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Accessibility issues in MOOCs: potential 
services for people with functional diversity 
Francisco Iniesto 
School of Comp...
CONTEXT: PHD CANDIDATE 
1. Engineer in Computer Science. Part-time PhD researcher. IT consulting 
2. Connection with the c...
CONTEXT: LLL FOR PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES 
 The access and integration process for people with functional diversity in th...
CONTEXT: ICT + DISABILITIES 
The fact to make digital people with disabilities increases the work rate in this 
collective...
CONTEXT: ACCESSIBLE MOOC LEARNING 
These students look for the so-called permanent 
learning or lifelong learning paradigm...
COMPETENCE-BASED RECOMMENDATION APP FOR PEOPLE 
MOOC data 
defined 
by achievable competences 
WITH DISABILITIES 
Accessib...
COMPETENCE-BASED RECOMMENDATION APP FOR PEOPLE 
WITH DISABILITIES 
MAIN OBJECTIVE: Design a PERSONALIZED APP for RECOMMEND...
TASK 1: HOWSHOULD THE MODEL FOR AN ACCESSIBLE MOOC 
PLATFORM BE? 
In order to achieve the minimum 
required level of acces...
TASK 1: CREATING ACCESSIBLE MOOCS. THE IMPORTANCE 
OF STANDARDS 
Web Content 
Accessibility Guidelines 
(WCAG) 2.0 (2008) ...
TASK 1: METHODOLOGY AND GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATING 
ACCESSIBILITY IN MOOCS 
A selection of a set of Web pages, being 
a re...
TASK 1: METHODOLOGY AND GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATING 
ACCESSIBILITY IN MOOCS 
Global or heuristic vision: 
Evaluation throug...
TASK 1: AUTOMATIC ACCESSIBILITY TOOLS. EXAMINATOR 
Generic 
information 
Disaggregated 
test table 
Results by 
criteria 
...
TASK 1: DISABILITY SIMULATOR. ADESIGNER 
Simulator 
Detailed 
report 
Accessibility issues in MOOCs: potential services fo...
TASK 1: TESTING TOOLS. SORTSITE 
 General Errors: Broken links, Server 
configuration 
 Web browsers compatibility 
 Pr...
TASK 1: TESTING TOOLS. SORTSITE 
Chart 
Sitemap 
Results 
report 
Accessibility issues in MOOCs: potential services for pe...
TASK 1: EDUCATIONAL CONTENT EVALUATION 
•Documents: 
o PDF, Word. Follow accessibility 
standards 
•Videos (pills) 
o Incl...
TASK 1: CASE STUDIES 
"Emprendimiento y 
Desarrollo de 
Aplicaciones de 
Realidad 
Aumentada" 
(COLMENIA: 
Weprendo + UnX)...
UNED COMA Excelent, good 
and very good 
Regular Bad Very Bad Score Compliance 
Homepage 7 1 4 1 6.6 54% 
Form 7 1 2 3 7.7...
UNED COMA totally blind difficulty in 
seeing 
members Understanding age 
Homepage 7.2 6.4 6.9 5.7 6.5 
Form 6 6.4 5 5.4 6...
UNED COMA: 
 PDFs of scanned documents. 
 PDFs self-produced and externally produced. 
 MP3 Audio format. 
 Links to e...
UNED COMA COLMENIA Miriada X 
Sans-serif style No, Times New Roman Yes, Calibri Yes, Calibri 
Visual hierarchy Correct Cor...
TASK 1:CASE STUDY RESULTS 
Serious problems have been found in this collective accessing the 
education facilitated in th...
TASK 1: METHODOLOGY AND GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATING 
ACCESSIBILITY IN MOOCS 
TASK 1 Evaluation of the accessibility level in...
TASK 2: ANALYSIS OF COMPETECE-BASED INFORMATION 
TASK 2 Analysis of competence-based information (learning goals, learning...
