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cit 2007_10-K

  1. 1. UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Washington, D.C. 20549 FORM 10-K |X| Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) or | | Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2007 Commission File Number: 001-31369 CIT GROUP INC. (Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) Delaware 65-1051192 (State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization) (IRS Employer Identification No.) 505 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10017 (Address of Registrant’s principal executive offices) (Zip Code) (212) 771-0505 Registrant’s telephone number including area code: Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: Title of each class Name of each exchange on which registered Preferred Stock, Series A par value $0.01 per share New York Stock Exchange Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share New York Stock Exchange Equity Units, stated amount $25.00 per unit New York Stock Exchange Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known common stock outstanding), which occurred on June 29, seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities 2007, was $10,419,981,092. For purposes of this computa- Act. Yes |X| No | |. tion, all officers and directors of the registrant are deemed to be affiliates. Such determination shall not be deemed an Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to admission that such officers and directors are, in fact, affil- file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the iates of the registrant. At February 15, 2008, 191,231,307 Act. Yes | | No |X|. shares of CIT’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share, Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed were outstanding. all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes | | No |X|. months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes |X| No | |. List here under the following documents if incorporated by Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large reference and the Part of the Form 10-K (e.g., Part I, Part II, accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated etc.) into which the document is incorporated: (1) Any filer. Large accelerated filer |X| Accelerated filer | | Non- annual report to security holders; (2) Any proxy or informa- accelerated filer | | Smaller reporting company | | tion statement; and (3) Any prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424 (b) or (c) under the Securities Act of 1933. The Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers listed documents should be clearly described for identifi- pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (229.405 of this cation purposes (e.g., annual report to security holders for Chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, fiscal year ended December 24, 1980). to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement relat- of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. | | ing to the 2008 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof to the extent The aggregate market value of voting common stock held described herein. by non-affiliates of the registrant, based on the New York Stock Exchange Composite Transaction closing price of See pages 120 to 122 for the exhibit index. Common Stock ($54.83 per share, 190,041,603 shares of
  2. 2. CONTENTS Part One Item 1. Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Item 1A. Risk Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Item 2. Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Item 3. Legal Proceedings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Item 4. Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Part Two Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity and Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities . . 14 Item 6. Selected Financial Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure about Market Risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 PAGE 1 Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Item 9A. Controls and Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Item 9B. Other Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Part Three Item 10. Directors and Executive Officers of the Registrant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Item 11. Executive Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Part Four Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Signatures ................................................................................................... 124 Where You Can Find More Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Table of Contents
  3. 3. PART ONE ITEM 1. Business OVERVIEW BUSINESS DESCRIPTION We previously offered mortgage loans to consumers. However, we closed the home lending origination platform Founded a hundred years ago on February 11, 1908, CIT in August 2007 due to the disruptions in that market. See Group Inc., a Delaware corporation (“we,” “CIT” or the “Home Lending” segment in this section and “Profitability “Company”), is a leading commercial finance company pro- and Key Business Trends” section of Item 7. Management’s viding financing and leasing products and services to clients Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of in a wide variety of industries around the globe. Operations for further discussion on home lending. Diversification is a hallmark of CIT, with a broad range of Asset generation is a core strength of CIT. We source transac- financial services businesses serving customers in over 30 tions through direct marketing efforts to borrowers, lessees, industries and 50 countries. The majority of our business manufacturers, vendors, distributors and to end-users focuses on commercial clients with a particular focus on mid- through referral sources and other intermediaries. In addition, dle-market companies. We serve a wide variety of industries. our business units work together both in referring transac- Our largest industries include transportation, particularly tions between units (i.e. cross-selling) and by combining aerospace and rail, and a broad range of manufacturing and various products and services to meet our customers’ overall retailing. We also serve the wholesaling, healthcare, commu- financing needs. We also buy and sell participations in syndi- nications, media and entertainment and various cations of finance receivables and lines of credit and service-related industries. Our SBA preferred lender opera- periodically purchase and sell finance receivables on a whole- tions has been recognized as the nation’s #1 SBA Lender loan basis. (based on 7(a) program volume) in each of the last eight years. We also provide financing to the student loan market. Credit adjudication and servicing are also core strengths. We maintain disciplined underwriting standards and Each business has industry alignment and focuses on specific employ sophisticated portfolio risk management models to sectors, products and markets, with portfolios diversified by achieve desired portfolio demographics. Our collection and client and geography. Our principal product and service offer- servicing operations are centralized across businesses and ings include: PAGE 2 geographies providing efficient client interfaces and uni- Products form customer experiences. Asset-based loans _ We generate revenue by earning interest income on the loans Secured lines of credit _ we hold on our balance sheet, collecting rentals on the equip- Leases – operating, capital and leveraged _ ment we lease, and earning fee and other income for the Vendor finance programs _ financial services we provide. In addition, we syndicate and Import and export financing _ CIT – ANNUAL REPORT 2007 sell certain finance receivables and equipment to leverage Debtor-in-possession / turnaround financing _ our origination capabilities, reduce concentrations, manage Acquisition and expansion financing _ our balance sheet and improve profitability. Project financing _ Small business loans _ We fund our business in the global capital markets, principally Student loans _ through asset-backed and other secured financing arrange- Letters of credit / trade acceptances _ ments, commercial paper, unsecured term debt, and broker-originated deposits. We rely on these diverse funding Services sources to maintain liquidity and strive to mitigate interest rate, Financial risk management _ foreign currency, and other market risks through disciplined Asset management and servicing _ matched-funding strategies. Our debt ratings are summarized Merger and acquisition advisory services _ on page 46 in the “Risk Management” section of Item 7. Debt restructuring _ Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Credit protection _ Results of Operations. Accounts receivable collection _ At December 31, 2007, we had managed assets of $83.2 billion Commercial real estate advisory services _ comprised of an owned loan and lease portfolio of $76.9 billion Debt underwriting and syndication _ and a securitized portfolio of $6.3 billion. We also serviced third Insurance _ party assets under fee-based contracts at year-end. Common Capital markets structuring _ stockholders’ equity at December 31, 2007 was $6.5 billion.
