Judging the book by its cover ful


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Judging the book by its cover ful

  1. 1. Presenting By
  2. 2. • This journal reveals the consumer important role in the consumption context • Sometime, people purchase not because of their needs but influence by their social needs such as for status and wealth.
  3. 3. What inferences that will do consumers make about conspicuous sellers ? THE OBJECTIVE IS TO INVESTIGATE ABOUT 3 QUESTION What are the effects consequences of these inferences? What are the factors that will affect the moderate this inferential process?
  4. 4. Two dimension of social perception. Warmth Perceived warmth are someone who are being helpful or caring Competence Perceived competence are someone who are being intelligent, skillful, or efficacious.
  5. 5. A conspicuous consumption are the signal for wealth and status. Observers rate wealthy people as more intelligent and self-discipline compared to a poor people. Relatively poor people are describe as warmer.
  7. 7. CONSSPICUOUS SELLERS IN COMMUNAL VERSUS EXCHANGE RELATIONSHIP In communal relationships, people expect partners to have a actual concern for the other’s welfare such as be kind and responsive to other but not to be motivated by reciprocation or profit maximization. As a result, The different is the partners view exchange more on selfrelationship norm interest, selfimplies serving attitudes, compensation and and profit then a request for a on aligned with the time payment for exchange than the a benefit communal norm
  8. 8. Warmth inferences Compentence inferences • Consuming conspicuously to signal wealth and status is similar to the pursuit of goals of self-image and self promotion • Professional women who engage in selfpromotion are rated less likable than self-promoting men • People low in warmth only while positive behaviors are performed by people who are both high and low in warmth • The communal focus on caring about others’ I needs a skill that should receive less emphasis than warmth when interpreting conspicuous consumption cues. • Two opposing inferences might cause to be a neutral “net effect” on the seller’s competence
  9. 9. H1a: The effect of conspicuous consumption on inferred warmth is more unfavorable under the communal norm than under the exchange norm. Competen ce inferences Warmth inferences
  10. 10. • This research proposes that conspicuous cues, as a function of the norm guiding the buyer–seller relationship, drive distinct consumer inferences about the seller’s warmth and competence, which in turn influence attitudes and behavioral intentions. • Four studies test our hypotheses: STUDY 2 STUDY 1 Provides an initial demonstration of the phenomenon of interest examines whether a seller’s mere wealth triggers inferences similar to those triggered by conspicuousness STUDY 3 Manipulates conspicuousness and relationship norms through a video interview STUDY4 Builds on the persuasion knowledge model
  11. 11. Consumer Response To Conspicuous Consumption By Sellers Initial causal evidence for the role of relationship norms in consumer response to conspicuousness. Seller profession constant and manipulate norms using an established priming manipulation
  12. 12. • Experiment was a 2x2 between subject design. (norm:communal/exchange)x(consumption: nonconspicuous/conspicuous). Participants:91 undergraduates students in U.S. Were asked about how they split the bills after reading about a student whose relationship reflected either communal or exchange norm. Then they imagined about given situation(read journal) After that, they read magazine article which consumption has been manipulated. They indicated their behavioral intention toward the lawyer & rated his warmth and competence.
  13. 13. Manipulation checks: More participants indicated in exchange norm rather than communal. Rated lawyer’s lifestyle as more expensive and luxurious in conspicuous than in nonconpicuous. Behavioral Intentions: B.I toward seller decreased with conspicuousness in a communal relationship & increased in an exchange relationship.
  14. 14. Warmth and Competence:
  15. 15. Bootstrapping Analysis showed warmth & competence mediated effects of the two way interaction on behavioral intention. Independence variable:consumption, Moderator:norm, Mediator:warmth&competen ce, Dependent variable:behavioral intentions Zero for warmth under communal norm & for competence under exchange norm.
  16. 16. Examines wealth if it triggers similar inferences like in study 1 which is consumer response to conspicuous seller depends on relationship norm. Under communal norm, wealthy sellers lack of warmth. Under exchange norm, wealthy sellers are competent.
  17. 17. Experiment was 2 groups (wealth,omit wealth) In omit wealth: Information not stated. In wealth condition:$200,000 annual salary All info constant except wealth manipulation. Participants were 169 undergraduate students in U.S. Completed questionnaire that included a measure of communal & exchange orientation. Similar like study 1,they read a magazine describing a lawyer.
  18. 18. • : 1. . Manipulation checks: Wealth rating higher when wealth was cued. Interaction between relationship norm with wealth are not significant. Lifestyle rating was higher when wealth was cued. Behavioral intentions Wealth cues increased behavioral intentions of exchangeoriented consumers but not of communaloriented consumers
  19. 19. • : Remain unaffected by wealth in communal oriented. In exchange oriented, competence increased with wealth. Warmth & Competence Warmth increased when wealth was cued in exchange oriented. Warmth decreased when wealth was cued in communal oriented.
