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2003 KF Annual Report


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2003 KF Annual Report

  1. 1. 2003 ANNUAL REPORT
  2. 2. S TAT E M E N T O F P U R P O S E TA B L E O F C O N T E N T S T he John S. and James L. Knight From the Chairman 2 Foundation was established in 1950 as a From the President 4 private foundation independent of the Knight brothers’ newspaper enterprises. It is dedi- 2003 Programs 6 cated to furthering their ideals of service Journalism Initiatives 10 to community, to the highest standards of journalistic excellence and to the defense Community Partners Program 20 of a free press. National Venture Fund 30 In both their publishing and philanthropic undertakings, the Knight brothers shared a Trustees, Officers, Staff 40 broad vision and uncommon devotion to the common welfare. It is those ideals, as well History 42 as their philanthropic interests, to which the Investment Report 48 foundation remains faithful. To heighten the impact of our grant making, Auditors’ Report 49 Knight Foundation’s trustees have elected to Financial Statements 50 focus on two signature programs, Journalism Initiatives and Community Partners, each Letter of Inquiry 56 with its own eligibility requirements. A third Grants 57 program, the National Venture Fund, nurtures innovation, leadership and experimentation for Acknowledgments Inside Back Cover community investments that might benefit Knight communities. In a rapidly changing world, the founda- tion also remains flexible enough to respond to unique challenges, ideas and projects that lie beyond its identified program areas, yet would fulfill the broad vision of its founders. None of the grant making would be possi- ble without a sound financial base. Thus, pre- serving and enhancing the foundation’s assets through prudent investment management continues to be of paramount importance.
  3. 3. The National Constitution Center, which opened to the public July 4, 2003, on Philadelphia’s Independence Mall, serves as the backdrop for many of the photographic images in this annual report. We are grateful to the center’s staff for helping. Visit the center on the web at: On the cover: Isabel Virilli enjoys opening day at the National Constitution Center. 2003 ANNUAL REPORT 1
  4. 4. FROM THE CHAIRMAN Common Threads At the John S. Foun- and The images from the James L. Knight National Constitution dation, we have had Center that you will see many discussions over throughout this report the years regarding the convey the message as relationship between well. From its opening journalism and our day on July 4, 2003, communities. What is the center on Philadel- the common thread that phia’s Independence binds our two major Mall has helped visitors program interests? see that democracy is Our Founding Fathers constantly being chal- knew. James Madison, lenged and reinterpreted. author of the U.S. Con- Knight Foundation stitution and fourth invested some $2 mil- president of the United lion in the new center, States, stated: i n c l u d i ng support for its W. Gerald Austen, M.D. “A popular govern- work with Public Agen- The Knight brothers’ philosophy and ment, without popular information, or da on a national study of the public’s Hill’s statement are the guideposts the the means of acquiring it, is but a pro- understanding of constitutional issues. logue to a farce or a tragedy ... a people Knight trustees and staff have followed All of our grant-making investments who mean to be their own governors across the decades. We added a new are made possible by careful stewardship must arm themselves with the power chapter to this story in 2003 by contin- of the foundation’s asset base (Page 48). which knowledge gives.” uing to support democratic institutions In 2003, we made total gifts of $90.4 working to improve journalism world- Jim Knight wrote on the subject. million. Of this amount, 349 new grants, wide and investing in the vitality of the “It’s the individual reader who is on in addition to our ongoing commitments, my mind,” he said. “How can we best 26 Knight communities. were awarded to nonprofit organizations respond to the needs, problems and That is why “a more perfect union” working nationally in journalism, in our interests of every man, woman and neatly serves as a theme for this latest communities, and through our National youngster who reads our newspapers?” Knight Foundation annual report. That Venture Fund. ongoing work ranged far and wide last And Lee Hills, my predecessor as We ended 2003 with assets of $1.846 year. Carolyn Robinson, Knight Interna- chairman of Knight’s board of trustees, billion, an increase of 13.6 percent over was precisely right when he said: tional Press Fellow, trained journalists the previous year. That followed three “The emphasis on good journalism in East Timor, one of the newest democ- years in which the financial markets should be on serving citizens, not on racies in the world (Page 18). Richard experienced the worst performance since serving newspapers or TV. People have Kimball, president of Project Vote Smart the Great Depression. Knight Foundation and a former candidate for the U.S. to know what’s going on if they want to weathered that storm quite well. In fact, Senate, encouraged American politi- govern themselves.” during the three years 2000, 2001 and I add the emphasis to the wordscitizens cians to lay out clearly their issues, 2002, when the Standard & Poor’s 500 and govern because they bring into enabling voters to make informed deci- Index lost almost 38 percent of its value, focus the rationale Jack and Jim Knight sions (Page 30). On the coast of South the foundation’s cumulative investment used in setting the measures of their Carolina, Paula Lynn Ellis and the return was positive by 2.5 percent. In Knight Community Advisory Committee philanthropy – journalism of excellence other words, Knight Foundation lost began rolling out a plan to boost the to sustain their chosen profession and nothing. Our assets declined, of course, strong communities where they estab- crop of volunteers and increase citizen because we continued to make grants lished their newspapers. participation in Myrtle Beach (Page 28). and pay our administrative expenses. 2 J O H N S . A N D J A M E S L . K N I G H T F O U N D AT I O N
  5. 5. FROM THE CHAIRMAN Much of the credit for this commend- able performance goes to Gordon Heffern, an Ohio banker and Knight trustee. Gordon joined the board in 1980 when the Knight Foundation assets were approximately $22 million. He chaired the committee overseeing our investments for 22 years. During his tenure, we received the bequests from the John S. Gordon Heffern L.M. Baker Jr. Penelope McPhee Michael Maidenberg and James L. Knight estates, elevating their foundation into the ranks of our country’s largest. activities. Bud Baker has an outstanding grounding in the foundation’s program- Our assets at the beginning of 1991 background in finance and investments matic work. A Pulitzer Prize-winning were $522 million. By the end of 2003, as well as philanthropy, and is a wonder- publisher with the Grand Forks (N.D.) just 13 years later, our assets had ful addition to our board. Herald for 21 years until his December increased by more than three times. The We also offer thanks and best wishes 2003 retirement, Mike also served as a average annualized performance during for great success to Penelope McPhee Knight trustee from March 1999 to March this period was 13.9 percent, which is as she heads north this spring to become 2004 and was a very active member among the highest returns in the foun- president of the Atlanta-based Arthur of the Grants Review Committee. As