  4. 4. BUSINESS SEGMENTS CIT meets customers’ financing needs through six business segments. SEGMENT MARKET AND SERVICES Lending, leasing and other financial services to middle-market companies, Corporate Finance Group through industry focused sales teams, including Healthcare, Communications, Media and Entertainment, and Energy, as well as to small businesses, through broker and intermediary relationships. Large ticket equipment leases and other secured financing to companies in Transportation Finance aerospace, rail and defense industries. Factoring, lending, credit protection, receivables management and other trade Trade Finance products to retail supply chain companies. Innovative financing and leasing solutions to manufacturers, distributors and Vendor Finance customer end-users around the globe. Student loans through Student Loan Xpress; other consumer loans through CIT Consumer Bank. PAGE 3 Servicing and collecting our liquidating home lending assets. We ceased origi- Home Lending nating new loans in the second half of 2007. Our managed assets are presented in the following graphs. Managed Assets by Segment Managed Assets by Country At December 31, 2007 (dollars in billions) At December 31, 2007 (dollars in billions) Australia 1% Canada 7% China 1% Corporate Finance $24.1 England 5% Vendor Finance $16.1 Germany 2% Mexico 1% Other 8% Transportation Finance $13.6 Consumer $12.3 U.S. 75% Home Lending $9.8 Trade Finance $7.3 Item 1: Business
  5. 5. CORPORATE FINANCE and leaseback arrangements, as well as loans secured by equipment. Our equipment financing clients represent major Our Corporate Finance segment provides a full spectrum of and regional airlines worldwide, North American railroad financing alternatives to borrowers ranging from small compa- companies, and middle-market to larger-sized aerospace and nies to large multinationals with emphasis on middle market defense companies. companies. We service clients in a broad array of industries with specialized groups serving commercial and industrial; This segment has been servicing the aerospace and rail capital markets; communications, media and entertainment; industries for many years and has built a global presence with energy; and healthcare sectors in the U.S. and abroad. We also operations in the United States, Canada, Europe and Asia. We provide collateralized and government-secured loans to small have extensive experience in managing equipment over its full businesses (such as SBA loans), leveraging broker and inter- life cycle, including purchasing new equipment, equipment mediary relationships. maintenance, estimating residual values and re-marketing by re-leasing or selling equipment. We offer loan structures ranging from working capital loans secured by accounts receivable and inventories, term loans The aerospace group offers commercial aircraft financing, secured by fixed assets to leveraged loans based on operating business aircraft and aerospace and defense financing. It cash flow and enterprise valuation. Loans may be fixed or provides aircraft leasing and sales, asset management, variable rate, senior or subordinated, and revolving or term. finance, banking, technical and engineering, aircraft valuation Our clients typically use the proceeds for working capital, and advisory services. The team has built strong relationships asset growth, acquisitions, debtor-in-possession financing, across the entire aerospace industry, including the major and debt restructurings. Additionally, we provide equipment manufacturers, parts suppliers and carriers. These relation- lending and leasing products, including loans, leases, whole- ships provide us with access to technical information, which sale and retail financing packages, operating leases, and enhances our customer service and provides opportunities to sale-leaseback arrangements to meet our customer’s needs. finance new business. Our clients include major and regional airlines around the world. We also offer clients an array of financial and advisory services. The unit offers capital markets structuring and syndication Our commercial aerospace business has offices in North capabilities, as well as advisory services, a capability that we America, Europe and Asia and a global reach of customers in PAGE 4 enhanced in 2007 with a strategic acquisition. We also offer 45 countries. Our international aerospace servicing center in financial risk management services to selected customers, Dublin, Ireland, puts us closer to our growing international whereby we will enter into offsetting derivative transactions client base and provides us with favorable tax treatment for with a customer and a third party financial institution. As the certain aircraft leasing operations. Our commercial fleet offsetting derivatives have like notional amounts and terms, we consists of 287 aircraft with a weighted average age of retain only the counter–party risk. approximately 5 years placed with 105 clients around the world. As of December 31, 2007, our commercial aerospace CIT – ANNUAL REPORT 2007 Industry focused teams originate business through various financing and leasing portfolio was $8.2 billion. intermediaries, referral sources, strategic partnerships and direct calling. We maintain relationships with selected banks, The business aircraft team offers financing and leasing pro- finance companies, hedge funds and other lenders both to grams for owners of business jet aircraft and turbine obtain business leads and distribute our products. We also helicopters primarily in the United States. The aerospace and purchase and sell participation interests in syndicated loans defense business provides comprehensive financing solutions from and to other financial institutions. to the aerospace and defense corporate finance market, as well as the aerospace financial intermediary market. Our small business lending unit originates