CATÁLOGO NACIONAL DE CUALIFICACIONES PROFESIONALES (CNCP) 
Leticia Riaza Moreno 
Jefa de Área de Diseño de Cualificaciones...
FUTURE WORK 
TASK 3 Mapping MOOC 
information with professional 
posts (competence based 
defined)-> set of metadata 
coll...
Francisco Iniesto 
School of Computer Science, UNED, Spain 
E-mail: finiesto@gmail.com 
LinkedIn: es.linkedin.com/in/franc...
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MOOCs include benefits for people in vulnerable groups but full access to the educational content and the learning platform must be assured.

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Accessibility issues in MOOCs: potencial services for people with functional diversity

  1. 1. Accessibility issues in MOOCs: potential services for people with functional diversity Francisco Iniesto School of Computer Science, UNED, Spain 3rd GO-GN Seminar OpenEd 2014 17-21 November 2014 Washington, DC
  2. 2. CONTEXT: PHD CANDIDATE 1. Engineer in Computer Science. Part-time PhD researcher. IT consulting 2. Connection with the creation of educational materials cycle and accessibility:  Mst. in Languages and Computer Systems. Specialized in teaching, learning, collaboration and adaptation.  Master's thesis: Accessibility and standardization in the cycle of creation educational materials. (Covadonga Rodrigo) 3. Connection with OERs world: OpenScout:  Accessibility evaluation. 4. Connection with MOOCs and PhD Research:  Accessible MOOCs recommender system for people with functional diversity. (Covadonga Rodrigo & Timothy Read) Accessibility issues in MOOCs: potential services for people with functional diversity
  3. 3. CONTEXT: LLL FOR PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES  The access and integration process for people with functional diversity in the education system is positive and irreversible.  There is a growing proportion of people with disabilities that choose distance education universities (eLearning) for their studies. Evolution of enrolment of disabled students over period 2003 – 2014 at UNED Disability 2013/2014 Physical 4454 Psychic 1736 Hearing 570 Visual 874 Specified total 6474 Unspecified 6474 total Total 7847 Students enrolled by type of disability 2013 – 2014 at UNED Accessibility issues in MOOCs: potential services for people with functional diversity
  4. 4. CONTEXT: ICT + DISABILITIES The fact to make digital people with disabilities increases the work rate in this collective, low burden for the government and thus increases economic activity in a country. Chris Lewis, Accessibility for the Disabled in the Increasingly Mobile World Report ‘The Untapped Billion’ Feb 2014 The possibilities that Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) offer people with disabilities to improve their wellbeing and the possibility of their insertion into the work market. It is pointed out that 100% consider that the incorporation of ICT into the workplace has increased their work possibilities Informe Acceso y uso de las TIC por las personas con discapacidad.Fundación Vodafone Spain 2013 Accessibility issues in MOOCs: potential services for people with functional diversity
  5. 5. CONTEXT: ACCESSIBLE MOOC LEARNING These students look for the so-called permanent learning or lifelong learning paradigm: Integrates education, work and personal life in a continuous process and allows the citizens to be able to access the knowledge and develop it both personally and through work. II Report “Universidad y Discapacidad” Sept 2014 Fundación Universia and CERMI .  Informal Learning.  Social Learning: Connectivism.  Time, space and rhythm.  Entertainment: interaction between all participants and media.  Free and open education.  Reach global audiences. Most vulnerable potential users might be left behind in the Knowledge Society. Accessibility issues in MOOCs: potential services for people with functional diversity
  6. 6. COMPETENCE-BASED RECOMMENDATION APP FOR PEOPLE MOOC data defined by achievable competences WITH DISABILITIES Accessibility issues in MOOCs: potential services for people with functional diversity
