The Silver Generation(Chapt 2: Governance – Case Study)THE PROBLEM OF ANAGEING POPULATIONIN SINGAPORE
Lesson Agenda•By the end of the lesson, you would be able to:•Appreciate the problems that come with an ageingsociety•Analyse the measures taken by the Singaporegovernment to soften the impact of ageing•Practice a source based question, making use of theBasic Skill approach
What is an ageing society?•An ageing society is one in which 14% or moreof its population is aged 65years and above.(United Nations’ definition of Ageing)
Why is the population ageing?• Low birth rates and an ageing population are issues that developedcountries are facing. Singapore’s population will age rapidly overthe next 30 years until 2030 (F)• This is due to three main factors:• The post-war baby boom• Declining birth-rates means that Singapore has a higher proportion ofpeople aged 40 and 60years.• Singaporeans are living longer than before because of improvements inhealth and nutrition.
Why is the population ageing?First reason - Post-War Baby boom:•After the war, there was hope that there would be along period of peace. This lead to people startingfamilies and having many children.•Children born to parents just after WW II are nowbetween 40 and 60 years of age.•By 2030, these Singaporeans will be among thoseaged 65 years and above.
Why is the population ageing?•Second reason – Declining birth rates:•Birth rate declining since 1970s. Proportion of youngpeople in Society going down.•This was due to success of population controlmeasures that were in place at the start of the 1970’s.•With declining birth rates, the proportion of youngpeople in the population is shrinking, while theproportion of senior citizens is increasing.
Why is the population ageing?•Third Reason – Longer Life-expectancy:•Singaporeans are living longer that ever before. Thisis because of improvements in health and nutrition.•Singaporeans too have access to better quality andhighly advanced medical procedures and equipment.•This increase in healthcare provision is linked to risingstandards of living and technological developments inthe health care sector.
Impacts of an Ageing Society• Impact 1: Demand for Health Care and Social Services• As a person ages, his need for healthcare and social servicesincreases.• Elderly are more prone to diseases and medical conditions.Treatments are quite costly and this raises the costs ofhealthcare.• This raises the standard of living in Singapore and reduces theamount of money Singaporeans have to spend on themselves.
Impacts of an Ageing Population•Impact 2: Strain on Working Population• As the populations grow older, financial resources arerequired to help support senior citizens.• Taxes need to be collected from working people to pay forthese services.• Decreasing birth rate means that there are fewer workingpeople. There are less working adults able to pay taxes andthis means they have to pay more taxes.
Impacts of an Ageing Population•Impact 3: Reduction in Competitiveness•Older populations are less active and physically fitcompared to younger populations.•Productivity declines. There is less output per worker.This reduces Singapore’s competitiveness as MNCsmay pull out of Singapore.•They may set up in countries where there is a largerworkforce.
Impacts of an Ageing Population•Impact 4: Smaller Security Forces•Smaller number of young people to serve nationalservice and in the pool of reservists.•These declining birth rates will have an impact on theoverall defence strategy in Singapore. Singapore nowhas to turn to technology to make up for lessnumbers of soldiers.
12http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kyEZII_MJDwBuzz Break 1Why do you think the producers of the video,developed the video?What is the message of the video
13an asset to family – looking after childrenmentors for young in welfare organisationsadvisors in government organisationscontribute to economy by extending careercontribute to economy by taking uppart-time jobsincrease in demand for goods – senior citizenswould bring about new demands?
151. Individual Responsibilitya. prepare for old age:- pre-retirement talks- proper diet and regular exercise- bonds with more family ties- regular medical check-ups2. Family Care- take care of elderly family member- make house safe for the elderly- make elderly feel wanted by seeking opinions- be understanding and patient towards elderly?
163. Community Help- community organizations could help- social and emotional supporteg counseling, get members to talk to elderly- health care and social serviceseg health check-ups of elderlyeg recreational activities for elderly
174. Government Support- Tribunal for the Maintenance of Parents- court helps to seek support from children- Central Provident Fund (CPF)- monthly sum of money from Retirement Account- Tax Relief- tax relief for taking care of parents, grandparents,great grandparents- Public Housing Schemes- housing grant for purchase of flat near parents’ flat
19Imagine what your life may be like at age 65. Who wouldbe looking after you? What activities would you beparticipating in?Chances are, you would be looked after by your children.Those who are unmarried would have to rely on socialworkers and other family members for love and care.Activities you participate may be different from those ofthe present senior citizens due to differences in generation.However, health and physical constraints still have to beconsidered in choosing the activities. BACK
20Why would it be a disaster if companies and youngworkers were taxed heavily?Cost of living would increase. This might lead to peopledeciding to leave the country and work elsewhere. Theeconomy would therefore be badly affected.BACK
21How do you think Singapore’s way of caring for its seniorcitizens can contribute to the process of nation building?Senior citizens being Singaporeans should be supportedby their own citizens. Such bonding is important as wecannot rely on others for our survival. No one owes us aliving and it is important that we care and support oneanother.BACK
22Nowadays, it is quite common for children to move outof their parents’ homes when they marry. Suggest howthese children can continue to show their love andconcern for their aged parents.Visit their parents regularly / make it a point to preparesomething the parents like when they visit / gather togetheras a family / go for a outing with parents / share and seekopinion of parents / financially support parents / listen andbe patient with parentsBACK
23What do you think would be the mainsource of income for Singapore’s futuresenior citizens?Insurance, CPF, savings in banksBACK
24Imagine that you are 65 years old and looking for a job.What kind of jobs would you be interested in?What can you do to ensure that companies would wantto employ you when you are 65 years old?Security / social work / couselling / teaching etcWe have to keep ourselves updated and go for frequenttraining.BACK
Inference With Purpose25ISEWhat is the key idea the cartoonist is trying to deliver?
Source G: A cartoonist’s illustration, titled “Noretirement age in Singapore”, 28 July 2010
Question: What is the message of this cartoon?
Step 1 : Identify the CharactersWho are they? What are they doing?Skeleton = the workerEmployerGovernmentWorking very hard until his last breath(Because he worked until he has turnedinto bones)Is very impressed with his workers effortGovernment is very happy because hispolicy of getting older workers to workbeyond retirement is working
One Inference with Message• The source tells me that the government and employers in Singapore arekeen to encourage older workers to work past their retirement age• I know this because they are very impressed with the efforts of the“worker” represented by the skeleton who is still holding a broom eventhough he has no more life in him.• The cartoonist is trying to show the negative aspect of working past theretirement age. By drawing a skeleton to represent older workers he istrying to make people aware that older workers should not be forced towork so hard just to support themselves.• He is very critical of the policy of lifelong employment if there are no limitsto how long a person can work.
Lesson Recap• What is the definition of an ageing society?• What are the reasons for ageing populations?• Name 3 impacts of Ageing populations• List the steps when covering Inference with Purpose Questions.