and services Small Business Administration and conventional loans for commercial Our dedicated rail equipment group maintains relationships with real estate financing, construction, business acquisition and numerous leading railcar manufacturers and calls directly on business succession financing. We are a SBA preferred lender railroads and rail shippers throughout North America. Our rail and have been recognized as the nation’s #1 SBA Lender (based portfolio, which totaled $4.4 billion at December 31, 2007, on 7(a) program volume) in each of the last eight years. includes leases to all of the U.S. and Canadian Class I railroads (railroads with annual revenues of at least $250 million) and We earn interest revenue on receivables we keep on-balance other non-rail companies, such as shippers and power and sheet and recognize gains on receivables sold. We also earn energy companies. The operating lease fleet primarily includes: fees for servicing third party assets, which approximated covered hopper cars used to ship grain and agricultural prod- $2.1 billion at year end. Small business lending activities are ucts, plastic pellets and cement; gondola cars for coal, steel coil principally focused on the U.S. market. and mill service; open hopper cars for coal and aggregates; cen- ter beam flat cars for lumber; boxcars for paper and auto parts; TRANSPORTATION FINANCE and tank cars. Our railcar operating lease fleet has an average Our Transportation Finance segment specializes in providing age of approximately 6 years and approximately 86% (based on customized leasing and secured financing primarily to end- net investment) were manufactured in 1998 or later. Our total rail users of aircraft, locomotives and railcars. Our transportation fleet includes approximately 114,000 railcars and over 500 loco- equipment financing products include operating leases, single motives that we own, lease or service. investor leases, equity portions of leveraged leases and sale
  6. 6. See “Concentrations” section of Item 7. Management’s Our vendor alliances feature traditional vendor finance pro- Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of grams, joint ventures, profit sharing and other transaction Operations and Note 17 – Commitments and Contingencies of structures with large, sales-oriented partners. In the case of Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for fur- joint ventures, we engage in financing activities jointly with the ther discussion of our aerospace portfolio. vendor through a distinct legal entity that is jointly owned. We also use “virtual joint ventures,” by which we originate the TRADE FINANCE assets on our balance sheet and share with the vendor the economic outcomes from the customer financing activity. A Our Trade Finance segment provides factoring, receivable key part of these partnership programs is coordinating with and collection management products, and secured financing the vendor’s product offering systems to improve execution to businesses that operate in several industries including and reduce cycle times. apparel, textile, furniture, home furnishings and electronics. Although primarily U.S.-based, we have increased our inter- These alliances allow our vendor partners to focus on their national business in Asia and Europe. CIT has many core competencies, reduce capital needs and drive incre- relationships with factors located throughout Asia, and from mental sales volume. As a part of these programs, we offer our full-service factoring company based in Frankfurt, our partners (1) financing to commercial and consumer end Germany, we provide factoring and financing services to users for the purchase or lease of products, (2) enhanced companies in Europe. sales tools such as asset management services, efficient loan processing and real-time credit adjudication, and (3) a We offer a full range of domestic and international customized single point of contact in our regional servicing hubs to credit protection, lending and outsourcing services that include facilitate global sales. In turn, these alliances provide us working capital and term loans, factoring, receivable manage- with a highly efficient origination platform as we leverage ment outsourcing, bulk purchases of accounts receivable, our partners’ sales forces. import and export financing and letter of credit programs. Vendor Finance includes a small and mid-ticket commercial We provide financing to our clients, primarily manufacturing, business, which focuses on leasing office equipment, comput- through the purchase of accounts receivable owed to our ers and other technology products primarily in the United clients by their customers, typically retailers. We also guar- PAGE 5 States and Canada. We originate products through relation- antee amounts due to our client’s suppliers under letters of ships with manufacturers, dealers, distributors and other credit collateralized by accounts receivable and other assets. intermediaries as well as through direct calling. The purchase of accounts receivable is traditionally known as “factoring” and results in the payment by the client of a fac- Vendor Finance also houses CIT Insurance Services, through toring fee that is commensurate with the underlying degree which we offer insurance and financial protection products in of credit risk and recourse, and which is generally a percent- key markets around the world. We leverage our existing dis- age of the factored receivables or sales volume. We also may tribution capabilities and alliances with insurance and advance funds to our clients, typically in an amount up to financial services providers, enabling us to offer protection 80% of eligible accounts receivable, charging interest on the products for small business and middle market clients and advance (in addition to any factoring fees), and satisfying the consumers. Our offerings to middle market