• This journal reveals the consumer important role in the
• Sometime, people purchase not because of their needs
but influence by their social needs such as for status and
What inferences that will do
consumers make about
conspicuous sellers ?
What are the effects
consequences of these
What are the factors that
will affect the moderate this
Two dimension of social
Perceived warmth are
someone who are
being helpful or caring
are someone who are
skillful, or efficacious.
A conspicuous consumption
are the signal for wealth and
Observers rate wealthy
people as more intelligent and
self-discipline compared to a
Relatively poor people are
describe as warmer.
ATTRIBUTES ARE TYPICALLY
POSSESSED BY MEMBERS OF
THE SOCIAL GROUP AND THE
SOCIAL ROLE IN WHICH THE
GROUP MEMBERS IS PERCEIVED
ALLIGNED WITH THE SOCIAL
ROLE ARE MORE FAVORABLY
EVALAUTED AND VISE VERSA
THE CONSUMER INFERENCES
ARE FIT BETWEEN SUCH
CONSPICUOUSENESS AND ALSO
THE TARGET ROLES
IN COMMUNAL VERSUS
partners to have a
actual concern for
the other’s welfare
such as be kind
and responsive to
other but not to be
As a result,
The different is the
more on selfrelationship norm
and profit then
a request for a on
aligned with the
time payment for
exchange than the
• Consuming conspicuously to signal
wealth and status is similar to the pursuit
of goals of self-image and self promotion
• Professional women who engage in selfpromotion are rated less likable than
• People low in warmth only while positive
behaviors are performed by people who
are both high and low in warmth
• The communal focus on caring about
others’ I needs a skill that should
receive less emphasis than warmth
when interpreting conspicuous
• Two opposing inferences might cause to
be a neutral “net effect” on the seller’s
H1a: The effect of
inferred warmth is
than under the
• This research proposes that conspicuous cues, as a
function of the norm guiding the buyer–seller
relationship, drive distinct consumer inferences about
the seller’s warmth and competence, which in turn
influence attitudes and behavioral intentions.
• Four studies test our hypotheses:
Provides an initial
demonstration of the
phenomenon of interest
examines whether a
seller’s mere wealth
similar to those
through a video
Builds on the persuasion
Conspicuous Consumption By
Initial causal evidence
for the role of
relationship norms in
consumer response to
using an established
Experiment was a 2x2 between subject design.
Participants:91 undergraduates students in U.S.
Were asked about how they split the bills after
reading about a student whose relationship
reflected either communal or exchange norm.
Then they imagined about given situation(read
After that, they read magazine article which
consumption has been manipulated.
They indicated their behavioral intention toward
the lawyer & rated his warmth and competence.
indicated in exchange
norm rather than
lifestyle as more
conspicuous than in
B.I toward seller
in a communal
increased in an
showed warmth &
effects of the two way
interaction on behavioral
Zero for warmth under
communal norm & for
Examines wealth if it triggers
similar inferences like in study 1
which is consumer response to
conspicuous seller depends on
Under communal norm,
wealthy sellers lack of warmth.
Under exchange norm,
wealthy sellers are competent.
Experiment was 2
In omit wealth:
All info constant
students in U.S.
Similar like study
1,they read a
describing a lawyer.
wealth was cued.
with wealth are
was higher when
wealth was cued.
Remain unaffected by
wealth in communal
In exchange oriented,
Warmth increased when
wealth was cued in
when wealth was cued
in communal oriented.
Bootstrapping Analysis showed warmth &
competence mediated the effects of interaction
between relationship orientation and wealth on
Zero warmth under communal norm.
Zero competence under exchange norm.
Wealth produce similar inferences to
Conspicuous seller, who strive to signal wealth
succeed to the extent that they trigger inferences
that are similar like consumers think.
• to provide more externally valid
manipulations of norms &
• Sixty-one undergraduate students at a
midwestern university participated in
exchange for course credit
• Manipulation checks
• Lifestyle ratings were higher in the
conspicuous than the nonconspicuous
conditions other effects were
• decreased with
norm but increased
the exchange norm
• Warmth declined
norm but did not
differ under the
• Warmth and
effects of the
This competence focused logic likely overlooks the
potential for detrimental effects related to warmth.
• Participants were 155 undergraduate
students who took part in the study in
exchange for course credit.
• A separate sample of participants was
randomly assigned to the persuasion
knowledge condition or neutral condition.
• Participants rated the lawyer’s lifestyle
higher in the conspicuous than the
nonconspicuous conditions the other
effects were nonsignificant
• the seller decreased with
conspicuousness under the communal
norm and marginally increased with
conspicuousness under the exchange
• We ran a moderated mediation
analysis in which the independent
variable was consumption, the
moderators were relationship norm
and persuasion knowledge, the
mediators were warmth and
competence, and the dependent
variable was attitude
Provides evidence that persuasion knowledge
affects the pattern of warmth and competence
inferences and, in turn, consumer attitudes
toward a conspicuous seller.
• This research draws on role congruity theory and
demonstrates that consumer inferences about
• Conspicuous consumption by sellers increase behavioral
intention under exchange norms and decrease
behavioral intention under communal norms.
THEORITICAL IMPICATIONS AND
us, and power
• In this study, researcher use
both competence and warm in
terms of a mediating role but
their relatives is importance
varies to buyer-seller guides.
• Deighton 2007 said that the
two dimension of social
perception and the relevance
in consumer’s commercial
• Conspicuousness has
unfavorable effect on inferred
competence under exchange
norms dissapear when seller’s
conspicuousness is perceived
as deliberate persuassion
Conspicuous consumption and wealth
• Consumer attribute a seller wealth to his or her individual effort and
• Conspicuous sellers trigger an inference of competence only if their
Conspicuous consumption and money
• Money as tool to achieve social status but phenomena of human
desires to btain money per se and things money can buy are
“logically distinct and need t be investigated separately ( Lea and
Webley 2006, p.162 )
Conspicuous consumption, status, and power
• Power is defined as the control of access to value resources
• Sivanathan and Pettit 2010 defined social status as linked to
various intra-and interpersonal benefits which explains why people
strive to attain higher status.
1. With emerging interest in the psychology of money, in
future study could also investigate whether exposure to
conspicuousness differ from exposure to money
2. Further research might examine whether motive
knowledge alter how consumers decode monetary and
conspicuous display by others.
3. In conspicuous consumption, status and power, the
further study might investigate how a seller’s
conspicuous consumption alter power within the
relationship represent a worthwhile.
MANAGERIAL RELEVANCE & IMPLICATIONS
• Interpersonal buyer-seller interactions are most important.
• Appearance of both the seller and setting is the contextual
aspects of buyer-seller interactions.
• For example : UBS bank has develop 43-page dress code in
order to impress customers and encourages employees.
• Sellers should make an observation towards the target’s
professional space about their behavior.
• Sellers should directly interact with the customers and ask
them whether these norms are deliberately invoked by
marketing communications or spontaneously invoked by
particular seller professions.
RELATED TO MARKETING
1. We can implemented the case study on the service
industry which is close to people and also use to
marketing strategy which give the benefit to public
relationship especially for salesmanship.
2. As a seller and marketer, we must know the target
market and segmentation including their age, income,
education, lifestyle and so on. So, we can fulfill the
warmth and competence to customer
3. Building customer trust with providing customer with