dation world. Because of this success, M. Blank Family Foundation. Penny trustee and chair of Knight’s Community the foundation has been able to pay out served Knight Foundation’s program Advisory Committee in Grand Forks, more than $667 million in grants during interests exceedingly well for 13 years. Mike has both shaped and implemented this 13-year period. Gordon retired A national leader in the arts, she joined our Community Partners Program. from the Knight board in March 2004. the foundation in 1990 and helped President and CEO Hodding Carter’s His investment leadership set a path for launch the national Arts and Culture thoughtful essay on the following pages the outstanding work of Vice President Program. She became vice president further describes how our support of and Chief Investment Officer Timothy and chief program officer in September democratic institutions is the focus of Crowe and his staff. We are grateful for 1996. In that role, she helped lead the Knight Foundation’s ongoing mission. Gordon’s wisdom, good judgment and foundation through its recent strategic Nurturing democracy is a continuing common sense in his role as a trustee. planning process, and she played a key challenge and a never-ending opportu- As a new year begins, my fellow role in the development of our new nity. It is an extraordinarily important trustees and I are pleased to be joined Community Partners Program. role we strive to play in our society. by North Carolina banker L.M. “Bud” We are delighted that Michael Baker Jr. Bud joined Wachovia Corp. in Maidenberg will be joining the founda- 1969 and retired in 2003 as chairman tion as vice president and chief program of the board. His career at Wachovia officer this spring. He is a man of great W. Gerald Austen, M.D. included stints as president and chief ability and judgment and has a solid Chairman executive officer, chief operating officer, president of Wachovia’s North Carolina The Year in Review Jan. 1, 2003 – Dec. 31, 2003 bank, chief credit officer and manager of the international division. He helped Assets:* $1.846 billion engineer the merger of Wachovia with Grants paid out: $90.4 million Proposals received: 432 First Union Financial Corp., creating New grants approved: $128.7 million (349 grants) what is today the nation’s fourth-largest Average approved grant: $368,823 bank. He has been and continues to be very involved in a number of nonprofit *At Dec. 31, 2003 20 0 3 A NNUAL RE PORT 3
  6. 6. FROM THE PRESIDENT An Unfinished Work T he geniuses, not merelythis republic Founding Fathers of views and is willing to finance the role were because the of government; new, unexpected factors Declaration of Independence and the such as the great flood of immigration Constitution they forged became basic of the past 20 years; changing mores documents propelling the long march and the surfacing of demands for change of humanity toward truly free, demo- that sharply conflict with the clear moral cratic and open societies. They were imperatives of other Americans: All of also geniuses because those documents these and numerous other threads are repeatedly made clear and left open the part of the warp and woof of contempo- possibility that constant change would rary life. They inevitably affect Knight’s be required to improve upon their work. decisions about what we can most usefully They did not pretend to be infallible, support and what is, for the moment, less Hodding Carter III nor did they decree that their monu- important or undoable given our limited mental work should be treated as an resources. untouchable monument. But, like others in philanthropy, we a finished work.” Over a century later, As a result, the history of the United have determined that reinvigorated civic it still isn’t, which is something we at States is the history of ever-evolving participation is a must if the essence of Knight Foundation experience virtually efforts to create “a more perfect Union.” the American creed is to be preserved every day in our communities and in The 27 amendments to the Constitution and enlarged: our journalism-related and National Ven- in themselves contain revolutionary ✔ The new Americans must be incorpo- ture Fund work. That fact is a challenge additions to, and expansions upon, the rated into the body politic. and an opportunity. It is simultaneously Founders’ original framework. There ✔ All Americans should be encouraged the source of the nation’s vitality and a might not have been a Constitution if to rediscover and recommit to the constant threat to its stability. Nothing there had not been belated agreement underlying political philosophy that is finished in the here-and-now; nothing to adopt the Bill of Rights, the first 10 has historically defined our nation – is certain about the future of our grand amendments. The very notion of who is even when it was far more narrowly venture in self-government. entitled to citizenship was fundamentally restricted by law and practice than Knight Foundation is hardly unique in altered by later amendments, just as the it is today. No less they should be realizing that there are numerous tasks nation’s future was altered dramatically encouraged to take individual action, before the nation as it continues to try by the outcome of the Civil War. from voting to participation in civic to perfect the state of the Union, and There is an interesting way to illustrate life, that takes advantage of the free- that we share responsibility for tackling this point, offered by the great Princeton doms flowing from that philosophy. some of them. There is no clear ideolog- Civil War historian James McPherson. ✔ Those who have done well, those who ical or political road map on this subject, Before the Civil War, he has noted, the most benefit from the ordering of no infallible text. The circumstances in common usage was to say, “The United affairs in contemporary America, which we take on this work are fluid. A States are…” After the war, it gradually should particularly be encouraged to constant ebb and flow in how the public became, “The United States is…” In make common cause in this effort, that change of verb form, from plural to remembering the injunction, religious singular, lay a major shift in both reality and political, that “of those to whom ‘... there are numerous and image for the nation that emerged much is given, much is required.” tasks before the nation as from the Revolutionary War. We are one. The notion of “I’ve got mine, Jack” is it continues to try The United States is. a far cry from “E Pluribus Unum.” It was against the nation’s history up As Jerry Austen noted in the preceding to perfect the state of the until his time that the American philoso- pages, our grant making in each of our Union.’ pher John Dewey observed that the Amer- three program areas increasingly reflects ican “experiment in democracy is not this conviction. As heirs of the Founders’ 4 J O H N S . A N D J A M E S L . K N I G H T F O U N D AT I O N
  7. 7. FROM THE PRESIDENT George Washington’s statue watches over Samantha and Sean Black in Signers Hall at the National Constitution Center in Philadelphia. genius, we owe this to them as well as civic education in the schools has bottom, not from the top; that the genius our heirs. become a sometime thing at best. By which springs up from the ranks of In last year’s annual report Dr. Austen what they collectively don’t do as citi- unknown men is the genius which renews said something else that is particularly zens, they pose a direct threat to a the youth and energy of the people.” relevant to this subject. “Knight trustees Union repeatedly perfected over the agreed that a major focus of our grant past 200-plus years and now placed making is aiding those least able to squarely in our hands. help themselves.” As it turns out, those What further animates my thinking on Hodding Carter III who are most alienated or distant from this subject comes from something writ- President and CEO the nation’s civic life are disproportion- ten by Woodrow Wilson 90 years ago: ately drawn from precisely such fellow “When I look back on the processes Americans. They are joined in the of history, when I survey the genesis of growing army of apathy and nonpartici- America, I see written over every page: pation by young Americans, whose that the nations are renewed from the 2003 ANNUAL REPORT 5