  7. 7. COMPETENCE-BASED RECOMMENDATION APP FOR PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES MAIN OBJECTIVE: Design a PERSONALIZED APP for RECOMMENDING MOOCs adapted to achieve new professional competences and specifically designed for people with disabilities TASK 1 Evaluation of the accessibility level in MOOC platforms and courses -> map of accessibility in MOOCs vs disabilities TASK 2 Analysis of competence-based information (learning goals, learning outcomes, etc) in MOOCs syllabus: where and what TASK 3 Mapping MOOC information with professional posts (competence based defined)-> set of metadata collection TASK 4 Definition of enriched user profile: 1) functional disability (assistive technologies, device user preferences), 2) list of achievable professional competences or professional post TASK 5 System integration with 3er party recommender system (research collaboration) Accessibility issues in MOOCs: potential services for people with functional diversity
  8. 8. TASK 1: HOWSHOULD THE MODEL FOR AN ACCESSIBLE MOOC PLATFORM BE? In order to achieve the minimum required level of accessibility in this type of platform, two significant aspects will have to be taken into account:  Make possible and guarantee access to the content by means of the platforms.  Produce the content accessible in itself.  Evaluate the access conditions, the knowledge and the handling of the technological platforms.  The technological platform. The degree of usability of a series of Web services offered to the student.  The content of the MOOC must be the same for all of the students, although the presentation might be different.  The students must be able to access the content using assistive technologies and adapt their presentation in accordance with their specific needs.  It is necessary to offer alternative textual descriptions for multimedia content.  Assistance must be provided to those students who have encountered problems or barriers to accessibility. Accessibility issues in MOOCs: potential services for people with functional diversity
  9. 9. TASK 1: CREATING ACCESSIBLE MOOCS. THE IMPORTANCE OF STANDARDS Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 (2008) Accessibility guidelines for documents Website Accessibility Conformance Evaluation Methodology 1.0 (2014) Iniesto, F., Rodrigo, C (2013) Estándares y accesibilidad en el ciclo de creación de OERs mediante herramientas de autor. Proceedings from V Congreso Internacional ATICA 2013 ISBN edición impresa: 978-612-4196-16-4 ISBN Eds. M.A. Córdoba, L. Bengochea, p. 55 – 62, Huncayo, Perú.
  10. 10. TASK 1: METHODOLOGY AND GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATING ACCESSIBILITY IN MOOCS A selection of a set of Web pages, being a representative example: •The platform’s homepage. •A representative page of the course. •A course page including a form. •A course page including a forum.  Educational resources (Knowledge Pills) Text based: PDF, Word,… Video lessons The approach presented can be considered as a methodology that combines  The methods of conformance reviews  Screening techniques Accessibility issues in MOOCs: potential services for people with functional diversity
  11. 11. TASK 1: METHODOLOGY AND GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATING ACCESSIBILITY IN MOOCS Global or heuristic vision: Evaluation through automatic accessibility tools : WCAG Accessibility Validation: eXaminator  Disability Simulators: aDesigner  User Experience (UX) Testing Tools: Sortsite  User evaluation (ongoing)  Educational content evaluation The MOOC platform The educational content. Iniesto, F., Rodrigo, C (2014) Pautas para la evaluación de la accesibilidad en las plataformas MOOC. Proceedings from VI Congreso Internacional ATICA 2014 ISBN edición impresa: 978-84-16133-42-0 Eds. L. Bengochea Martínez, J. M. Gutiérrez Martínez, A. García Cabot, E.García López. p. 57 – 64, Universidad de Alcalá, España.