and small busi- advance by the collection of the factored accounts receivable. ness customers range from commercial property & casualty We integrate our clients’ operating systems with ours to insurance, employee benefits, key person life insurance, and facilitate the factoring relationship. high net worth personal line coverage. For our consumer clients, we offer property coverage, debt protection, credit Clients use our products and services for various purposes, insurance, as well as supplemental insurance programs. including improving cash flow, mitigating or reducing credit risk, increasing sales, and improving management informa- CONSUMER tion. Further, with our TotalSourceSM product, our clients can out-source their bookkeeping, collection, and other receiv- Our Consumer segment includes student lending and CIT able processing to us. These services are attractive to Bank, a Utah-based industrial bank with deposit-taking industries outside the traditional factoring markets. capabilities. Our consumer activities are principally focused on the U.S. market. VENDOR FINANCE Our student lending unit, which markets under the name We are a leading global vendor finance company with numer- Student Loan Xpress, offers student loan products, services, ous vendor relationships and operations serving customers in and solutions to students, parents, schools, and alumni over 30 countries. We have significant vendor programs in associations. We offer government-guaranteed student information technology, telecommunications equipment, loans made under the Federal Family Education Loan healthcare and other diversified asset types across multiple Program (FFELP), including consolidation loans, Stafford industries. Through our global relationships with industry- loans, Parent Loans for Undergraduate Students (PLUS) and leading equipment vendors, including manufacturers, dealers, Grad PLUS. We discontinued offering private loans during and distributors, we deliver customized financing solutions to 2007. We originate and acquire loans through direct con- both commercial and consumer customers of our vendor sumer marketing, school channel referrals and periodically partners in a wide array of programs. purchase portfolios of loans. The majority of our student Item 1: Business
  7. 7. loan portfolio is consolidation loans, but our portfolio of and have commenced originating corporate loans. The Bank is Stafford and PLUS loans has continued to grow. Most of our chartered by the state of Utah as an industrial bank and is sub- student loan portfolio is serviced in-house from our ject to regulation and examination by the Federal Deposit Cleveland facility. Insurance Corporation and the Utah Department of Financial Institutions. During 2007, the federal government passed legislation with respect to the student lending business. Among other See “Concentrations” section of Item 7. Management’s things, the legislation reduces special allowance payments Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of paid to lenders by the federal government, increases loan Operations and “Note 23 – Goodwill and Intangible Assets” of origination fees paid to the government by lenders, and Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for fur- reduces the lender guarantee percentage. The legislation ther discussion of our student lending portfolios. went into effect for all new FFELP student loans with first disbursements on or after October 1, 2007. The guarantee HOME LENDING percentage, reduced from 97% to 95%, is in effect for loans The Home Lending segment consists primarily of a liquidating originated after October 1, 2012. While the demographics of portfolio of home mortgage receivables and manufactured this market remain strong, the returns related to future housing receivables. In July of 2007, we announced our intent originations will be impacted by the recent legislation. to exit this business and closed the home lending origination platform in August 2007. As a result of decreased market valuations for student lending businesses and lower profit expectations resulting from The remaining portfolio is serviced out of our centralized higher funding costs, we recorded goodwill and intangible servicing center in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. asset impairment charges during the last quarter of 2007. See “Profitability and Key Business Trends” section of Item 7. CIT Bank, with assets of $3.3 billion and deposits of $2.7 billion, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition is located in Salt Lake City, Utah. Since its inception, the bank and Results of Operations for further discussion of our home had been primarily funding consumer type loans. During late lending portfolios. 2007, we refined the Bank’s focus to fund commercial assets PAGE 6 2007 SEGMENT PERFORMANCE Earnings and Return Summary (dollars in millions) Net Return on Income/(Loss) Equity ________________________ __________________ CIT – ANNUAL REPORT 2007 Corporate Finance $ 453.0 18.3% Transportation Finance 271.1 16.3% Trade Finance 164.0 17.8% Vendor Finance 410.1 23.6% __________________ Commercial Segments 1,298.2 19.1% ________________________ Consumer (274.9) (52.3%) Home Lending (989.2) (171.8%) Corporate and Other (145.1) (2.1%) ________________________ Total $(111.0) (1.6%) ________________________ ________________________ See the “Results by Business Segments” and Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market “Concentrations” sections of Item 7. Management’s Discussion Risk, and Notes 5 and 21 of Item 8. Financial Statements and and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Supplementary Data, for additional information. EMPLOYEES CIT employed approximately 6,700 people at December 31, United States and approximately 1,845 were outside the 2007, of which approximately 4,855 were employed in the United States.