  8. 8. We the People ... ? In order to form 31/19 In the hotly contested 2000 presidential ... in order to form a more perfect Union? election, Al Gore won more popular votes, 45min. 48.4 percent to 47.9 for George W. Bush. Bush won the electoral vote, 271– 266, yet took 31 of the 50 states, creating the uneven In Knight communities where drivers com- ... establish Justice? red state/blue state continental U.S. map. mute 45 minutes or more, trust of others 25% is weaker for everyone. Translation: Urban sprawl could well be bad for community engagement. The U.S. graduation gap for black high school students in 2001 (while 75 percent of white students graduated, only 50 percent of blacks did so). ‘A nation is never finished. You can’t build it and then leave it standing as the Pharoahs did the pyramids. It has to be built and rebuilt, recreated in each generation by believing, caring men and women. It is now our turn. Today our communities need us desperately.’ – John W. Gardner Founder, Common Cause George Washington First president of the United States 6 J O H N S . A N D J A M E S L . K N I G H T F O U N D AT I O N
  9. 9. a more perfect Union? Historic and recent trends, some documented by the numbers shown below, paint a mixed picture of the state of today’s Union.* ... insure domestic Tranquility? $446,000 ...provide for the common Defence? 120 The median housing value in Santa Clara County (San Jose) in 2000 (compared with the U.S. median of $119,600). Number of new exemptions annually, since ... promote the general Welfare? 2001, to Florida’s sunshine laws protecting 55% access to information – twice the rate as in each of the previous six years. Percentage of Americans who read news- papers in 2002 (compared with 81 percent in 1964). ... and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity? 46% Percentage of Americans who said the press in America has too much freedom to do what it wants, up from 42 percent the year before. 2003 ANNUAL REPORT 7 *See inside back cover.
  10. 10. We the People ... 5% Percentage point increase between 1999 and 2002 of residents in Knight communities who believe that people like themselves can have a big impact in making their community better. ... in order to form a more perfect Union 8Number of key areas addressed in new guidelines adopted by the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB) for university trustees, encouraging them to become more engaged in oversight of intercollegiate sports. The guidelines are in keeping with a recommendation of the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics. ‘We are not afraid to entrust the American people with unpleasant facts, foreign ideas, alien philosophies, and competitive values.’ – President John F. Kennedy At Knight Foundation, we’re privileged every day to work with partners and funding recipients in journalism and communities who take on tough issues and confront unpleasant facts – because it’s the right thing to do. They work with the neediest among us, striving to improve the quality of journal- ism globally and making communities more livable, producing numbers in the form of results. In so doing, they give us all reason for optimism. 8 J O H N S . A N D J A M E S L . K N I G H T F O U N D AT I O N
  11. 11. ... establish Justice ... promote the general Welfare 113 30 ‘It is wonderful how much may be done if we are always doing.’ Number of sixth graders in Milledgeville who Number of U.S. inmates on Death Row exon- will work from now through their high school erated with evidence of their innocence since – Thomas Jefferson graduation with Dr. Michael Carrera and a 1973. In North Carolina, efforts to continue host of community volunteers in a full-scale reviewing such cases are led by the Center youth development program. on Actual Innocence, launched by a Knight p.10 Bill Moyers’ reporting got Americans grant in 2002 to Duke University. to care about media ownership p.14 Charlotte Grimes gets her students fired up about political reporting ... insure domestic Tranquility $62 million p.18 Carolyn Robinson trains journalists in the world’s newest democracies p.20 Arnold Gaither helps Lexington take New dollars from the Earned Income Tax responsibility for children’s education Credit program coming into Miami-Dade County in the first year of the Miami p.24 Robert Farley and Team NEO plan to Prosperity Campaign. boost the Northeast Ohio economy p.28 Paula Lynn Ellis helps Myrtle Beach ... and secure the Blessings of Liberty envision a new wave of volunteers ...provide for the common Defence to ourselves and our Posterity. 554 530 p.30 Richard Kimball holds candidates accountable for their issues Crimes per 10,000 residents in Knight p.34 Ted Selker and Michael Alvarez Number of high school teachers trained to communities in 2000, down considerably seek secure voting systems revitalize high school journalism from 2001 from 718 per 10,000 a decade before. to 2003. Nearly all have gone on to start or p.38 Shona Chakravartty helps new improve newspapers. Americans learn to participate 2003 ANNUAL REPORT 9
  12. 12. JOURNALISM Q & A Reporting News in the Public Interest A Knight Foundation grant to the Public Broadcasting Service made it possible for the Friday night television series, NOW with Bill Moyers, to add coverage of media issues. The show pioneered coverage of the Federal Communications Commission plan to allow commercial media compa- nies to grow larger. Following protests, Congress reduced the FCC’s rules somewhat, allowing no single company to own more than 39 percent of the national television market, and is considering other changes to the FCC’s ownership guidelines. We asked Bill Moyers – documentary film- maker, investigative journalist, public service broadcaster and now media critic – about the story. Q: Americans went from not knowing about the FCC approval of In an era of 24/7 news – relentless coverage that makes little effort to discern the wheat from the chaff – it’s difficult for even the most media mergers to protesting loudly to Congress. What happened? attuned citizen’s ear to grasp what issues are important. With the A: A combination of strong reporting and grassroots activism – that’s Internet – online newspapers, blogs, streaming media, e-mail alerts – what happened. Walter Lippmann defined news as information people and round-the-clock cable channels, Americans are inundated … need to act on as citizens. In this case, journalism helped people surfeited. You’re called upon to be your own news editor. Hard enough understand that something was going on behind official and closed under normal circumstances when you have a job, family, community activities to keep up with. doors that was very important to them – and then those people did something about it. Then along comes deregulation … a handful of companies set the Bill Moyers, on the set of NOW with Bill Moyers. His reporting on FCC hearings into media ownership caught the public’s attention. 10 J O H N S . A N D J A M E S L . K N I G H T F O U N D AT I O N