  12. 12. TASK 1: AUTOMATIC ACCESSIBILITY TOOLS. EXAMINATOR Generic information Disaggregated test table Results by criteria Accessibility issues in MOOCs: potential services for people with functional diversity
  13. 13. TASK 1: DISABILITY SIMULATOR. ADESIGNER Simulator Detailed report Accessibility issues in MOOCs: potential services for people with functional diversity
  14. 14. TASK 1: TESTING TOOLS. SORTSITE  General Errors: Broken links, Server configuration  Web browsers compatibility  Privacy: standards regulating privacy  Search Guidelines  Standards: W3C HTML/XHTML, W3C CSS Validation, W3C Style Guide  Usability: W3C Best Practices Accessibility issues in MOOCs: potential services for people with functional diversity
  15. 15. TASK 1: TESTING TOOLS. SORTSITE Chart Sitemap Results report Accessibility issues in MOOCs: potential services for people with functional diversity
  16. 16. TASK 1: EDUCATIONAL CONTENT EVALUATION •Documents: o PDF, Word. Follow accessibility standards •Videos (pills) o Include subtitles. o Sign Language Interpreter o Include alternative text to the video content. Textual description Accessibility issues in MOOCs: potential services for people with functional diversity
  17. 17. TASK 1: CASE STUDIES "Emprendimiento y Desarrollo de Aplicaciones de Realidad Aumentada" (COLMENIA: Weprendo + UnX). "Estrategias de Marketing Online. Community Manager" (Miriada X. ). "España+Francia+Cerca I" (UNED COMA). “As alterações climáticas - or contexto das experiências de vida” (UAb iMOOC) Iniesto, F., Rodrigo, C., Moreira Teixeira, A. (2014) Accessibility analysis in MOOC platforms. A case study: UNED COMA and UAb iMOOC. Proceedings from V Congreso Internacional sobre Calidad y Accesibilidad de la Formación Virtual CAFVIR 2014 ISBN edición impresa: 978- 9929-40-497-7 ISBN Eds. L. Bengochea, R. Hernández, J. R. Hilera González, p. 545 - 550, Antigua, Guatemala. Iniesto F., Rodrigo C. (2014) "Evaluación de la accesibilidad en las plataformas MOOC en español: UNED COMA, COLMENIA y Miriada X" Proceedings from XVI Simposio Internacional en Informática Educativa (SIIE’14) Acceso masivo y universal para un aprendizaje a lo largo de la vida. J.L.Sierra Rodríguez, J. M. Dodero Beardo y D. Burgos (Eds.) SBN: 978-84-16125-41-8 Logroño, La Rioja pp. 231 - 236
  18. 18. UNED COMA Excelent, good and very good Regular Bad Very Bad Score Compliance Homepage 7 1 4 1 6.6 54% Form 7 1 2 3 7.7 54% Course 7 1 4 3 6.8 50% Forum 6 2 4 1 6.7 46% Average Value 6.1 51% COLMENIA Homepage 5 2 7 6 4.5 25% Form 5 3 8 4 4.7 25% Course 7 2 7 1 5.4 41% Forum 6 1 5 5 6.2 32% Valor Medio 5.2 31% Miriada X Homepage 4 1 4 7 4.2 25% Form 6 3 8 4 4.5 29% Course 4 3 5 6 4.1 22% Forum 6 3 8 4 4.5 29% Average Value 4.3 26% UAb iMOOC Homepage 7 6 4 5 4.8 32% Form 7 2 1 3 5.8 54% Course 9 2 1 4 6.1 56% Forum 9 4 2 4 5.9 47% Average Value 5.6 47% Accessibility issues in MOOCs: potential services for people with functional diversity
  19. 19. UNED COMA totally blind difficulty in seeing members Understanding age Homepage 7.2 6.4 6.9 5.7 6.5 Form 6 6.4 5 5.4 6.2 Course 6.5 5.7 5.8 5.3 6 Forum 6 6.5 6.6 5.8 6.1 Average Value 6.4 6.2 6.1 5.5 6.2 COLMENIA Homepage 4.5 4.7 4.2 5.2 5.2 Form 4.2 5 4.2 5.2 5.5 Course 4.5 5.7 4.9 6 6.2 Forum 5.3 6.7 5.7 7.1 7.1 Valor Medio 4.6 4.4 4.7 5.9 6 Miriada X Homepage 4 4.3 3.6 4.3 4.6 Form 4.3 4.7 4.2 4.6 4.8 Course 3.6 4.5 3.5 4.3 4.8 Forum 4.3 4.7 4.2 4.6 4.8 Average Value 3.3 4.5 3.9 4.4 4.7 UAb iMOOC Homepage 5 4.9 4.9 4.3 5 Form 5.9 6.3 5.5 5.3 6.1 Course 5.8 6.7 6.0 5.9 6.4 Forum 5.8 6.2 6.0 5.5 6.0 Average Value 5.6 6 5.6 5.25 5.8 Accessibility issues in MOOCs: potential services for people with functional diversity