  8. 8. COMPETITION Our markets are highly competitive, based on factors that vary We compete primarily on the basis of financing terms, depending upon product, customer, and geographic region. structure, client service, and price. From time to time, our Our competitors include captive and independent finance competitors seek to compete aggressively on the basis of companies, commercial banks and thrift institutions, indus- these factors and we may lose market share to the extent trial banks, leasing companies, insurance companies, hedge we are unwilling to match competitor product structure, funds, manufacturers, and vendors. Many bank holding, leas- pricing or terms that do not meet our credit standards or ing, finance, and insurance companies that compete with us return requirements. have formed substantial financial services operations with Other primary competitive factors include industry experience, global reach. On a local level, community banks and smaller equipment knowledge, and relationships. In addition, demand independent finance and mortgage companies are competitive for an industry’s services and products and industry regula- with substantial local market positions. Many of our competi- tions will affect demand for our products in some industries. tors are large companies that have substantial capital, technological, and marketing resources. Some of these com- petitors are larger than we are and may have access to capital at a lower cost than we do. The markets for most of our prod- ucts have a large number of competitors. REGULATION In some instances, our operations are subject to supervision Department of Education, including Fifth Third Bank, CIT Bank and regulation by federal, state, and various foreign govern- and Liberty Bank, as eligible lender trustees. CIT Small mental authorities. Additionally, our operations may be Business Lending Corporation, a Delaware corporation, is subject to various laws and judicial and administrative deci- licensed by and subject to regulation and examination by the PAGE 7 sions imposing various requirements and restrictions. This U.S. Small Business Administration. CIT Capital Securities oversight may serve to: L.L.C., a Delaware limited liability company, is a broker-dealer licensed by the National Association of Securities Dealers, and is regulate credit granting activities, including establishing _ subject to regulation by the Financial Industry Regulatory licensing requirements, if any, in various jurisdictions, Authority and the Securities and Exchange Commission. CIT establish maximum interest rates, finance charges and _ Bank Limited, an English corporation, is licensed as a bank and other charges, broker-dealer and is subject to regulation and examination by regulate customers’ insurance coverages, _ the Financial Service Authority of the United Kingdom. require disclosures to customers, _ govern secured transactions, Our insurance operations are conducted through The _ set collection, foreclosure, repossession and claims han- Equipment Insurance Company, a Vermont corporation, _ dling procedures and other trade practices, Highlands Insurance Company Limited, a Barbados company, prohibit discrimination in the extension of credit and and Equipment Protection Services (Europe) Limited, an Irish _ administration of loans, and Company. Each company is licensed to enter into insurance regulate the use and reporting of information related to a contracts. The local regulators in Vermont, Barbados, and _ borrower’s credit experience and other data collection. Ireland regulate them. In addition, we have various banking corporations in Brazil, France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Certain of our subsidiaries are subject to regulation from various Sweden, and the Netherlands and a broker-dealer entity in agencies. CIT Bank, a Utah industrial bank wholly owned by CIT, Canada, each of which is subject to regulation and examina- is subject to regulation and examination by the Federal Deposit tion by banking regulators and securities regulators in their Insurance Corporation and the Utah Department of Financial home country. Institutions. Student Loan Xpress, Inc., a Delaware corporation, conducts its business through various banks authorized by the Item 1: Business
  9. 9. GLOSSARY OF TERMS Average Earning Assets (AEA) is the average of finance receiv- Lower of Cost or Market (LOCOM) relates to the carrying value ables, operating lease equipment, financing and leasing of an asset. The cost refers to the current book balance, and assets held for sale, and some investments, less the credit if that balance is higher than the market value, then an balances of factoring clients. We use this average for certain impairment charge is reflected in the current period state- key profitability ratios, including return on AEA and net finance ment of income. revenue as a percentage of AEA. Managed Assets are comprised of finance receivables, operating Average Finance Receivables (AFR) is the average of finance lease equipment, financing and leasing assets held for sale, receivables and includes loans and finance leases. It excludes some investments, and receivables securitized and still man- operating lease equipment. We use this average to measure aged by us. The change in managed assets during a reporting the rate of net charge-offs on an owned basis for the period. period is one of our measurements of asset growth. Capital is the sum of common equity, preferred stock, junior Net Finance Revenue reflects finance revenue after interest subordinated notes, convertible debt (equity units) and pre- expense and depreciation on operating lease equipment, ferred capital securities. which is a direct cost of equipment ownership. This subtotal is a key measure in the evaluation of our business. Derivative Contract is a contract whose value is derived from a specified asset or an index, such as interest rates or foreign Net Finance Revenue after Credit Provision reflects net finance currency exchange rates. As the value of that asset or index revenue after credit costs. This subtotal is also called “risk changes, so does the value of the derivative contract. We use adjusted revenue” by management as it reflects the periodic derivatives to reduce interest rate, foreign currency or credit cost of credit risk. risks. We also offer derivatives to our own customers to Net (loss) income (attributable) available to Common enable those customers to reduce their own interest rate, for- Shareholders (“net (loss) income”) reflects net (loss) income eign currency or credit risks. The derivative contracts we use after preferred dividends and is utilized to calculate return on include interest-rate swaps, cross-currency swaps, foreign common equity and other performance measurements. exchange forward contracts, and credit default swaps. PAGE 8 Non-GAAP Financial Measures are balances, amounts or Efficiency Ratio is the percentage of salaries and general oper- ratios that do not readily agree to balances disclosed in finan- ating expenses to Total