Chapter 9 notes 2012 08 05


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Chapter 9 notes 2012 08 05

  1. 1. finlogIQ Knowledge for financial IQ STRICTLY PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIALChapter 9Warrants and Other Investment ProductsAugust 2012
  2. 2. Chapter summary and outlineThis chapter outlines the features of various types of structuredwarrants, including company warrants, exotic options and otherproducts.Chapter outline:• Company warrants• Structured warrants• Exotic options/warrant structures and features• Other investment products• Market outlook and productsfinlogIQ 2
  3. 3. Introduction• Warrant is a derivative that gives the investor an option to buy or sell a stated number of shares of an underlying instrument at a specified price (exercise or strike price) within a specified time period. – Not margined and therefore not subject to margin calls – Traded on the SGX-Securities Trading Ltd – Warrant holders do not receive nor pay any dividend income or cash distributions even if the underlying instrument pays a dividend or cash distribution.• Structured products are derivatives issued by third parties which are not the same entity as the issuer of its underlying security.finlogIQ 3
  4. 4. Company Warrants• Is a long-dated call option as its maturity is typically 3-5 years – Whereas options and structured warrants have expiration dates of less than 1 year.• Generally issued by listed companies as a “sweetener” attached to an offering of bonds or rights issues for shares. – Allows the issuer to obtain a lower interest rate on its bond issue, and hence lower its financing cost.• Detachable from the host instrument and may be listed and traded separately. – Are “American-style” options – May be exercised at any time during the lifetime of the warrant.• When these warrants are exercised, the issuer will issue the new shares. – Result in a dilution of the listed company’s earnings.finlogIQ 4
  5. 5. Structured Warrants• Formerly known as covered warrants.• Issued by third party financial institutions based on various underlying instruments like single stocks, stock indices, investment funds and commodities.• Different types of structured warrants are designed for different investment objectives and risk profiles of investors.• Call warrant gives the holder a right to buy the underlying asset while a put warrant gives the holder a right to sell the underlying asset at a predetermined price, on or before the expiry date, depending on the exercise style of the warrant.• Structured warrants in Singapore are “European-style” options and Only be exercised on the expiry datefinlogIQ 5
  6. 6. Common Features and Terms of a WarrantIssue• Conversion ratio (n) – Number of warrants needed to be exercised to buy or sell one unit• Exercise or strike price (X) – Price at which the holder is able to buy or sell• Expiry Date• Issue Price – Price at which the structured warrant is sold by the issuer• Physical Delivery or Cash Settlement – Physical delivery of shares or by cash. – Upon exercise of the warrant, depending on whether the warrant is a call or put, the holder can expect to deliver to, or receive from, the issuer the underlying share (or cash). – Settlement style is made known when the warrant is issued. – Structured warrants listed on the SGX are settled in cash.finlogIQ 6
  7. 7. Common Features and Terms of a WarrantIssue - 2• Size of Issue• Gearing – Usually priced at a fraction of the share price, offers benefit of gearing – For e.g. a small percentage gain in the underlying share price may lead to large percentage gain in the value of the call warrants – A fall in the price of the underlying share may result in large percentage loss in the value of the warrants – Note: A certain percentage change in the price of the underlying results in a larger percentage change in the warrant. – But, when company’s share price remains unchanged, the warrant price declines nonetheless, due to time value decay of the warrant.finlogIQ 7
  8. 8. Common Features and Terms of a WarrantIssue - 3• Delta – The rate at which its price changes with respect to changes in the price of the underlying asset. – Call deltas are always positive – Put deltas are always negative – At-the-money warrants have a delta of around 0.5. – One cent change in the value of the underlying asset results in 0.5 cent change in the value of the warrant. – Options which are deeply in-the-money have a delta of close to 1. – Delta = n x δWP/δS – Important when deciding on the strike price of a warrant. – When expecting a small move in the price of the underlying asset should buy warrants which are at-the-money or slightly in-the-money while investors expecting a large move can buy out-of-the-money warrants.finlogIQ 8
  9. 9. Common Features and Terms of a WarrantIssue - 2• Effective Gearing – Effective gearing = delta x gearing – A 1% increase in the underlying price results in a 5.25% increase in the warrant price illustrating its effective (or actual) gearing of 5.25 times. – Call warrants with high strike prices provide more gearing But not appropriate if only a small price move is expected. – The strike price chosen should be between the current share price and the expected share price. – Maturity of the warrants should be carefully chosen to avoid excessive time decay loss.• Implied Volatility: − Volatility implicit in the market price of the warrant − Measure of risk − Higher the volatility of the underlying shares, the more expensive a warrant is – Implied Volatility = f(share price, warrant price, strike price, maturity, interest rate and dividend yield)finlogIQ 9
