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Au Psy492 E Portfolio Thomas S


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Au Psy492 E Portfolio Thomas S

  1. 1. 1<br />Undergraduate Studies ePortfolio<br />Sharon Thomas<br />Psychology, 2011<br />
  2. 2. Personal Statement<br />My motivation is sustained by my continuing appreciation for psychological science and its ever expanding understanding of human behavior and interactions. Commitment to being a life long learner and an instructor of my knowledge is also what motivates me.<br />I aspire to communicate my interest in psychology by furthering my studies in the area of counseling. For many years I have touched and impacted the lives of many children and I wish to continue to be a force of change for those that are in the developmental stages of life. It is important to me that children are seen as a precious resource on this plant and cultivating their minds is of the utmost importance to the survival of the human species. Thus it is with rigorous exploration that I will seek to understand issues of child development and concentrate my efforts on understanding the developmental issues surrounding sexual identity and orientation. <br />The mind expanding learning that comes from my day to day interactions and connections with others have drawn me to want to explore what I am to contribute to the science of psychology and the human factors of behavior.<br />
  3. 3. Resume<br />Sharon Thomas<br />512 Twin Oak Court<br />High Point NC 27260<br />(336) 259-4622<br /><br /> <br />Summary of Qualifications<br />Communication<br />Listen carefully and attentively<br />Write well organized and documented reports<br />Present ideas effectively <br />Model behavior or concepts for others<br />Utilize all forms of technology <br /> <br />Leadership/management<br />Create innovative solutions to complex problems<br />Communicate well with all levels of the organization<br />Take risk, make hard decisions, be decisive<br />Manage personnel, projects and time <br />Facilitate conflict management<br /> Communicate well with diverse groups<br /> <br />Administrative<br />Communicate well with key people in the organization<br />Oversee communication, email and telephones<br />Use of medical equipment<br /> <br /> <br />
  4. 4. Resume Continued<br />Employment History<br />Personal Care Assistant, Guilford County School System, Greensboro, NC 1994 – present<br />Program Liaison, LL Reid Learning Center, Greensboro, NC 2004 – 2009<br />Certified Medical Assistant, Central Carolina Dermatology Clinic, High Point, NC 1990 – 1994<br /> <br /> <br />Education/Certification<br />BA from Argosy University online, Phoenix AZ September, 2011<br />Associate Degree in Medical Assisting, GTCC Jamestown NC, 1990<br />Associate Degree in Medical Office Administration, Brookstone College, Greensboro NC 1987<br />
  5. 5. Reflection<br />As I look back on my studies with Argosy University I have to smile very broadly. I came back to school after being away for many years and I truly surprised myself. I knew that my strengths lie in communication but the cyber communication was something that made me a bit apprehensive about continuing my education but I am glad that the faculty and staff at Argosy was there to encourage me. I have reached a major milestone in my life and I feel good. <br />As a student I strived to contribute to the discussions with reflections of my life experiences and the knowledge gained from the lectures and text readings as well as research gathered from various sources. I have been exposed to the major concepts of psychology and throughout the rest of my existence I will place emphasis on these issues as I embark on my career in the counseling realm..<br />I love to reflect on connections between psychology and other realms, such as music, literature, philosophy, history, religion, politics and popular culture through this reflection it is with great appreciation that I thank those who have been instrumental in helping to mold my mind and my character into what it is to be and what I will be able to contribute to the world. <br />
  6. 6. Table of Contents<br />Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy<br />Research Skills<br />Communication Skills: Oral and Written<br />Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br />Foundations of Psychology<br />Applied Psychology<br />Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />
  7. 7. Critical Thinking<br />Situational Strength vs. Situational Weakness<br />Course Project Module 2<br />Dr. Rainwater<br />Submitted by: Sharon Thomas<br />January 21, 2011<br /> <br /> <br />Situational Strength vs. Situational Weakness<br /> “Injunctive norms and scripts guide people toward appropriate and expected behavior” (Kenrick, 2007). In social context there are situations where behavior is expected to be a certain way and in these situations the events that occur usually happen in a sequential manner. These are situational strengths. In my life I like you experience situations where I am expected to act in a certain way. I use to work in a dermatology clinic as a clinical nurse. My strong situations occurred when I was assisting surgery specifically the removal of lesions from the body that were suspected as cancerous. The procedures for these surgeries followed the same protocol whether this or that doctor was performing the procedure. <br /> I view this situation as strong because I had to dress a certain way and have specific instruments to work with. There were specific places with the surgical room where I had to stand. There were specific ways in which I had to prepare the patient for the procedure. There were specific questions that I had to ask. As the procedure was underway I had to maintain the strong situational stance and there was no room for error. In this situation I knew the appropriate way to act and speak but what was expected from the doctors and the patients that I encountered. In the establishment where I was employed I knew that there were rules and protocols to follow and deviating from them could have meant the lost of my job.