Net Revenue. We use the efficiency cial statements presented in accordance with accounting ratio to measure the level of expenses in relation to revenue principles generally accepted in the U.S. We use non-GAAP earned. measures to provide additional information and insight into Finance Revenue includes interest income on finance receiv- how current operating results and financial position of the ables and rental income on operating leases. CIT – ANNUAL REPORT 2007 business compare to historical operating results and finan- Financing and Leasing Assets include loans, capital and finance cial position of the business and trends, as well as adjusting leases, leveraged leases, operating leases, assets held for for certain nonrecurring or unusual transactions. sale, and other investments. Non-performing Assets include loans placed on non-accrual Held for Investment describes loans that CIT has the ability status, typically after becoming 90 days delinquent or prior and intent to hold in portfolio for the foreseeable future or to that time due to doubt of collectibility of principal and until maturity. These are carried at amortized cost, unless it interest, and repossessed assets. is determined that other than temporary impairment has Other Income includes syndication fees, gains from dispositions occurred, then a charge is recorded in the current period of receivables and equipment, factoring commissions, loan statement of income. servicing and other fees. Held for Sale describes loans that we intend to sell in the near- Retained Interest is the portion of the interest in assets we term. These are carried at the lower of cost or market, with a retain when we sell assets in a securitization transaction. charge reflected in the current period statement of income if the cost (or current book value) exceeds the market value. Residual Values represent the estimated value of equipment at the end of the lease term. For operating leases, it is the value Lease – capital and finance is an agreement in which the party to which the asset is depreciated at the end of its useful eco- who owns the property (lessor) permits another party (lessee) nomic life (i.e., “salvage” or “scrap value”). to use the property with substantially all of the economic ben- efits and risks of ownership passed to the lessee. Return on Common Equity (ROE) is net income available to common stockholders, expressed as a percentage of average Lease – leveraged is a lease in which a third party, a long-term common equity, and is a key measurement of profitability. creditor, provides non-recourse debt financing. We are party to these lease types either as a creditor or as the lessor. Special Purpose Entity (SPE) is a distinct legal entity created for Lease – operating is a lease in which we retain beneficial a specific purpose in order to isolate the risks and rewards of ownership of the asset, collect rental payments, recognize owning its assets and incurring its liabilities. We typically use depreciation on the asset, and retain the risks of ownership, SPEs in securitization transactions, joint venture relation- including obsolescence. ships, and certain structured leasing transactions.
  10. 10. Syndication and Sale of Receivables result from originating valuation allowances from total net revenue and other income leases and receivables with the intent to sell a portion, or the and is a measurement of our revenue growth. entire balance, of these assets to other financial institutions. Unpaid Principal Balance (UPB) refers to the remaining unpaid We earn and recognize fees and/or gains on sales, which are principal balance of a loan and is used in the discussion sur- reflected in other income, for acting as arranger or agent in rounding home lending assets and reflects the carrying value, these transactions. before applying the recorded discount or valuation allowance. Tangible Capital and Metrics exclude goodwill, other intangible Yield-related Fees are collected in connection with our assets and some comprehensive income items. We use tangi- assumption of underwriting risk in certain transactions in ble metrics in measuring capitalization. addition to interest income. We recognize yield-related fees, Total Net Revenue is the total of net finance revenue plus other which include prepayment fees and certain origination fees, in income. This amount excludes provision for credit losses and Finance Revenue over the life of the lending transaction. ITEM 1A. Risk Factors You should carefully consider the following discussion of risks, terms of any such equity transactions may subject existing and the other information provided in this Annual Report on security holders to potential subordination or dilution and may Form 10-K. Our business activities involve various elements of involve change in governance. risk. The risks described below are not the only ones facing WE MAY BE ADVERSELY AFFECTED BY DETERIORATION IN us. Additional risks that are presently unknown to us or that ECONOMIC CONDITIONS THAT IS GENERAL OR SPECIFIC we currently deem immaterial may also impact our business. PAGE 9 TO INDUSTRIES, PRODUCTS OR GEOGRAPHIES. We consider the following issues to be the most critical risks A recession or downturn in the U.S. or global economies or to the success of our business: affecting specific industries, geographic locations and/or OUR LIQUIDITY OR ABILITY TO RAISE DEBT OR EQUITY products could make it difficult for us to originate new busi- CAPITAL MAY BE LIMITED. ness, given the resultant reduced demand for consumer or commercial credit. In addition, a downturn in certain indus- We rely upon access to the capital markets to provide sources of tries may result in a reduced demand for the products that we liquidity and to fund asset growth. These markets have exhib- finance in that industry or negatively impact collection and ited heightened volatility and reduced liquidity. Recently, liquidity asset recovery efforts. in the capital markets has been more constrained and interest rates available to us have increased significantly relative to Credit quality also may be impacted during an economic slow- benchmark rates, such as U.S. treasury securities and LIBOR. down or recession as borrowers may fail to meet their debt As a result, our cost of funds has increased and we have shifted payment obligations. Adverse economic conditions may also our funding sources primarily to asset-backed securities and result in declines in collateral values. Accordingly, higher other secured credit facilities, including both on-balance sheet credit and collateral related losses could impact our financial and off-balance sheet securitizations, rather than unsecured position or operating results. debt securities. Adverse changes in the economy, long-term For example, decreased demand for the products of various disruption in the capital markets, deterioration in our business manufacturing customers due to a general economic slow- performance or downgrades in our credit ratings could limit our down may adversely affect their ability to repay their