  13. 13. Journalism agenda, motivated by the bottom line, defining what’s “news.” As the Q: What concerns you most about the state of journalism? American Journalism Review [said recently], the big media news companies in effect conducted a blackout of coverage of their own A: The realities that face journalism today should trigger alarms. lobbying of the FCC. Consider the following: Only 13 percent of eligible young people cast A year before the FCC acted, our team at NOW in effect took on ballots in the last presidential election. A recent National Youth Survey media ownership as a “beat.” We stayed with it. We produced revealed that only half of the 1,500 young people polled believe voting reporting pieces. We interviewed people in the know – scholars like is important, and only 46 percent think they can make a difference Robert McChesney, journalists like John Nichols, FCC commissioners in solving community ills. The Carnegie Corp. conducted a youth chal- like Michael Copps … moguls themselves – Barry Diller, for one. We lenge quiz of 15- to-24-year-olds and asked them, “Why don’t more discovered the audience was with us on this; every time we did a young people vote or get involved?” Of the nearly 2,000 respondents, segment on media conglomeration, our website reverberated; letters the main answer was that they did not have enough information poured in. And we were virtually alone, so where else did people about issues and candidates. And yet, we are being inundated with have to go to find out this vital information about what was happen- “news” and information. Today, those contending giants of big gov- ing in their own government? ernment, big publishing and broadcasting are seeing eye to eye in The AP called us “the rare newscast” covering the issue. And the putting the public’s need for news second to free-market economics. proverbial “ordinary American” responded. One reader of The Fresno It’s clear that it’s not simply the cause of a free and independent jour- Bee wrote to the editor that we had “hit the bull’s-eye” and encour- nalism that is at stake today, but the quality of democracy itself. I aged people to call Congress. Our colleagues began to pay attention. know it’s a cliché, but clichés mean what they say – you can’t have CNN’s Jeff Greenfield mentioned the absence of media, including his democracy if people don’t know what they need to know. If journal- own network, in covering the story, pointing out NOW as the exception. ists don’t fill that need, who will? Do we really think the powers- Activists started watching in droves and linking to our web site, that-be – corporate or political – will do it? Secrecy is the enemy of shuttling the transcripts of the broadcast out into cyberspace where journalism. But so is the self-censorship that comes when journalists others were waiting to pick them up and pass them on. Events took are tethered by the constraints of the economic organizations that on a life of their own; the more we reported the story, the more peo- decide what’s news and what’s not. ple claimed it and shared it until a critical mass of awareness began to form “out there” – as we journalists like to say. It was really quite Q: What attributes will the next generation of newsroom leaders remarkable. And when the FCC finally acted, hundreds of thousands need and why? of them – some accounts say as many as two million – roared in protest. Washington was shaken by a powerful chorus of citizen opinion. A: One, the ability to do the right thing – accuracy, fairness, all that in the face of unprecedented competition. Two, a visceral instinct for Q: Does this mean it is possible to organize a “news consumer” what matters to democracy. Three, as old-fashioned as it sounds, a movement in America today? conviction that journalism is the public’s best friend. When the chips are down, who else can they count on? A: People get it – democracy needs a free and independent press. And yes, there is an active constituency of news consumers in America today – there always has been. At NOW we hear from them every week. It’s true that the big corporations would be satisfied if we just bought their “junk news” and settled for titillation instead of truth-telling. The media oligarchy (not my word, but Barry Diller’s) would prefer if we only wanted to know about Paris Hilton (so would Paris Hilton). If they can distract the general public with Michael Jackson they know they can purr and pay their way past the gate- keepers in Washington with no one noticing they are trespassing on democracy. But once awakened, public opinion will roar, as it did this time. Yes, I think media reform is going to be the catalyst in the next two years for the renewal of democracy. 20 0 3 A NNUAL RE PORT 11
  14. 14. J O U R N A L I S M I N I T I AT I V E S N A R R AT I V E News Professionals, Working Together For Knight Foundation, “a more perfect support to increase “news in the pub- union” in the world of journalism stands lic interest” – the news citizens need ‘If someone’s better for professionals working together to to help democracy itself become “a advance press freedom and journalism more perfect union.” trained, they become excellence. By working together, journalists hope more valuable.’ If cooperation is the measure, 2003 to raise the profile of these efforts, to was a good year: make them stand out in this age of media Walter Hussman Jr., above, leader of the Southern Newspaper Publishers ✔ A coalition of journalism groups overload. Jack Knight described that Association’s efforts to endow the spurred the creation of Tomorrow’s overload back in 1958: “Considering Traveling Campus program, which Workforce, a major nationwide push the conflicting points of view and ready trained 6,140 newspaper employees for improved training and midcareer rationalizations with which the public from 447 daily and nondaily newspa- pers in 2003. The program is a model education. is saturated by newspapers, magazines, for an industry working to improve ✔ New groups of citizen-advocates and radio and TV, it is mighty difficult these the quantity and quality of training. journalists promoted a Campaign for days not to be a confused person.” Freedom and other public projects to What’s new then, is not a call for better fight for a free flow of information. journalism, but rather how journalism ✔ Classrooms and newsrooms helped bring professionals and journalism founda- the latest technology to the cause of tions in this ever-more-confusing world news diversity through the creative web have been willing to set aside their collaboration, hypercompetitiveness and cooperate to ✔ Concerned news leaders sought new make the call together. 12 J O H N S . A N D J A M E S L . K N I G H T F O U N D AT I O N