<br /> In contrast to strong situations there are weak ones as well that do not follow a scripted set of rules to apply. In these instances individuals can behave in a more casual manner. My weak situation was visiting a natural science center with the student I work with. The day was not scripted sort of like being impromptu. I did not have to behave in any given manner as set by rules. Weak situations do not follow set rule standards in this situation except when we viewed the Body Human exhibit, there were certain things that you could not do while in there and the room had a reverence to it. The bodies could not be touched and I observed that others in there were whispering while talking. I felt like I was at a funeral home viewing a dead body in a casket. <br /> As mentioned before, my weak situation was more laid back that the strong situation within the dermatology clinic. There were people there having conversations about the other exhibits, there were couples holding hands, there were children running, laughing and playing. There were interactive games and demonstrations to engage in. There were still others shopping at the gift store and others purchasing tickets and asking questions. Since weak situations do not follow injunctive norms people behave in a manner in which they want to without following a script as we did in the Body Human exhibit.<br /> In conclusion, my strong situations are those where I must behave in a specified manner set by injunctive norms. My weak situations are those were I can behave pretty much how I perceive the situation calls for.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />Reference<br />Kenrick, D. T., Nueberg, S. L., & Cialdini, R.B. (2007) Social Psychology: Goals in <br /> Interaction. Pearson<br /> <br /> <br />
  8. 8. Information Literacy<br /> <br />Journal Writing<br />A Class Divided <br />Feedback and Discussion<br />What did you learn? <br />While watching this documentary I learned that people can be really cruel to each other. Many times the premise for this cruelty is not even known. The children in this experiment treated each other with cruelty once the collars were given out. I think that when given the opportunity people who think that they are superior to others will commit malice acts just because they can. The children were friends prior to this experiment and during the two days their worlds were turned all around. <br />In the case of the prison workers I learned that discrimination was looked at as what someone else did. The blue eyes in this experiment were kept in the dark and when they encountered the browns they were met with much opposition. I learned that even though discrimination exist people tend to turn a blind eye and deaf ears to the situation. The blue eyes felt that they had no voice and could not openly express what was on their minds. They also did not stick up for each other. <br />I understand how the black race in America may feel the same way especially back then. Today it seems to be no different. I look at the black churches in this country and there are those that are working to create a better environment for all but for the most part at least what I have observed. If the system is working for them there is no reason to go to bat for a fellow citizen if it will not benefit all.<br />What scene or scenes do you think you'll still remember a month from now and why those scenes? <br /> I think that the scene after the children returned from recess on the day that the blue eyes were superior. Russell a blue eyed child was picking at John a brown eyed child and John resorted to violence to try to handle his frustration. Russell called John brown eyes. John punched Russell in the gut. He said that he did not feel better for punching him so nothing was satisfied. Also the scene where Brian was being chastised for being having brown eyes he was mouthing some really mean things to the teacher. It struck me funny that he was the one that really took pleasure in destroying his collar when given the go ahead from the teacher. To me this was very profound. I can imagine that many times in life people with differences would want to do the same thing if given the opportunity. An example of this to me was in the Michael Jackson. I think that he had a skin disease but I also think that he did not like looking in the mirror at the blackness of his skin because of the stigma that is associated with being black in this country. He simply changed his color and he probably felt that people accepted him more because he had white skin. <br />where in the population that these individuals fit<br />