loans and access to these markets or increase our cost of capital. Any one leases with us. Similarly, a decrease in the level of airline pas- of these developments would adversely affect our business senger traffic due to general economic slowdown or a decline operating results and financial condition. A downgrade in our in shipping volumes due to a slowdown in particular industries short-term credit ratings could result in our having to issue may adversely affect our aerospace or rail businesses. commercial paper to a different group of investors, as a portion, or potentially all, of our current investor base could require WE MAY BE ADVERSELY AFFECTED BY CONTINUED maintenance of our short-term credit ratings. DETERIORATION IN MARKET CONDITIONS AND CREDIT QUALITY IN THE HOME LENDING AND RELATED We may also raise additional equity capital through the sale of INDUSTRIES. common stock, preferred stock, or securities that are convert- ible into common stock. There are no restrictions on entering The U.S. residential market and home lending industry began into the sale of any such equity securities in either public or showing signs of stress in early 2007, with credit conditions private transactions, except that any private transaction deteriorating rapidly in the second quarter of 2007 and contin- involving more than 20% of the shares outstanding will require uing into the third and fourth quarters of 2007, including shareholder approval. Under current market conditions, the Item 1A: Risk Factors
  11. 11. increased rates of defaults and foreclosures, stagnating or derivative counterparties, customers, manufacturers, or declining home prices, and declining sales in both the new other parties with which we conduct business materially construction and the resale markets. deteriorates, we may be exposed to credit risk related losses that may negatively impact our financial condition, results of These market conditions were reflected in the deterioration of operations or cash flows. credit metrics of our home lending portfolio and the decreased market liquidity for such portfolios and resulted in WE MAY BE ADVERSELY AFFECTED BY SIGNIFICANT higher charge-offs and significant valuation allowances CHANGES IN INTEREST RATES. through year end 2007. These changes in the home lending Although we generally employ a matched funding approach to and home construction industries have also resulted in managing our interest rate risk, including matching the reduced demand for certain types of railcars that are used to repricing characteristics of our assets with our liabilities, sig- transport building materials, produced higher volatility and nificant increases in market interest rates or widening of our reduced demand from investors in the high yield loan markets, generated concerns about credit quality in general, and ham- credit spreads, or the perception that an increase may occur, pered activity in the syndication market, among other effects. could adversely affect both our ability to originate new finance receivables and our profitability. Conversely, a decrease in We will continue to be adversely affected by conditions in the interest rates could result in accelerated prepayments of U.S. residential home lending industry if they continue to dete- owned and managed finance receivables. riorate further. It is also likely that we will be adversely affected if the conditions in the home lending industry negatively impact WE MAY BE REQUIRED TO TAKE AN IMPAIRMENT our other consumer businesses or other parts of our credit CHARGE FOR GOODWILL OR INTANGIBLE ASSETS portfolio or the U.S. or world economies. Finally, we may be RELATED TO ACQUISITIONS. adversely affected if the conditions in the home lending indus- We have acquired certain portions of our business and certain try result in new or increased regulation of financing and portfolios through acquisitions and bulk purchases. Further, leasing companies in general or with respect to specific prod- as part of our long-term business strategy, we may continue to ucts or markets. pursue acquisitions of other companies or asset portfolios. In connection with prior acquisitions and portfolio purchases, we OUR RESERVES FOR CREDIT LOSSES MAY PROVE PAGE 10 have accounted for the portion of the purchase price paid in INADEQUATE OR WE MAY BE NEGATIVELY AFFECTED BY excess of the book value of the assets acquired as goodwill or CREDIT RISK EXPOSURES. intangible assets, and we may be required to account for simi- Our business depends on the creditworthiness of our cus- lar premiums paid on future acquisitions in the same manner. tomers. We maintain a consolidated reserve for credit losses on finance receivables that reflects management’s judgment Under the applicable accounting rules, goodwill is not amor- of losses inherent in the portfolio. We periodically review our tized and is carried on our books at its original value, subject CIT – ANNUAL REPORT 2007 consolidated reserve for adequacy considering economic to periodic review and evaluation for impairment, while intan- conditions and trends, collateral values and credit quality gible assets are amortized over the life of the asset. If, as a indicators, including past charge-off experience and levels of result of our periodic review and evaluation of our goodwill past due loans and non-performing assets. We cannot be and intangible assets for potential impairment, we determine certain that our consolidated reserve for credit losses will be that changes in the business itself, the economic environ- adequate over time to cover credit losses in our portfolio ment including business valuation levels and trends, or the because of adverse changes in the economy or events legislative or regulatory environment have adversely affected adversely affecting specific customers, industries or mar- the fair value of the business, we may be required to take an kets. If the credit quality of our customer base materially impairment charge to the extent that the carrying values of decreases, if the risk of a market, industry, or group of cus- our goodwill or intangible assets exceeds the fair value of the tomers changes significantly, or if our reserves for credit business. As a result of our 2007 fourth quarter analysis of losses are not adequate, our business, financial condition goodwill and intangible assets associated with our student and results of operations could suffer. For example, credit lending business, we recorded impairment charges. Also, if performance in the home lending industry, and particularly in we sell a business for less than the book value of the assets the sub-prime market, has been declining over the past year. sold, plus any goodwill or intangible assets attributable to This decline in the home lending industry has been reflected that business, we may be required to take an impairment in our home lending portfolio during 2007, resulting in charge on all or part of the goodwill and intangible assets increased charge-offs and significant valuation allowances. attributable to that business. In addition to customer credit risk associated with loans and BUSINESSES OR ASSET PORTFOLIOS ACQUIRED MAY leases, we are also exposed to other forms of credit risk, NOT PERFORM AS EXPECTED AND WE MAY NOT BE ABLE including counterparties to our derivative transactions, loan TO ACHIEVE ADEQUATE CONSIDERATION FOR PLANNED sales, syndications and equipment purchases. These coun- DISPOSITIONS. terparties include other financial institutions, manufacturers As part of our long-term business strategy, we may pursue and our customers. To the extent that our credit underwrit- acquisitions of other companies or asset portfolios as well as ing processes or credit risk judgments fail to adequately dispose of non-strategic businesses or portfolios. Future identify or assess such risks, or if the credit quality of our