  15. 15. J O U R N A L I S M I N I T I AT I V E S N A R R AT I V E EXPANDING MIDCAREER TRAINING In 2003, Knight Foundation expanded its campus-based midcareer training programs and took them on the road, either through traveling modules or on the information superhighway. Expanding their reach are the topic- based seminars at the Knight Centers for Specialized Journalism at the Univer- sity of Maryland and the University of Southern California. With the help of the Internet, the programs will expand further as trainees teach others upon their return to the newsrooms. Expanding too are: the Nieman pro- gram at Harvard, which again opened its doors to a narrative journalism confer- A 2003 grant will help Internews Network design a project to train Middle Eastern ence attended by 1,000; the Knight journalists in the United States. Fifteen print journalists from Cairo, Egypt – 13 Center for Journalism in the Americas women and two men – participated in an eight-week Internews training program at Western Kentucky University. at the University of Texas, which trained 1,500; the Committee of Concerned Journalists, which helped 1,400 raise their own newsroom standards; and the training. The result was a four-year ed Press Managing Editors and the Southern Newspaper Publishers Associ- Knight grant to Northwestern University Radio and Television News Directors ation, which traveled to more than 20 to launch Tomorrow’s Workforce. Foundation (RTNDF) to show 1,000 sites and trained 3,500 journalists, Program director Michele McLellan is middle managers each year the value of training; the Traveling Curriculum, some from small papers who were will- meeting with chief executive officers ing to drive up to 100 miles for training. and working with newsrooms to improve a project of the Committee of Concerned In all, Knight training programs the quantity and quality of their training. Journalists and the Project for Excel- reached some 12,500 journalists in 2003, Her project will explain how midcareer lence in Journalism that demonstrates about 10 percent of the nation’s estimat- training improves newsroom quality, exactly how focused training can have ed 125,000 general news journalists. productivity, retention and diversity, and a direct impact on news content; and News University, a project by the Why are journalists so hungry for why better-trained journalists are essen- midcareer development? Because they tial to the 21st century media world. Poynter Institute to give journalists a don’t get enough at work. A Knight Tomorrow’s Workforce was the lead taste of training with e-learning via the Foundation study for the Council of grant in a $10 million, three-year jour- World Wide Web. National Journalism Organizations nalism training initiative announced in But the greatest early success story is the Traveling Campus program showed the $100 billion-a-year news 2003 by Knight Foundation. The initiative includes: The Learning industry spends just 0.7 percent of pay- launched by the Southern Newspaper Newsroom, a joint project between the roll on professional development, Publishers Association. This unique roughly a third of the national average American Society of Newspaper Editors traveling training is a model for others of 2 percent. (ASNE) and the American Press Institute, because the industry itself – through After that study was released, a coali- to show top editors at newspapers of all a $10 million endowment that is nearly tion of more than 40 professional groups sizes how they can change newsroom raised – will support this program in recommended a project to encourage culture to create “learning organizations;” perpetuity. NewsTrain, a project with the Associat- greater news industry investment in “If someone’s better trained, they 2003 ANNUAL REPORT 13
  16. 16. J O U R N A L I S M F E AT U R E An Activist for Political Reporting T he watercolor on her office wall is called Dawn. Her artist husband, Grimes, in ’89, covering the Panama invasion and holding an M-16; Tom W. Whitford, painted it. Lots of blues with a bright red streak Grimes in ’91, chasing an annoyed Sen. John Danforth, R-Mo., up through the center. the steps of the Russell Office Building during the Anita Hill-Clarence It’s small, but bold – just like Charlotte Grimes, the 5-foot-11/2-inch Thomas hearings; Grimes in ’92 with a C-130 Air Force crew that Knight Chair in Political Reporting at Syracuse University. flew into Liberia to retrieve the bodies of three nuns slain in the civil There, in the S.I. Newhouse School of Public Communications, Grimes war; and Grimes, in a gold satin jumpsuit, posing with Bill and Hillary preaches her own passionate gospel of journalism and political report- Clinton at a White House Christmas party. ing to the next generation of journalists. She teaches three courses “You have to be adaptable,’’ she says. a year, and hopes her students will become a small but fierce “guerrilla The former Washington correspondent with the St. Louis Post- army’’ to reclaim journalism from some of its modern-day problems. Dispatch has just finished teaching a class and is about to head to New Hampshire with 20 students to cover the primary. Since taking GRIMES NEWS the Knight Chair in the spring of 2003, she has helped develop several ON “Minor stories, such as celebrity scandals, constantly get recycled special projects, including midcareer training that helps political reporters and take on a life of their own. It squeezes out the other more sub- use new online campaign finance databases, a Washington program stantive information. Take Michael Jackson’s arrest [for suspicion of for the S.I. Newhouse broadcast journalism students, and an April child molestation] … that’s like giving candy to a diabetic. We all 2004 national symposium on civil rights and the press to mark the love the sweets, but we’re going to die, socially and politically, if that’s 40th anniversary of the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the 50th anniversary our steady diet.’’ of the Brown v. Board of Education ruling. Grimes’ political journalism post is one of 17 Knight Chairs created ON ENGAGING YOUNG PEOPLE at top journalism schools nationally since 1990. Knight Chairs cover “Politics is life. We have to report more on young people as actors all facets of the profession, from business reporting to international in our society, not just as consumers of pop culture. We have to do journalism to the media and religion. more to show them how things affect their lives, like how the record- Grimes, 54, likes spy novels, murder mysteries and chocolate. But ing music industry is lobbying to put more restrictions on copyrights serious journalism is her life’s passion. She was the first generation or about a financial aid bill passed by Congress.’’ of her blue-collar family in Alabama to graduate from college and one of few to move away, and it happened because of two events. ON NEWSROOMS First was growing up a young woman in the South during the turbu- “There’s an awful lot of good journalism done every day across the lent 1960s: “The Civil Rights movement made me realize the courage country, but not enough. The profession is under terrible pressures … it took to be that voice for the voiceless.’’ Next was Vietnam. When I want to be a platform for ideas on how newsrooms can resist the her eighth-grade teacher assigned an essay on the U.S. military’s role temptation to create cookie-cutter journalism.’’ in Southeast Asia, Grimes searched newspapers and magazines for answers she could not find. “Most of the stories were about body ON ELECTION-YEAR COVERAGE counts or expositions of domino theory,’’ she said. “But what did the people of Vietnam want? How would this affect us and Vietnam?’’ “Tactics and strategy and political insider dope cannot be the end-all It struck her, at 14, that she wanted to be a war correspondent, go and be-all. We need to help people understand how the issues affect to Vietnam and find some answers. “All of life is essay questions,’’ their lives. We need to do more fact checking – plain old shoe-leather Grimes said. “Our job as journalists is to help people answer those reporting.” essay questions of life.’’ The watercolor is just one of the pictures covering the walls of her fourth-floor office. Others are photos showing Charlotte Grimes checking things out: 14 J O H N S . A N D J A M E S L . K N I G H T F O U N D AT I O N
  17. 17. Journalism Knight Chair in Political Reporting Charlotte Grimes in her office at Syracuse University. On the wall is a photograph of her holding an M-16 and flanked by U.S. soldiers taken in 1989 during the invasion of Panama: “I like to impress upon my students that this is a woman who can carry a gun,” she jokes. 2003 ANNUAL REPORT 15