  9. 9. Information Literacy Continued<br />Did any part of the film surprise you? Do you think someone of a different race, ethnicity, or religion would also find it surprising? Why or why not?<br />Nothing in the film about the children surprised me but when the experiment was taken to the prison. I was surprised by the statement that the white lady said about being discriminated against each and every day. She was a blue eyed that day. A brown made the statement that there is no way that she could know how it felt to wake up black in this country each day. It also surprised me that Ms. Elliot had the forethought to even conduct this type of experiment on children let alone adults.<br />How was the exercise that Elliott designed a response to the children's question, "Why would anyone want to murder Martin Luther King?" Did the film provide an answer to the question? Can you answer the question?<br />I think that Ms. Elliot was trying to show the children that there are those in society that will bring hurt, harm and danger to those that are different and that they feel are a threat to the whites feeling supreme over everyone else in this country. She wanted them to realize that skin color does not make you a good or bad person and that we are not to judge people based on skin color. I do not think that the film answered the question but it did shed light as to possible reasons why someone could do mean things to people just because of a skin color difference.<br />In the late 60’s up until the 90’s I could not answer the question as to why someone would want to kill Martin Luther King Jr. Today I know that the government in conjunction with the FBI and J. Edgar Hoover had much to do with his death. I think that it was racism at the highest level, the US government that responsible for his death as well as other black leaders in this country.<br />Then with more thought, respond to the following questions:<br />
  10. 10. Information Literacy Continued<br />How did the negative and positive labels placed on a group become self-fulfilling prophecies? <br />Ms. Elliot set up the scenario and because of how it was set up the children became what was said about them. It was noted that during an exercise with words the day the brown eyes did the exercise they did not do well at all and the blue eyes did but when the tables were turned the same thing happened with the blue eyes. I think that it was self-fulfilling because it showed what the power of suggestion and the feeling of inferiority can do to individuals. The same happened with the adults but there was not a turn about in this scenario the blue eyed people had to accept what was happening to them. Even with the feedback the blue eyes still were made to feel inferior.<br />Both Elliott and her former students talk about whether or not this exercise should be done with all children. What do you think? If the exercise could be harmful to children, as Elliott suggests, what do you think actual discrimination might do?<br />I think that this type of experiment could be done on adults but not children of today. I think that children could learn about discrimination by actually walking in the shoes of someone who is diverse in this population. For example an experiment could be set up to see what the impact of being handicapped and having to use a wheelchair to get around or a walking stick for someone blind or partially blind and the use of a translator for someone who cannot speak the language or sign language for someone who is deaf. I think that this type of experiment would benefit children and adults. <br />We live in a diverse society and not all are conscientious or even aware of the difficulties that many in society face not just because of skin color but for many other reasons that make them different from the norm. If children were to embrace all of these diversities we could in fact create a better society for all who live in this country and abroad.<br />
  11. 11. Research<br /> <br /> <br /> <br />Sexual Identity and Music Videos: A Black Girl Dilemma<br />Sharon Thomas<br />Argosy University<br /> <br /> <br />Abstract<br />While sexual orientation typically refers to more stable behavioral characteristics, sexual identity is typically conceptualized as recognition, acceptance, and identification with one’s sexual preference (Mohr, 2002), such that people are able to adopt or choose the sexual identity label that best fit their experiences (Ellis & Mitchell, 2000). This review looks at how sexual identity is influenced by mass media particularly that of music videos in adolescent females. Although there is interest in the female adolescent population this review focuses specifically on African American females and how their interpretation of rap music videos is based on their understandings of their cultural norms.<br /> <br /> <br />
  12. 12. Research Continued<br />Sexual Identity and Music Videos: A Black Girl Dilemma<br /> Although concern is often expressed that frequent media exposure may have a negative effect on the self esteem and racial self esteem of black female youth, evidence to support this assumption has been limited. While understanding that the media does expose negativity towards females in some instances, music videos may have altered the way black females view themselves. <br /> At a time when hip hop is mired in masculinity, and scholars are struggling for the soul of the movement through excavating legacies in a black nationalist past, black girls are faced with a dilemma of identifying with their sexuality because of the incessant bombardment of one dimensional images of black women in the music videos. The girls and women in the videos are reduced solely to the sum of their body parts (Oliver, et. al., 2009). This creates a dilemma for black girls who are young and impressionable struggling to find their own identity.