  10. 10. Interpreting the Trading Name of a StructuredWarrantExample: ABC XYZ eCW120228• Underlying instrument (“ABC”)• Issuer (“XYZ”)• Exercise style (“e”)• Type of warrant (“CW”)• Expiration date (“120228”)finlogIQ 10
  11. 11. Warrant ValuationIntrinsic Value (IV)• Difference between the exercise price of a warrant and the market price of the underlying asset.• Only in-the-money warrants have intrinsic value.• Call Warrant – IV = MAX{0, (S - X)/n}• Put Warrant – IV = MAX{0, (X - S)/n}Conversion Price (CP)• Total price which the investor pays by converting the warrants into the underlying security, and is also known as the breakeven price.• Call Warrant – CP = X + nWP• Put Warrant – CP = X – nWPfinlogIQ 11
  12. 12. Warrant Valuation - 2Premium• The difference between the warrant price and intrinsic value• Different from the one used in options, where the premium is actually the price of the option• Largely the time value of the warrant• Call Warrant Premium ($) = nWP + X – S• Put Warrant Premium ($) = nWP - X + S• Premium is usually expressed as a percentage of the underlying share price. – Percentage by which the underlying share price needs to have moved at maturity for the investor to break even.• Call Warrant – Premium (%) = [(nWP + X - S)/ S] x 100• Put Warrant – Premium (%) = [(nWP - X + S)/ S] x 100finlogIQ 12
  13. 13. Warrant Valuation - 3PremiumfinlogIQ 13
  14. 14. Role of the Warrants Issuer• Listing document spells out the contractual rights and obligations of both the warrants issuer and warrant holder• Issuer will have the obligation to deliver the underlying instrument and pay the exercise price if the holder exercises a call or receive the underlying instrument and pay the exercise price if the holder exercises a put.• Most, if not all, structured warrants in Singapore settle in cash instead of delivery of the underlying.finlogIQ 14
  15. 15. Market-Making of Structured Warrants• Warrant issuers who commit to make a market for the structured warrants they issued do not need to comply with the minimum placement and holder size requirement for listed equity securities, and the minimum issue size requirement is reduced from SGD 5 million to SGD 2 million.• Listing document states whether Warrant issuer has committed to make a market in the structured warrants.• Designated market-maker : – appointed by the warrants issuer is obligated to provide competitive bid and offer prices for the structured warrants. – committed to make a market for their structured warrants during the normal trading hours. – The maximum spread (the difference between a DMMs bid and offer quotes) and minimum lot size that DMMs are required to provide on the structured warrants are set out by the structured warrants issuers in the listing documents of the respective structured warrants.finlogIQ 15
  16. 16. Settlement IssuesPhysical Settlement• To exercise a call warrant holder will need to submit an exercise notice with the cash payment (based on the exercise price) to the warrant agent.• Warrant agent will then inform the Central Depository Pte Ltd (“CDP”) and the issuer on this• CDP will credit the account of the holder with the underlying securities and debit the account of the issuer with the same.• For Put warrant, CDP will debit the account of the holder for underlying securities and credit the account of the issuer for the same.• Exercise expenses are payable by the holder to the warrant agentCash Settlement• Most structured warrants are automatically exercised and settled in cash on the expiration date.• Proceeds are calculated based on the difference between the market price of the underlying and the exercise price.• Call Warrant - Cash settlement per warrant = (S – X)/n• Put Warrant - Cash settlement per warrant = (X – S)/nfinlogIQ 16
  17. 17. Settlement Issues - 3 Call Warrant Put WarrantScenario When underlying share price When underlying share price rises above the warrant fall below the warrant exercise exercise price priceGain from Difference between the current Difference between thea) Exercising share price and the warrant warrant exercise price and thethe warrant exercise price current share priceb) Selling the Difference between the Difference between thewarrant prevailing warrant price and prevailing warrant price and the warrant price paid by the the warrant price paid by the investor. investor. Warrant price would have Warrant price would have increased with the rise in the increased with the fall in the share price share pricefinlogIQ 17