  18. 18. J O U R N A L I S M I N I T I AT I V E S N A R R AT I V E experience they need to break into the become more valuable,” said Walter profession. In just two years, the RezNet Hussman Jr., leader of the SNPA effort. ‘Considering the conflict- project alone has placed 20 Native ing points of view and American students in newspaper intern- FREEDOM PRESS AND OF THE ready rationalizations ships – significant progress given that FREEDOM INFORMATION OF with which the public is only 300 Native Americans currently Cooperation works. The Inter American saturated by newspapers, work in daily newspaper newsrooms. Press Association this year launched magazines, radio and a public campaign to draw attention to NEWS IN THE PUBLIC INTEREST the murder of journalists in the Americas. TV, it is mighty difficult Knight grantees are making these new North and South American newspaper these days not to be a efforts in support of an old idea: that owners united to donate $3 million in confused person.’ journalism is a public trust. “No princi- advertising space. Results: Traffic to ple is more important than excellence,” IAPA’s Impunidad web site increased – John S. Knight, 1958 said former Knight Ridder executive 500 percent. Convictions of assassins of and Knight Foundation chairman Lee journalists increased. Colombia agreed Hills, in 1981. “It is not a goal to be to reopen all its old cases. A broadcast sought and one day acquired and then DIVERSITY NEW MEDIA version of the campaign starts this year. AND retired to the trophy case. It is instead The World Wide Web has attracted a If freedom of information and freedom an ambition which must be pursued series of collaborations. One, highschool- of expression efforts are to succeed, they anew each day.”, the product of ASNE, must have public support. In the United Journalism excellence – the accurate, RTNDF and journalism educators, aims States, the Advertising Council was fair, contextual pursuit of the truth – to create 1,000 new high school news given the nod to help bring press free- acts in the public interest. Good jour- outlets in the next three years, most at dom messages directly to the American nalists verify and clarify. They monitor schools with a majority of students of public in its Campaign for Freedom, power as fair, independent auditors. Their color. So far, 350 new student outlets which has received an estimated $100 news is interesting, relevant, presented have been created. A second effort, million in airtime. In Washington, D.C., in context. They consciously seek truth, has worked two coalitions have formed. Journalism on behalf of their whole community. with more than 100 major companies, groups have come together to fight for At times, this means bringing forward including CNN and The New York freedom of information with the help of news that is unwelcome but necessary Times, to make it easier for consumers a coordinator at the Reporters Committee to the public good. Toward that end, to understand the difference between for Freedom of the Press. Another coali- Knight has increased support for advertising and news on the web. tion of citizen-advocates, coordinated by TRACFED, the Syracuse University A joint project between the Society of OMB Watch, is taking the case to policy- project that has created the best data- Professional Journalists and the National makers that secrecy beyond the bounds base tool yet for journalists and citizens Council of Journalism Organizations hopes required for security is dangerous to who want to track federal government to use the power of the computer to any democracy. spending, court decisions and agency coordinate journalism training projects. Additional free press grantees include actions; the Center for Public Integrity, SPJ launched, a the National Freedom of Information the nation’s leading nonprofit investiga- searchable national calendar. And finally, Coalition, which has helped groups start tive reporting unit; and Investigative two new teaching tools, blackcollege- in more than 30 states; the Student Press Reporters and Editors, which trains and are – with Law Center, currently raising an endow- journalists internationally to be better the help of the Black College Communi- ment to support a free student press; watchdogs on behalf of us all. cations Association, the University of and the National Security Archive Fund, Can newspapers be tough, but still Montana and the Robert C. Maynard which continues to obtain and release fair? Yes, says Knight’s Journalism Institute for Journalism Education – volumes of government information Advisory Committee chair, Sandra Mims providing students with the writing under the Freedom of Information Act. 16 J O H N S . A N D J A M E S L . K N I G H T F O U N D AT I O N
  19. 19. J O U R N A L I S M I N I T I AT I V E S N A R R AT I V E David Burnham, co-founder and co-director of the Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse (TRAC), presents TRACFED, a database for journalists and citizens based on federal records. He presented at a gathering of Internet-oriented Knight journalism grantees in Kansas City, Mo. Rowe, who as editor of The Oregonian turing of politicians and bureaucratic over with the soul and substance of the in Portland won the 2003 Editor of the pronouncements, but a voice of substance community.” Year award at the National Press and caring, a voice authentic and Soul and substance: Together, some- Foundation. uniquely useful, a voice that reflects thing worth working on. ✔ For details on 2003 grants, see Page 59. Good news organizations, Rowe says, the face of the age at that time and in “give a community voice – not a remote, that place.” Good journalists, she adds, institutional voice filled with the pos- are “fiercely independent and brimming 2003 ANNUAL REPORT 17
  20. 20. JOURNALISM FIRST PERSON Exporting News to New Democracies Knight International Press Fellow Carolyn Robinson, whose wide-ranging journalism career began as a producer with CNN, has spent most of the last decade in Asia. She recently completed an extended Knight Fellowship in East Timor. Here, in her own words, is her experience in the nascent democracy. “W hen the flag of independence went up, TV went down,” said city of Dili, so I began looking outside to the districts. I found some a resident of Baucau, describing poignantly to me how much people radio journalists to the east, in Baucau, and asked if they’d like to missed local television news in East Timor’s second-largest city. learn video production in their spare time. They were quite excited; East Timor’s only television station, TVTL, had struggled to find a they told me they had just formed a community arts group called creative way to distribute its news bulletins around the country – “Creativision” and were looking for some training. even though virtually no functioning TV transmitters or microwave Within half an hour, word had spread and about 20 young television links remained after August 1999, when pro-Indonesian militias producer hopefuls gathered at their clubhouse. I took an inventory of burned 80 percent of the country in the violence and destruction their resources – seven old computers ready for the scrap heap and a following the vote for Timorese independence. video camera on loan from one of the U.N. peacekeepers. Short on The United Nations-funded station had been using the U.N.’s informa- equipment but long on enthusiasm; how could I resolve this dilemma? tion network and couriers to distribute its taped programs to Baucau’s I had a Macintosh G4 Powerbook loaded with i-Movie editing soft- local TV transmitter, and to video projectors located in remote districts. ware and a Sony