<br /> One article examined how black women in hip hop have negotiated race, class, gender, and sexuality in an industry that consistently demoralizes them. It addressed the disappearance of the black female rapper and the rise of the video “vixen” and the implications this has for black girls coming of age during the height of the hip hop movement which is now. An important question was raised concerning black girls developing ways to being resistant and resilient to the media in the face of adversity and in the midst of the hip hop attack on black womanhood? One researcher suggested that the use of written and spoken word could become the new method for investigating black girlhood’s issues that arise from media and culture. <br /> The assumptions that media has a profound influence on sexual identity development was put to a test. Data was collected among 156 black female high school students, using measurements of testing connections among racial self esteem, three dimensions of self esteem and multiple forms of media use. Initial comparisons revealed media use to be a negative correlate of self esteem and further analysis demonstrated that this association varied depending on the media genre and the domain of self in question, the content of students’ media diets, and the individual characteristics of the viewer (Ward, et. al., 2004). To go along with this study other data was drawn from diaries, in-depth interviews and group observation interviews. The findings revealed that black girls’ interpretations of rap music videos are based on their understanding of their cultural norms. The analysis revealed that the girls, while critical of the limited range of bodies represented in the videos, also compared their own bodies with those idealized as “perfect” in the videos (Ward, et. al., 2004). In addition, the girls tended to view most male and female rappers as reifying stereotypical notions about black female sexuality and black male/female relationships.<br /> When studying the actions of persons and especially those that are still developing and maturing it is important to note that limitations will exist. It is believed that this type of study will be best suited if the participants are observed in several different contexts in order to better assess how music videos are embedded in the everyday lives of the girls. The study supported scholarship that argues that viewers are active participants in their interpretation of media test but that in some cases their interpretations support dominant ideologies. The study showed how by drawing upon factors such as race, class and culture help to appropriate those meanings in the context of the everyday lives of the girls.<br /> The materialization of the hip hop culture has evolved and continues to do so and many youth are has embraced it as a lifestyle (Drake, Y., 2010). Because of this it is critical for professionals in the mental health field to become more astute on how to communicate with youth and to use the social identity theory as the theoretical framework for understanding the experiences of the youth in the hip hop culture. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />Conclusion<br />African American girls who struggle with their identities the degree to which they are internalized or not, the conscious and the unconscious decisions made regarding what part of themselves to present and how they feel about themselves are all important areas of exploration in psychology. Exploration is essential if there is to be discernment of issues that are faced by this group of individuals in society.<br /> It is necessary to understand the development of self esteem in young black females as they try to identify with a culture, a race and the society in which they live. Several studies on this topic have indicated that black females’ ethnic identity, individual family, and peer factors were related to lifetime sexual issues. <br /> Further research is necessary to understand whether sexual identity and orientation of African American female youth is limited or exploited by exposure to mass media specifically music videos. <br />
  13. 13. Research Continued<br />It is an important research issue for the field of social health and psychology because through exploration of these issues light may be shed into the realm of self esteem and sexual identity development and if the music videos produced today are targeting this population as a means of exploitive prejudices against black females. Music videos have constantly driven “wild” to the next level. Video “vixens” have replaced the “divas” and the vixens take sex to another realm as well. In order that black girls develop resistance and resilience as well as a true sense of self, they will need to have strategies to build upon and research is needed to help develop these strategies so that this population is able to communicate their voice in society what- ever their sexual identity becomes.<br />Reference<br />Mohr, J. J. (2002). Heterosexual identity and the heterosexual therapist: Using identity as a framework for understanding sexual orientation issues in psychotherapy. The Counseling Psychologist, 30, 532-566.<br />Ellis, A.L., & Mitchell, R.W., (2000). Sexual orientation. In L. Szuchman & f Muscarella (eds.)<br /> Psychological perspectives on human sexuality, New York; John Wiley & Sons.<br />Shorter-Gooden, Kumea & Washington N. Chanell (1996) Young, Black and Female:<br />The challenge of weaving an identity. Journal of Adolescence 19(5) 465-495<br />Ward, L. Monique (2004) Wading through the Stereotypes: Positive and negative <br />Associations between media use and black adolescents’ conceptions of self.<br />Developmental Psychology. 40(2) 284-294<br />Oliver, Chyann L., (2009) “Don’t Believe the Hype”: The polemics of hip hop and the<br />Poetics of resistance and resilience in black girlhood. University of Maryland,<br />College Park<br />Drake, Camela Y., (2010) Phenomenological study into the Lived Experiences of Youth <br />In the Hip Hop Culture. Capella University<br /> <br /> <br />