  20. 20. UNED COMA:  PDFs of scanned documents.  PDFs self-produced and externally produced.  MP3 Audio format.  Links to external pages and videos to the platform. COLMENIA:  Supporting documents in compressed format.  PDFs self-produced. Miriada X :  PDFs self-produced. UAb iMOOC:  PDFs externally produced. Accessibility issues in MOOCs: potential services for people with functional diversity
  21. 21. UNED COMA COLMENIA Miriada X Sans-serif style No, Times New Roman Yes, Calibri Yes, Calibri Visual hierarchy Correct Correct Correct Contrast Correct, black and white Correct Correct, colors abuse Underline Correct Correct Not applicable Adjust the sound volume Correct Not applicable Not applicable Text, symbols or pictures for auditory materials Not provided Not applicable Not applicable Images must be high resolution Low resolution Low resolution Medium resolution Graphs and tables with titles and abstracts Not provided Not provided Not provided UNED COMA COLMENIA Miriada X UAb iMOOC Include subtitled Yes No Yes No Sign Language Interpreter No No No No Textual transcription No, Videos in French only. No No No Accessibility issues in MOOCs: potential services for people with functional diversity
  22. 22. TASK 1:CASE STUDY RESULTS Serious problems have been found in this collective accessing the education facilitated in this type of platform. All platforms obtain average results of between 5 and 6 which are very improvable. None of the platforms achieve values that could be considered reasonable (higher than 60%). For the educational content, no standards have been followed in either platforms to create a uniform and accessible educational content which would serve for better reuse. It could be desirable that a common format for all courses will be developed, including accessibility guidelines. It is worth to notice that a dramatic lack of full accessibility of audiovisual resources exist for all the platforms. Accessibility issues in MOOCs: potential services for people with functional diversity
  23. 23. TASK 1: METHODOLOGY AND GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATING ACCESSIBILITY IN MOOCS TASK 1 Evaluation of the accessibility level in MOOC platforms and courses -> map of accessibility in MOOCs vs disabilities Heuristic evaluation (present and future work): Collect positive/negative indicators Define user cases to evaluate a correct accessibility Virtual users, scenarios MOOCs sort by level of accessibility. Allow to search the educational resources that best meet the user's disability.
  24. 24. TASK 2: ANALYSIS OF COMPETECE-BASED INFORMATION TASK 2 Analysis of competence-based information (learning goals, learning outcomes, etc) in MOOCs syllabus: where and what • Syllabus analysis for metadata extraction: description, objectives, learning outcomes, … • Competence Mapping with INCUAL
  25. 25. CATÁLOGO NACIONAL DE CUALIFICACIONES PROFESIONALES (CNCP) Leticia Riaza Moreno Jefa de Área de Diseño de Cualificaciones (2014) 15
  26. 26. FUTURE WORK TASK 3 Mapping MOOC information with professional posts (competence based defined)-> set of metadata collection TASK 4 Definition of enriched user profile: 1) functional disability (assistive technologies, device user preferences) + 2) list of achievable professional competences or professional post TASK 5 System integration with 3er party recommender system (research collaboration)
  27. 27. Francisco Iniesto School of Computer Science, UNED, Spain E-mail: finiesto@gmail.com LinkedIn: es.linkedin.com/in/franciscoiniesto/en It is the art of ensuring that, as far and wide as possible, resources (such as web access) are available for individuals, whether or not deficiencies of one kind or another. Accessibility definition by Sidar Foundation

MOOCs include benefits for people in vulnerable groups but full access to the educational content and the learning platform must be assured.

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