TRV30e handycam. What if I taught them the Thousands had appreciated seeing weekly local news reported for basics of news production using my own equipment, then produced the first time in the local language, Tetum. a basic newscast tape? Could we use this to convince some donors But when the U.N. handed over administration of the country to the or sponsors to provide them with their own cameras and computers? first democratically elected Timorese government in May 2002, TVTL I hired a local assistant – former TVTL producer Levi Branco – was suddenly left without cars, phones or international advisers. and together we began teaching the group how to shoot, write and The local staff was completely overwhelmed. Taping news programs edit a news story. Within three months, we had a credible half-hour and distributing them to all districts in the island nation was simply news bulletin shot, edited and taped. The finished reports may not too big a task. have been the timeliest news, but we hoped the total effort would be Right about then, I began work as a Knight International Press Fellow enough to impress the donors. in East Timor. The International Center for Journalists (ICFJ) had Our team also produced an interactive current affairs program, granted me this fellowship specifically because no other organizations Ask the Government, in which local community leaders posed ques- were focusing on training television journalists in East Timor after tions to government leaders. The reporters took these questions the U.N. mission withdrew. The program administrators asked, in a directly to cabinet ministers (including the prime minister), taped their nutshell, to see what I could do to develop independent television responses, then edited the questions and answers together with a journalism in the shattered country. brief discussion of the issues. In a nation inexperienced with this kind It was an uphill struggle. The usual international donors weren’t of government openness, the show proved surprisingly popular with even mildly interested in local television. They seemed mired in out- both citizens and officials, who were pleased with this new, direct dated notions about the cost of production, and weren’t particularly means of communicating with the populace. interested in exploring newer, cheaper technologies and delivery Word about our local project began to spread. Other groups saw that methods. Most couldn’t imagine why they should encourage television independent television production could be cheap, easy and practical. development in a place as poor and mountainous as East Timor. Several grassroots TV production teams have now sprouted in Dili, I couldn’t imagine why not to try some new, less expensive way. using the most basic computers and cameras. The population, about 800,000, is 60 percent illiterate and obviously And some of these small television groups are not waiting around craving any kind of locally produced video news and entertainment. for broadcast time. They’ve managed to secure video projectors and If I could find local journalists who were interested in creating independ- small generators and are arranging video nights in remote districts ent television news and programming, perhaps we could then get with hundreds of people attending. Others are considering burning sponsors and airtime for these programs on the national broadcaster. VCD copies of their programs, which can then be sold at a minimal TV production and distribution had become limited to the capital profit and distributed easily on the street. 18 J O H N S . A N D J A M E S L . K N I G H T F O U N D AT I O N
  21. 21. Journalism Carolyn Robinson works with journalists in East Timor, using easy-to-carry video and production equipment. Robinson became a Knight International Press Fellow in Dili, East Timor, and served in 2002 and 2003. I learned a lot in the process of teaching Timorese journalists. TV production and distribution don’t have to be huge financial undertak- BRUNEI MALAYSIA ings; the equipment I used to create their shows cost about $5,000 SINGAPORE and could fit in a large handbag. Broadcasting isn’t the only way for pro- grams to reach a wide audience. Developing countries no longer need INDONESIA to bankrupt their budgets to bring locally produced television pro- grams to their citizens. With 21st century technology, all that’s really needed is modest funding plus a little creativity, ingenuity and pas- EAST TIMOR sion for bringing TV news to any corner of the world. AUSTRALIA 2003 ANNUAL REPORT 19
  22. 22. COMMUNITIES Q & A ‘We’re All on the Same Page Here.’ Lexington has undertaken a full-scale effort to narrow the achievement gap between children from low-income families and their more affluent peers in the classroom. Knight Foundation is pledging up to $5 million over five years to support the communitywide effort to improve academic achievement. Arnold Gaither, chair of One Community, One Voice, offers the background on how the course was set. Q: Kentucky has a national reputation for education reform. How’d Q: One Community, One Voice has commitments from an astonishingly that come about? broad-based list of supporters from all segments of the community and at the state level. Does that raise the stakes and heighten expec- A: In 1989, the Kentucky Supreme Court ruled that the state’s system tations? of public schools was unconstitutional. It charged the state’s legisla- A: Yes it does, and it should. In my view, heightened expectations ture to create a new system of public schools that would provide every child with an equitable and adequate education. The legislature increase the chances the people will be more accountable for results. took the directive from the courts very seriously and created the We can no longer afford the price of what one researcher calls “an Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA) in 1990. KERA provided for education of the lowest expectations.” We have a moral obligation to a comprehensive program that started with a standards and account- our children to produce meaningful results. ability system that held schools accountable and created lots of Q: What, in fact, will One Community, One Voice do with the planning programs around it to help them meet those standards. Many elements within the state took up the banner of education, including grassroots grant you received from Knight? What will need to happen to improve organizations such as the Prichard Committee for Academic Excellence, educational equity in Kentucky? the Chamber of Commerce, education advocates, the business A: We’ve developed a comprehensive action plan that includes community and the media. One of the significant things about KERA is that 14 years later it is still intact. immediate, mid-range and long-range strategies for closing the gap. For example, our goal, printed on the cover of our report, says: “By Q: Knight’s Community Advisory Committee in Lexington spent pre- 2007, all students will be proficient in reading prior to entering first cious little time (compared to other communities) deciding to focus grade.” One Community, One Voice will hold the Fayette County our funding efforts there on closing the educational equity gap while Public School System accountable for results, and we will hold the improving academic achievement. Why this speed and certainty? community responsible for meaningful involvement in education inside and outside of the school buildings. A: Lexington has put education before so many other needs because Q: Complete this sentence: We’ll know One Community, One Voice we understand how important education is to the overall well-being of our community. Very simply put, the causes of so many of our will succeed when …. social, political and economic problems are affected by how we edu- A: When each and every child has access to and opportunity for a cate our children and prepare them for life’s challenges. Equally as important, over the past 15 years this community has engaged in high quality education. meaningful conversation about the educational outcomes of all ethnic groups. Because as a community we had discussed the issues – the good, the bad and the ugly – we were able to reach agreement that we had a problem that reached beyond ethnicity. The One Community, One Voice Achievement and Closing the Gap Community Committee was established by the Fayette County Board of Education in February 2002 to develop a plan to ensure that every child is on the same page. We’re all on the same page here. 20 J O H N S . A N D J A M E S L . K N I G H T F O U N D AT I O N