  12. 12. acquisitions may result in potentially dilutive issuances of factors as the board of directors may consider to be relevant. If equity securities and the incurrence of additional debt, which any of these factors are adversely affected it may impact our could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial ability to pay dividends on our common stock. condition and results of operations. Such acquisitions may In addition, the terms of our outstanding preferred stock and involve numerous other risks, including difficulties in integrat- junior subordinated notes restrict our ability to pay dividends ing the operations, services, products and personnel of the on our common stock if we do not make distributions on our acquired company; the diversion of management’s attention preferred stock and subordinated notes. Further, we are pro- from other business concerns; entering markets in which we hibited from declaring dividends on our preferred stock and have little or no direct prior experience; and the potential loss from paying interest on our junior subordinated notes if we do of key employees of the acquired company. In addition, not meet certain financial tests, provided that the limitation acquired businesses and asset portfolios may have credit- does not apply if we pay such dividends and interest out of net related risks arising from substantially different underwriting proceeds that we have received from the sale of common standards associated with those businesses or assets. stock. We sold common stock to cover such dividend and With respect to our planned disposition of certain home lend- interest payments during the third and fourth quarters of 2007 ing assets held for sale, or any future dispositions of our and the first quarter of 2008, and we obtained a forward com- businesses or asset portfolios, there can be no assurance that mitment from two investment banks to purchase additional we will receive adequate consideration for those businesses or shares, at our option, in the second and third quarters of 2008. assets at the time of their disposition or that we will be able to If we are unable to sell our common stock in the future, and adequately replace the volume associated with the businesses we fail to meet the requisite financial tests, then we will be or asset portfolios that we dispose of with higher-yielding prohibited from declaring dividends on our preferred stock, businesses or asset portfolios having acceptable risk charac- paying interest on our junior subordinated notes, or declaring teristics. As a result, our future disposition of businesses or dividends on our common stock. asset portfolios could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. COMPETITION FROM BOTH TRADITIONAL COMPETITORS AND NEW MARKET ENTRANTS MAY ADVERSELY AFFECT ADVERSE OR VOLATILE MARKET CONDITIONS MAY OUR RETURNS, VOLUME AND CREDIT QUALITY. PAGE 11 REDUCE FEES AND OTHER INCOME. Our markets are highly competitive and are characterized by In 2005, we began pursuing strategies to leverage our competitive factors that vary based upon product and geo- expanded asset generation capability and diversify our rev- graphic region. We have a wide variety of competitors that enue base to increase other income as a percentage of total include captive and independent finance companies, commer- revenue. We invested in infrastructure and personnel focused cial banks and thrift institutions, industrial banks, community on increasing other income in order to generate higher levels banks, leasing companies, hedge funds, insurance companies, of syndication and participation income, advisory fees, servic- mortgage companies, manufacturers and vendors. ing fees and other types of fee income. These revenue Competition from both traditional competitors and new market streams are dependent on market conditions and, therefore, entrants has intensified due to increasing recognition of the can be more volatile than interest on loans and rentals on attractiveness of the commercial finance markets. We compete leased equipment. Current market conditions, including primarily on the basis of pricing, terms and structure. To the lower liquidity levels, have had a direct impact on syndication extent that our competitors compete aggressively on any com- activity, and have resulted in lower fee generation. If we are bination of those factors, we could lose market share. Should unable to sell or syndicate a transaction after it is originated, we match competitors’ terms, it is possible that we could expe- this activity will involve the assumption of greater underwrit- rience margin compression and/or increased losses. ing risk than we originally intended and could increase our capital requirements to support our business. WE MAY NOT BE ABLE TO REALIZE OUR ENTIRE Continued disruption to the capital markets, our failure to INVESTMENT IN THE EQUIPMENT WE LEASE. implement these initiatives successfully, or the failure of The realization of equipment values (residual values) at the end such initiatives to result in increased asset and revenue of the term of a lease is an important element in the leasing levels could adversely affect our financial position and business. At the inception of each lease, we record a residual results of operations. value for the leased equipment based on our estimate of the future value of the equipment at the expected disposition date. ADVERSE FINANCIAL RESULTS OR OTHER FACTORS MAY Internal equipment management specialists, as well as exter- LIMIT OUR ABILITY TO PAY DIVIDENDS nal consultants, determine residual values. Our board of directors decides whether we will pay dividends A decrease in the market value of leased equipment at a rate on our common stock. That decision depends upon, among greater than the rate we projected, whether due to rapid other things, general economic and business conditions, our technological or economic obsolescence, unusual wear and strategic and operational plans, our financial results and con- tear on the equipment, excessive use of the equipment, or dition, contractual, legal and regulatory restrictions on the other factors, would adversely affect the residual values of payment of dividends by us, our credit ratings, and such other Item 1A: Risk Factors