  14. 14. Communication Skills<br /> <br />Persuasive Interview<br />Final Course Project Module 7<br />PSY405 UB Interviewing Techniques<br />Dr. Kimberly Van Putten-Gardner<br />Submitted by: Sharon Thomas<br />February 27, 2011<br /> <br /> <br />Persuasive Interview<br /> Persuasive interviews are designed to elicit information that is used in persuasive opportunities. The most common persuasive interview usage is in sales. Although sales do make up the majority of persuasive interviews, they can also be used for the purpose of recruiting, for garnering charitable donations, in forensics, and in situations requiring mediation and arbitration (Argosy University, 2011). For this interview I will interview an individual that I am acquainted with on a professional level.<br /> In planning for this interview there were ten questions that I devised and will be used to begin garnering information that will be later used to make a recommendation about a product that I want the individual to try. The questions are as followed:<br />Are you tired of diets that make big promises and later find that they do not work?<br />Are you a diabetic or have the doctor told you that you are borderline for diabetes?<br />Is hypertension a health issue that you or any family member deals with?<br />Are you easily winded when walking distances or walking up stairs?<br />Do you wake in the morning feeling rested?<br />How much time do you devote to caring for your own well being?<br />What determines your eating habits?<br />Are you concerned about your cholesterol?<br />
  15. 15. Communication Skills<br />Would you consider losing ten to fifteen pounds in less than 17 days if you could do it without having to exercise?<br />Are you ready to have a new life with more energy and have restful sleep each night?<br />The most commonly used and well-known persuasive interview technique is the Monroe motivated sequence (MMS) interview technique. The Monroe motivated sequence interview technique is made up of five steps: attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action (Argosy University, 2011).<br />The first three questions are designed to get the attention of the individual and ease them into what I am attempting to accomplish (Argosy University, 2011). The next three questions are designed to assess a need of the individual and how satisfied that they may be with their general health. The last of the questions gives visualization to the individual to be enticed to begin the program for weight loss.<br />In conducting the ten minute interview I gathered information that helped me make my recommendation for the book of the Seventeen Day Diet. As I had mentioned the individual in with I am interviewing is a professional colleague. She has been struggling with diets and her weight for some time and to no avail. I am speaking to her today because I think that she will be receptive to my sales pitch and I also know that she is desperate to lose weight because she is getting married in June.<br />In answering question the individual was candid and brutally honest about her health issues and is very eager to begin. I think that she was sold during the initial questions but question number nine really drove it home. She wants a diet plan that will allow her to change how she eats and one that educates in the process. She does not like to exercise and this program appealed to her in that manner. During to first cycle of the four cycle diet the body can’t experience excessive exercise and if followed correctly during the first cycle one is able to lose between 10 and 15 pounds. She was ready to sign on the dotted line when this bit of information was revealed. I think that the overall interview was very productive in accomplishing what I had intended and that was to sale the seventeen day diet plan and book.<br />The questions were answered as followed:<br />I am very frustrated with diets that promise to change my life because they have not delivered. I have tried all of the fads out there in dieting but to no avail. The food choices are boring and I have lost the weight only to gain it back in record time and much more that I had started out with.<br />
  16. 16. Communication Skills<br />I am a diabetic and I just began taking meds last month. I have had gestational diabetes while carrying my son and was warned about my sugar levels then but I thought that I was because I was pregnant. I have since delivered and three months afterwards I am on meds to control my sugar.<br />At this time I am currently on meds for hypertension.<br />I never have energy, walking from my car to my office gets me winded, doing laundry and simply caring for my child gets me winded.<br />No, I do not get a good night’s sleep, I am a mother of a small child.<br />I never take time for myself either. I tend to be a people pleaser.<br />My eating habits are determined by time and preparation and the money. It is very expensive to eat healthy.<br />Yes, where do I start<br />Yes, I would start today. How much does the book cost and how soon can I get it.<br />As you can see this individual is honestly very excited about what I have offered to her. This was based on a real occurrence and the individual has begun the 17 Day Diet and is now in the 10th day and doing very well. She has lost a total of 9 pounds. <br />Reference<br />Argosy University, (2011) PSY405 UB Interviewing techniques: Module 7 lecture: Retrieved<br /> February 27, 2011 from<br />