  20. 20. Bootstrapping Analysis showed warmth & competence mediated the effects of interaction between relationship orientation and wealth on behavioral intentions. Zero warmth under communal norm. Zero competence under exchange norm. Wealth produce similar inferences to conspicuousness. Conspicuous seller, who strive to signal wealth succeed to the extent that they trigger inferences that are similar like consumers think.
  21. 21. Video Interview Design and Participants Results • OBJECTIVE • to provide more externally valid manipulations of norms & conspicuousness. • Sixty-one undergraduate students at a midwestern university participated in exchange for course credit • Manipulation checks • Lifestyle ratings were higher in the conspicuous than the nonconspicuous conditions other effects were nonsignificant.
  22. 22. Behavioral intentions Warmth and competence Mediation analysis • decreased with conspicuous consumption under the communal norm but increased with conspicuous consumption under the exchange norm • Warmth declined with conspicuous consumption under the communal norm but did not differ under the exchange norm. • Warmth and competence mediated the effects of the interaction between norm and consumption on behavioral intentions.
  23. 23. • This competence focused logic likely overlooks the potential for detrimental effects related to warmth. Design & Participants Results • Participants were 155 undergraduate students who took part in the study in exchange for course credit. • Retest • A separate sample of participants was randomly assigned to the persuasion knowledge condition or neutral condition.
  24. 24. Manipulation Checks Attitude toward the seller • Participants rated the lawyer’s lifestyle higher in the conspicuous than the nonconspicuous conditions the other effects were nonsignificant • the seller decreased with conspicuousness under the communal norm and marginally increased with conspicuousness under the exchange norm.
  25. 25. Mediation analysis • We ran a moderated mediation analysis in which the independent variable was consumption, the moderators were relationship norm and persuasion knowledge, the mediators were warmth and competence, and the dependent variable was attitude Study 4 Provides evidence that persuasion knowledge affects the pattern of warmth and competence inferences and, in turn, consumer attitudes toward a conspicuous seller.
  26. 26. GENERAL DISCUSSION • This research draws on role congruity theory and demonstrates that consumer inferences about conspicuous sellers. • Conspicuous consumption by sellers increase behavioral intention under exchange norms and decrease behavioral intention under communal norms.
  27. 27. THEORITICAL IMPICATIONS AND FURTHER RESEARCH Social perception Relationships norms Conspicuous consumption
  28. 28. Social perception and Relationship norms Conspicuous consumption, stat us, and power Conspicuous consumption and money Decoding conspicuous consumption Conspicuous consumption and wealth
  29. 29. • In this study, researcher use both competence and warm in terms of a mediating role but their relatives is importance varies to buyer-seller guides. • Deighton 2007 said that the two dimension of social perception and the relevance in consumer’s commercial relationship. • Conspicuousness has unfavorable effect on inferred competence under exchange norms dissapear when seller’s conspicuousness is perceived as deliberate persuassion effort. Social perception and relationships norms Decoding conspicous consumption
  30. 30. Conspicuous consumption and wealth • Consumer attribute a seller wealth to his or her individual effort and ability • Conspicuous sellers trigger an inference of competence only if their professionally earned Conspicuous consumption and money • Money as tool to achieve social status but phenomena of human desires to btain money per se and things money can buy are “logically distinct and need t be investigated separately ( Lea and Webley 2006, p.162 ) Conspicuous consumption, status, and power • Power is defined as the control of access to value resources • Sivanathan and Pettit 2010 defined social status as linked to various intra-and interpersonal benefits which explains why people strive to attain higher status.
  31. 31. FUTHER RESEARCH 1. With emerging interest in the psychology of money, in future study could also investigate whether exposure to conspicuousness differ from exposure to money 2. Further research might examine whether motive knowledge alter how consumers decode monetary and conspicuous display by others. 3. In conspicuous consumption, status and power, the further study might investigate how a seller’s conspicuous consumption alter power within the relationship represent a worthwhile.
  32. 32. MANAGERIAL RELEVANCE & IMPLICATIONS • Interpersonal buyer-seller interactions are most important. • Appearance of both the seller and setting is the contextual aspects of buyer-seller interactions. • For example : UBS bank has develop 43-page dress code in order to impress customers and encourages employees. • Sellers should make an observation towards the target’s professional space about their behavior. • Sellers should directly interact with the customers and ask them whether these norms are deliberately invoked by marketing communications or spontaneously invoked by particular seller professions.
  33. 33. RELATED TO MARKETING 1. We can implemented the case study on the service industry which is close to people and also use to marketing strategy which give the benefit to public relationship especially for salesmanship. 2. As a seller and marketer, we must know the target market and segmentation including their age, income, education, lifestyle and so on. So, we can fulfill the warmth and competence to customer 3. Building customer trust with providing customer with value.