Do you know what “24-hour time” means?
Today, you will go through this presentation by yourselves and you will learn to:
• Convert 12- and 24-hour time systems.
• Identify time differences between 12- and 24-hour systems.
• Explain the different time systems. (Optional).
I am here to help you as always,
Dreamstime, n.d. [Image file].
HARRY RECEIVES A TEXT
FROM HIS MUM:
“15:10?” He wonders.
“What does that mean?”
Fink, 2013a. [Image file].
24-HOUR TIME SHOWS THE
HOURS & MINUTES SINCE MIDNIGHT.
At 11am, it has been 11 hours since midnight. So 11am = 11:00.
At 2pm, it has been 14 hours since midnight. So 2pm = 14:00.
24-HOUR TIME SHOWS THE HOURS & MINUTES SINCE MIDNIGHT
A “24-hour clock” identifies the time
without the use of AM/PM information
that is used in a “12-hour clock”.
(e.g.: 11:00am = 11:00).
Kahlai, 2011. [Image file].
24-hour time is useful in military, travel and medical industries to avoid confusion.
CONVERTING 12- & 24-HOUR TIMES
LOOK AT THE TABLE →
To convert 12- to 24-hour time:
If “AM” time – edit if necessary to show four digits.
(e.g. 11am = 11:00).
If “PM” time - add “12”.
(e.g. 2:00pm = 2 + 12 = 14:00).
To convert 24- to 12-hour time:
If hour > 12, subtract 12 and note as “PM”.
(e.g. 15:00 (greater than 12) = 15 – 12 = 3:00pm).
Jobs for Teams, 2013. [Image file].
If time < 12 - edit if necessary to show four digits.
(e.g. 9:15am = 09:15).
*PRINT THIS PAGE
UNDERSTANDING 24-HOUR TIME
1. Watch the video →
2. Upon completion, return to this
presentation for next steps.
FutureSchoolVideos. 2011. [Video file.]
SOLA Optical, n.d. [Image file.]
TIME TO PRACTICE
• Time to practice!
1. Complete the practice questions →
2. Take your time & use your printed
page to guide you when necessary.
3. Upon completion, “print screen”
(results) and email to Mrs Fink before
returning to this presentation.
More Than a Sunday Faith, 2013. [Image file].
Mathopolis. (2013). [Web quiz].
1. An airline timetable is missing key information!
2. Using what you have learned today, calculate the missing pieces of
3. Use Word, Excel or PowerPoint to present your findings.
Present all times in 12- and 24-hour time.
Email to Mrs Fink. http://www.outlook.com
• The next two slides have the information you need for the task!
The „measurement and geometry‟ strand of the Australian curriculum states that grade 5 students must learn to “compare 12- and 24-hour time
systems and convert between them (ACMMG110)” (Australian Curriculum and Reporting Authority [ACARA], n.d.(a)). The resource has been created
to teach and assess this sub-strand.
Students will read, convert between, and perform calculations with 12- and 24-hour time systems.
Design and content
Students today need to be web literate (Siemon et al, 2011). Online tools (like this) bring numerous sources together, allow students to work at
their own pace, and enable individual tracking and assessment (Crowther Centre for Learning & Innovation, Victorian Council of School
Students learn the 12- and 24-hour time systems by independently performing some basic calculations. As such, individual work supports the
lesson goal. The resource allows students to practice the new skill and provides instant feedback. Results are then shared with the teacher. Finally,
pupils complete a summative assessment task.
The approach has been guided by the work of Ralph Tyler, who states that lessons should be structured based on responses to four key questions
(Armitage et al, 2012).
Firstly, what is the relevant curriculum? This lesson fulfils the ACARA requirement for grade 5 students to understand the 12- and 24-hour time
systems (ACARA, n.d.(a)). It extends on the grade 4 sub-strand as students can use AM/PM notations and perform simple time problems (ACARA,
Secondly, Tyler asks what learning experiences meet these objectives. The resource is student-centred. Students independently navigate the
resource, interacting with the elements and performing the tasks. This constructivist approach means students learn through their own experience
(Learning Zone Express, 2012). Students restructure their existing schemas as the new information is presented (Webb, 2012). 24-hour time is introduced,
taught and practiced; ideally removing any existing student misconceptions (Psychohawks, 2010).
The resource commences with a welcome. Students learn best when they feel safe (Dusenbury, 2012). Students are then presented with an SMS
from “Harry‟s mum”. The familiar image would resonate and presents an authentic, relatable problem. Real life experiences enhance learning (Siemon
et al, 2011).
Materials used appeal to a breadth of students. A timeline explains the time systems and a table displays key conversions. A video presentation
enriches the learning experience. Students have individual learning styles and when content is delivered in various formats, it caters for diversity
(ACARA, 2013). In addition, students are at the „concrete operation stage‟. They are engaged and assisted by concrete materials. (Siemon et al,
2011). All components within the resource are presented visually.
Thirdly, Tyler asks how these learning experiences can be tied to the curriculum. All elements of the resource directly link to the teaching and
assessment of the curriculum. The lesson supports a guided teaching approach and the technology frees up the teacher to provide assistance where
needed (Siemon et al, 2011). Students work separately as they build an individual understanding of the time system.
Finally, Tyler suggests that assessment links directly to the learning objectives. The following section details this.
The assessment criteria
There are two assessment components of the resource. The first assessment is formative where students will receive instant feedback. Ideally,
students are always given feedback before summative assessment. (National Union of Students, n.d.). The final assessment is summative.