  17. 17. Ethics<br />Ethics in Psychology <br />Course Project  <br />Imposing Values on Clients  <br />Course Code: PSY430<br />Dr. Cecile Irvine <br />Submitted by: Sharon Thomas<br />Week 3: Final Project <br /> <br /> <br /> Ethical practice is about allowing clients to work according to their own value systems and not about imposing personal systems on the clients (Argosy University, 2011, p. 2). With a wide range of clients, differing background, diverse cultures and value systems, it is important that counselors be aware of the systems to be effective helpers.<br /> The ACA Code of Ethics serves five main purposes and contains eight sections that address the counseling relationships, confidentiality, professional responsibility, relationships with other professionals, evaluation, assessment and interpretation, supervision, training and teaching, research and publication and resolving ethical issues. Through a chosen ethical decision-making process and evaluation of the context of the situation, counselors are empowered to make decisions that help expand the capacity of people to grow and develop (ACA Code of Ethics, 2005 Revised). To avoid ethical violation, counselors should realize that it is healthy to understand their limitations and to know when they need to refer the client to a different source (Argosy University, 2011).<br /> Section A of the Code of Ethics addresses counseling relationships and within this section the standard A.4 Avoiding Harm and Imposing Values: A.4.a. Counselors act to avoid harming their clients, trainees, and research participant and to minimize or to remedy unavoidable or unanticipated harm. A.4.b.: Personal Values: Counselors are aware of their own values, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors and avoid imposing values that are inconsistent with counseling goals. Counselors respect the diversity of clients, trainees and research participants.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
  18. 18. Ethics Continued<br /> The Ethics Code applies only to psychologists’ activities under APA standards. The code applies to activities across a variety of contexts, such as in person, postal, telephone, internet, and other electronic transmissions. These activities shall be distinguished from the purely private conduct of psychologists, which is not within the purview of the Ethics Code.<br /> Principle A: Beneficence and Nonmaleficence: Psychologists strive to benefit those with whom they work and take care to do no harm. They seek to safeguard the welfare and rights of those with whom they interact professionally and other affected persons. They are alert to and guard against personal, financial, social, organizational or political factor that might lead to misuse of their influence. They strive to be aware of the possible effect of their own physical and mental health on their ability to help those with whom they work.<br /> Principle E: Respect for People’s Rights and Dignity: Psychologists respect the dignity and worth of all people, and the rights of individuals to privacy, confidentiality, and self-determination. Psychologists are aware that special safeguards may be necessary to protect the rights and welfare of persons or communities whose vulnerabilities impair autonomous decision making. They are aware of and respect cultural, individual role differences, including those based on age, gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity, cultural or national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, language, and socioeconomic status and consider these factors when working with members of such groups. Psychologist try to eliminate the effect on their work of biases based on those factors, and they do not knowingly participate in or condone activities of others based upon such prejudices.<br /> Standard 2.06 of the APA Ethics Code: Personal Problems and Conflicts (A) Psychologist refrain from initiating an activity when they know or should know that there is a substantial likelihood that their personal problems will prevent them from performing their work related activities in a competent manner.<br />
  19. 19. Ethics Continued<br /> Within the scenario Joe the counselor has made several violations of the ACA Ethics Code and the APA Ethics Code. The first of that being imposing religious values and beliefs on the client, Jill has mentioned that she is attracted to women. Joe displayed shock to the client and also told her to avoid thinking about the issue and to pray for forgiveness. The ACA standard A.4.b is the one in violation for this situation. Joe tried out a new hypnosis technique on Jill even though she declined. Standard A.4. is violated. Do no harm to the client. <br /> The counselor (Joe) throughout this scenario made many mistakes with the client (Jill) which all falls under the ethics code of ACE Section A. Breach of confidentiality when he went to Jill’s boss and discussed her issues, he did not provide a referral when he knew that his feeling for Jill were getting to a unprofessional level, he also had a sexual relationship with Jill and Joe did not follow proper protocol for terminating his job or his clients. Joe had sexual indiscretions with his supervisor which made it difficult for him to act professional and within the ethical codes as set by the ACA.