  23. 23. Communities Arnold Gaither, chair of the One Community, One Voice effort in Lexington, stands in front of the Fayette County school system headquarters. 2003 ANNUAL REPORT 21
  24. 24. C O M M U N I T Y PA R T N E R S P R O G R A M N A R R AT I V E Marking a Milestone Together,representFoundation’s 26 com- Knight from Long Beach to State College, from those local advisers. Through painstak- munities a pretty fair cross- Duluth to Biloxi – are concentrating ing deliberation, research and hard section of American locales. You’ll find grant dollars on local priorities identi- choices, our communities have zeroed college towns. Agricultural centers. fied by community advisory committees. in on the approaches, programs and Urban neighborhoods. Regional hubs. The foundation’s six priority areas methodologies that flow from their prior- That includes Charlotte, N.C., a cen- serve as a generous umbrella – well- ities and local capacity. In the process ter of the New South that now finds being of children and families, economic they have spearheaded coalitions, iden- itself home to a growing population of development, community development tified lead agencies, designed evaluations Hispanics, a great many from Mexico. and housing, civic engagement, vitality and otherwise set in motion forces for Barbara Guilds, a native of Argentina, of cultural life, and education. But thanks change that should continue beyond the describes how the Central Avenue mainly to the 246 experienced local life of the individual grants. Bilingual Preschool there already serves residents serving on those advisory Results will help us gauge progress, 60 children and has a growing waiting committees across the country, each but time is a necessary ingredient. In list. “The community has grown sub- Knight community has arrived at a dis- the meantime, examples of leverage and stantially, especially families with young tinctly local application to deal with its influence suggest Knight’s role is already children,” she says. “We’re proud of the issues. So Aberdeen’s committee is not being seen and felt. work we are doing, but it is not nearly just funding economic development in Collaboration has certainly been the enough to meet the needs of the grow- its corner of South Dakota, it’s working prevailing operational force, as illus- ing Hispanic population in Charlotte.” to mobilize the community toward a trated by the tale of two cities: Grand Illustrating what? That our communi- unified vision for growth. In Gary, the Forks, N.D., and East Grand Forks, Minn., ties are constantly challenged to meet well-being of children and families separated by the Red River and a state emerging needs, just as our nation has means making sure that a lack of child line. Despite proximity and because of always managed to adapt to seismic care won’t remain a barrier to parents those political and topographical barriers, demographic and economic shifts. getting and keeping jobs. And Bradenton’s the two communities considered them- We marked a milestone in Knight’s focus on middle-school youth empha- selves totally separate until, through the Community Partners Program in 2003. sizes volunteerism and civic participa- the local advisory committee’s work on Two and a half years into the reinvention tion as paths to positive behavior. regional economic development, the of our outcomes-based local funding All told we made 219 Community chambers of commerce of both towns program, all 26 Knight communities – Partners Program grants for more than came to realize the logic of an alliance $57 million in 2003. that benefited the entire region. (That’s in addition WELL-BEING OF CHILDREN AND FAMILIES to 11 grants totaling $22.3 million to It’s not surprising that 20 of our 26 enhance Knight communities have chosen to focus donor-advised funds attention and dollars on programs that as part of our address the needs of vulnerable children Community Founda- and their families. The American credo tions Initiative). has us believing that we foster democ- They are the col- racy through education in a system lective result of available to all. Best practices tell us extraordinary col- that the years before formal education laboration among and the hours outside the classroom staff and our non- matter as much as those spent in school. profit partners, and Our communities have chosen a range Children at the Little Early Childhood Education Center in Wichita listen raptly the unprecedented of approaches to preparing young peo- to a story during the launch of Wichita CARES (Children Able to Read will involvement of ple for productive roles in society. They Excel in School), a Knight-funded school readiness project. 22 J O H N S . A N D J A M E S L . K N I G H T F O U N D AT I O N
  25. 25. C O M M U N I T Y PA R T N E R S P R O G R A M N A R R AT I V E Against the January 2004 backdrop of downtown Duluth, Knight Community Advisory Committee Chair Marti Buscaglia announces grants by Knight Foundation to five organizations working to improve the region’s economic development climate through projects ranging from online resources to storefront improvements. fall into four broad categories: quality elementary schools. Meanwhile, the have mobilized around the issue, now enhancement, coordinated services, help School Readiness Coalition, in partner- being addressed by a strong and inclu- for families and youth development. ship with United Way and Kids Inc., sive Whole Child Leadership Council. was coming to a similar conclusion Though the need was there, and had Quality enhancement: In Tallahassee, based on an assessment of needs and been recognized by many in Tallahas- our Community Indicators research on consensus-building interviews. see, Knight’s investment has been a and the local knowledge of Knight’s Alfredo Cruz, Knight’s liaison for catalytic force. advisory committee showed the obvious: Tallahassee, was surprised one day Coordinated services: It’s not all the quality of child care in Leon County when a delegation from the coalition was abysmal. The big need for quality arrived unannounced with a request: about education, of course, when it comes child care lies in Southside, the under- Could they join in Knight’s efforts? to children. At-risk kids need all kinds served blocks south and east of Florida’s As the collaboration took shape, other of assistance – health care, mental high-rise Capitol. The foundation grant- funders such as the Lawton Chiles health services, and speech and lan- ed $1 million over four years to Florida Foundation have demonstrated leader- guage therapy – to make sure they are State University to improve the quality ship by declaring Tallahassee a Whole on track and thriving. of 10 preschools near two Southside Child community. Community leaders In several of Knight’s communities, 2003 ANNUAL REPORT 23