After being taught the principles of 12- and 24-hour time systems, students are given the opportunity to apply the theory and practice
converting between the two time systems. A short quiz is presented and students receive instant, constructive feedback. For any errors, the
“Mathopolis” (2013) software provides constructive feedback that helps students‟ future efforts and significantly aids their learning (University of Sussex,
n.d.). The teacher will receive the results via email and can then provide additional support to students whilst the summative task is being undertaken.
Teachers receive this information to gather feedback on the lesson and identify future learning needs.
Finally, the end task is summative assessment and as such, an assessment of learning. (Siemon et al, 2011). Students are presented with a series
of calculations that will evaluate whether the lesson has successfully met the curriculum requirements. The calculations, shown in the resource, are
linked to a „rich assessment task‟ as students are asked to complete the missing elements of a flight timetable. Pupils are familiar with travel timetables
and by presenting them with authentic problems, they are given the opportunity to apply their knowledge to a real-life situation. Students are
motivated by such tasks. (Siemon et al, 2011). Furthermore, rich assessment tasks provide students with valuable skills as they authentically “represent
the way the skills will be used in the future”. (Clarke et al, 2002).
To support diverse needs, students should be provided with numerous ways to submit their work. (National Union of Students, n.d.). All submission
options are electronic and whilst this avenue may not harness each individual‟s strengths, it is good for students to practice their technology skills in a
safe and supportive environment. Students must become familiar users of technology to prepare them for today‟s digital world. (Collins et al, n.d.).
Good teachers challenge all students. (Siemon et al, 2011). The resource will also extend students where required. Within the summative
assessment component, the calculations link to the grade 6 mathematics as they introduce the subject of times tables (ACMMG139). (ACARA,
n.d.(c)). Furthermore, the task touches on another grade 5 curriculum sub-strand (ACMSP120) as students are asked to “calculate timetables using
varied data representations”. (ACARA, n.d.(a)). For instance, some numbers are represented as decimals, others in hour/minute format. The final
extension is optional and students are asked to explain the 24-hour time system to “Harry”. Asking students to explain their thinking aids cognitive
development and highlights opportunities for further teaching. (Siemon et al, 2011). This task would identify any gaps in student thinking.
Responses to the summative task are emailed to the teacher. Assessment must anticipate action (Clarke as cited in Siemon et al, 2011) and this
task will provide the teacher with an insight into individuals‟ learning needs and follow-up requirements (if any). The (optional) text-based question
would also provide the teacher with information on the depth of individuals‟ understanding and possible further extension. Students should receive
individual and constructive feedback for their assessment. A “mark” is not necessary as the task is short and students will easily gain an overview of
their performance. Furthermore, if a minority of students completed the extension task, it should develop as a class discussion to enrich others‟
Armitage, A., Evershed, J., & Hayes, D. (2012). Teaching and Training in Lifelong Learning. Retrieved 27 December 2013, from
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Australian Curriculum and Reporting Authority (ACARA). (n.d.(b)). Mathematics: Year 4. Retrieved 19 December 2013, from
Australian Curriculum and Reporting Authority (ACARA). (n.d.(c)). Mathematics: Year 6. Retrieved 26 December 2013, from
Australian Curriculum and Reporting Authority (ACARA). (2013). Student diversity and the Australian Curriculum: Advice for principals, schools and
teachers. Retrieved 26 December 2013, from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/StudentDiversity/Pdf/StudentDiversity
Clarke, D., & Clarke, B. (2002). Using rich assessment tasks in mathematics to engage students and inform teaching. Background paper for Seminar for
Upper Secondary Teachers, Stockhold, 2002. Retrieved 26 December 2013, from http://www.arm.catholic.edu.au/educational-resources/curriculum/pditems/assessment_paper_rich%20tasks.pdf
Collins, A., & Halverson, R. (n.d.). Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology: The Digital Revolution & the Schools. Retrieved 26 December 2013,
Crowther Centre for Learning & Innovation, Victorian Council of School Organisations. (2012). Personalised Learning Summary Report. Retrieved 27
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Dreamstime. (n.d.). Stock images: Happy smiley cartoon face. [Image file]. Retrieved 29 December 2013, from http://www.dreamstime.com/stockimages-happy-cartoon-smiley-face-image2268974
Dusenbury, L. (2012). Creating a Safe Classroom Environment. Retrieved 29 December 2013, from http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/creatingsafe-classroom-environment-climate.shtml
Fink, V. (2013a). iPhone message. [Image file]. Received via email, 24 December, 2013.
Fink, V. (2013b). iPhone message. [Image file]. Received via email, 24 December, 2013.
FutureSchoolVideos. (2011). 24-hour time. [Video file]. Retrieved 26 December 2013, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hBiCJt6B9Ow
Jobs for Teams. (2013). How to tell the time like a soldier. [Image file]. Retrieved 28 December 2013, from
Kahlai, T. (2011, 1 December). Time – AM/PM v 24-hour clock. [Image file]. Retrieved 24 December 2013, from
Learning Zone Express. (2012). Child development theorists: Freud to Erikson to Spock and beyond. [Video file]. Retrieved from
Mathopolis. (2013). Question 1. Retrieved 24 December 2013, from
More Than a Sunday Faith. (2013). Practice = preparation. [Image file]. Retrieved 26 December 2013, from
National Union of Students. (n.d.). Charter on feedback and assessment. Retrieved 26 December 2013, from
Psychohawks. (2010). Theories of cognitive development: Jean Piaget. Retrieved 26 December 2013, from
Siemon, D., Beswick, K., Brady, K., Clark, J., Faragher, R., & Warren, E. (2011). Teaching mathematics: foundation to middle years. Australia: Oxford.
SOLA Optical. (n.d.). Summary. [Image file]. Retrieved 26 December 2013, from http://www.solahistory.com/contents.html
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