of the Carassius species have increasedrapidly in the inland waters of Turkey & Iraq , and now it is thedominant fish species of some aquatic systems.20Conclusions:
References:Aydin, H.; , Gaygusuz, O.; Tarkan, A.; Top, O.; Ciğdem G.& Gaygusuz, C. (2011).Invasion of freshwater bodies in the Marmara region (northwestern Turkey) bynonnative gibel carp, Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782). Turk J Zool.(6)-35:cTUBİTAK.doi:10.3906/zoo-1007-31.pdf(829-836)pp.Aydogdu, A. (2006). Variations in the infections of two Monogenean species parasitizingthe gills of the crucian carp (Carassius carassius), in relation to water temperatureover a period of one year in Gölbasi Dam Lake, Bursa, Turkey. Bulletin of EuropeanAssociation of Fish Pathologists 26(3):112-118Balik, S.; Ustaoglu, M. (2006). Fish introducing studies in Lakes, Ponds and Reservoirsof Turkey and their results (In Turkish with English Summary). I. Symposium onManagement of Reservoirs and Fish Stocking, MARA, Mediterranean Fisheries,Production and Education Institute, pp: 1‐10.Becer ,Z. A.; Kır, I. & Cubuk, H. (1998). Some reproductive charecteristics of theCarassius carassius L., 1758 (Isparta‐ Burdur) in the Karacaören I Dam Lake (InTurkish with English Summary). XIV. Ulusal Biyoloji Kongresi, Samsun, pp: 126‐138.Cetinkaya, O.; Elp, M. & Sen, F. (1999). Studies on crucian carp (Carassius carassiusL.) introduced into Lake Nazik (Ahlat‐ Bitlis, Turkey) (In Turkish with EnglishSummary). X. Ulusal Su Urunleri Sempozyumu, Adana, pp: 814‐825.Copp, G.H. and Sayer, C.D. (2010). Norfolk Biodiversity Action Plan – Local speciesaction plan for crucian carp (Carassius carassius). Norfolk Biodiversity PartnershipReference: LS/3. Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science-Lowestoft. 9 pp.21
References:EPIB(Environmental Protection & Improvement Board) & Al-Jader, Firas A. M.(2013). Preliminary Survey of fish species in Duhok Governorate Borders.Fahd, Kamel K. (2012). Some aspects of ecological and biological in the crucian carpCarassius carassius in Al-Baddah Dam,Thi-Qar Iraq. Thi- Qar J.Agric. Res., 1 ( 1 )2012.11p.Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2008). Carassius carassius. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List ofThreatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24April 2013.Innal, D. (2011). Distribution and impacts of Carassius species (Cyprinidae) in Turkey: areview. ISSN 1989‐8649 Manag. Biolog. Invasions, 2011, 2.www.managementofbiologicalinvasions.net. Department of Biology, Mehmet AkifErsoy University, 15100, Burdur, Turkey. Copyrights 2011owned by The Authorsinnald@yahoo.com.57-68pp.Jasim, Ali, A.(2009). Fecundity, sex ratio and age at sexual maturity of crucian carp,carassius carassius l.,1758 in tigris river,mosul-iraq. Fish & Mar.Res.Dept./College ofAgriculture /University of Basrah. Mesopotamia J. of Agric. (ISSN 1815-316X) Vol. (37) No. ( 2) 2009.pdf:8p.Koyun, M. (2001). The helminthofauna of some fishes in Enne Dam Lake (In Turkishwith English Summary). Phd Thesis, Uludag University, 119 pp.Lorenzoni, M.; Corboli, M.; Ghetti, L.; Pedicillo, G. and Carosi, A. (2007). Growth andreproduction of Carassius : a case study from Italy. Gherardi: Biological Invaders in 22