  18. 18. Settlement Issues - 4• Asian option/warrant is a path-dependent contract where the payoff is calculated from the mean of the values at certain dates. – Path-dependent => when the payoff does not only depend on the terminal price of the underlying asset at maturity, but also on the path, the values it has taken on to reach its final value.• Structured warrants in Singapore have the Asian style of expiry settlement. Where: – Last trading day of a structured warrant is different from its expiry day. – Last trading day in the “Ready” and “Unit Share” markets is at least 3 business days before its expiry date. – Investors can only trade the structured warrant on or before the last trading day. – The settlement price is based on the arithmetic average of the official closing price of the underlying for 5 market days prior to expiration date.finlogIQ 18
  19. 19. Corporate Action Adjustments for StructuredWarrants• Structured warrants are subject to adjustments to take into account any corporate action arising from the underlying stock.• Corporate actions such as rights issue, bonus issue, stock splits, special dividends or consolidation may lead to a diluting or concentrative effect on the theoretical value of the underlying stock.• Adjustments to the conversion entitlement, the exercise price or other variables of the structured warrants effective on the ex-date of the corporate action.finlogIQ 19
  20. 20. Exotic Options/ Warrant Structures andFeaturesIndex Warrants• Warrants are settled on exercise via a cash payment. – Calculated by multiplying the difference between the exercise level (strike price) and the current index-level or settlement index level by a multiplier to convert the index points into cash.• Adjustments are normally not required on the warrant terms for corporate actions involving the component stocks of the index upon which the structured warrants is based. – This is because the underlying index will have already adjusted itself to take into account such corporate actions.Currency Translated Warrants• Settlement and trading currency (home currency of the investor) is different from the underlying’s currency.• E.g. Structured warrant on the Hang Seng Index traded in Singapore – Underlying currency which is the reference currency is in HKD. – The settlement currency is in SGDfinlogIQ 20
  21. 21. Exotic Options/ Warrant Structures andFeaturesBasket Warrants• Underlying is a basket of (pre-defined) shares• Likely to be based on a particular industry (e.g. technology, bio-tech, banks)• Maybe settled with a physical delivery of the basket components or via cashYield Enhanced Securities/Discount Certificates• Provides yield enhancement to the investor• Cash settlement amount is linked to the market price of the underlying asset• At maturity – if the closing price of the underlying on expiration is at or above the exercise price, the holder will receive a cash settlement equal to the exercise price. – If the closing price is below the exercise price, then the holder will receive a cash settlement equal to the value of the underlying on the expiration date.• Cap strike or exercise price represents the maximum price achievable with a discount certificate.• Potential upside exposure is sacrificed in return for the ability to purchase the underlying asset at a discount to the market price.finlogIQ 21
  22. 22. Other Investment ProductsGlobal Depository Receipts (“GDRs”)• Allow for non-local equities to be traded on the local securities exchange. – Provide local investors an avenue to invest and trade in shares of non-locally listed companies.• GDRs are negotiable certificates of ownership – Represent a claim to a certain number of foreign shares• Issued by a financial institution that in turn would purchase an inventory of the underlying equity.• These institutions collect dividends net of foreign withholding taxes and in turn pay the dividends to the GDR holders.• GDRs allow for an issuer who is already listed on its home exchange to raise funds and list locally.• Currently, GDR listing requirements in Singapore are less stringent compared to primary and secondary listings where retail participation is allowed. – Hence, offered only to institutional and accredited investors.finlogIQ 22
  23. 23. Other Investment Products - 2Convertible Bonds• Fixed income instruments have embedded call options on the underlying equity securities• Right to covert the bond for a specified number of shares of the same issuer – A variation to this is an exchangeable bond, where the holder has the right to exchange the bond for the equity securities of another issuer – in many cases a related company of the bond issuer• Conversion value (the value as if converted immediately) Conversion value = market price of share x conversion ratio• The minimum value of the convertible bond is the greater of – its conversion value; – its value without the conversion option, i.e. the value of an equivalent unconvertible bond. This is known as the straight value.• The effective price that an investor pays for shares if the investor purchases the convertible bond and converts it into shares is called the market conversion price or conversion parity price. Market conversion price = market price of convertible bond / conversion ratiofinlogIQ 23
  24. 24. Market outlook and products• Neutral: yield enhanced security, range accrual note.• Bullish: call warrant purchase, ADR/GDR, convertible bond (near-term outlook is uncertain or bearish), index linked note.• Bearish: put warrant purchase.finlogIQ 24