<br /> Compared to the ACA standards the APA standards for Joe’s violations fell within Principles A and E. The differences are that the principles outline what is expected and the standards allows for specifics in the code. Standard 2.06 spells out the violation and it is further specified with outline to each standard. For example standard 2.06 has two sections that address similar issues. Both ACA and APA operate for those who work in the helping industry of counseling and psychotherapy. The Introduction of the APA discusses the intent, organization, procedural considerations, and scope of application of the Ethics Code. The Preamble and General Principles are aspirational goals to guide psychologists toward the highest ideals of psychology. Like the APA the ACA has a preamble and general principles that are used as a guide for counselors.<br />References<br />Argosy University, (2011) PSY430 Ethics in Psychology: Module 3: Imposing values pg.2: <br /> Retrieved March 21, 2011 from<br /> <br />ACA Ethics Code (2005) Retrieved March 21, 2011 from<br /> ACA_Code_of_Ethics.htm<br /> <br />APA Ethics Code (2011) Retrieved March 22, 2011 from<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
  20. 20. Diversity<br />Diversity<br /> <br />Course Project: Exploring Diversity through Self-Examination<br /> <br /> <br />Course Code: PSY312<br /> <br />Submitted by: Sharon Thomas<br /> <br />Date: December 1, 2010<br />
  21. 21. Diversity Continued<br />Week 5: Final Project <br /> <br />When Shelly saw Ms. Jones in a wheelchair, she felt sorry for her. She said a little prayer of thanks that she could walk and move freely without any hindrance. However, feeling badly for a person and actually stepping into the wheelchair for another vantage point can be very different. <br /> <br />Imagine that you suffered an accident six months ago, which left you partially paralyzed from the waist down. You are currently seeking counseling from a professional specializing in working with the disabled. It has been a difficult six months. Your central concerns relate to the emotional and physical adjustments you must now make in relation to your family, job, and future plans. You are permanently in a wheelchair and have limited use of your legs but full use of your arms and upper body. <br /> <br />Identify three major issues that you think you would need to work through in therapy. Explain what aspect of each issue is problematic for you. <br /> <br />The first major issue that I will have to work through is dealing with being dependent on others to help me get around. I am very independent and have always been. I know that adjusting to needing someone to help me would frustrate me in the beginning. I think that this issue may only be solved through the passage of time. Perhaps therapy can help me to occupy my time with other things and thoughts while this time is passing. The next issue would be not being able to perform my duties on my job. I work with someone who is permanently in a wheelchair and I will not be able to do for him as a result of the accident and this would really make me angry, frustrated and a bit of self pity. I know that this is one issue that would take some adjusting and creativity to overcome. I know that my student will understand what I am going through but I will feel that I had let him down. The fact that my livelihood for finances would be put on hold is stressful enough I will certainly need to be diligent about getting to the place in my mental and emotional life to find other means of drawing an income. Finally I think that I would just have an issue with not being able to feel the bottom half of my body. <br /> <br />Explain how your views on intimacy, usefulness, and security will change for you to make the necessary adjustments to live with the disability. <br />I would hope that my views on intimacy would not change but my views about sex and feeling the sexual feeling that one gets down below would. Sex is a large part of my intimate relationship and to not have that feeling would really be sad. Adjusting to that would be difficult but I am sure over time I would be able to deal with it and find creative ways to achieve that feeling. As far as usefulness goes I think that with the use of my arms I could be a bit more useful that if not. Being paralyzed from the waist down would be difficult but having arms to use much could be accomplished. I am sure that self pity will raise its head for a while and I will feel that since I cannot walk I am of no use but time will change that view. I am a very optimistic individual and I find good in bad situations so with this I know that there will be challenging moments but with belief and a positive attitude I will be able to deal and lead a prosperous and fulfilled life. Being in a secure setting is a concern and I think that it would be necessary to make adjustments in my home to be secure when getting around the house and taking a bath or shower. I would have to make adjustments in the kitchen and bathroom to accommodate my wheelchair and put things in reach and proper heights so that I can live independent in my home. Other adjustment and modifications will need to be done in order that I am safe when entering and exiting my home and getting into my car and even driving. Driving will be something that I may need to put on hold until I was able to get a conversion vehicle to accommodate my chair. <br /> <br />How well do you think you would cope with this situation if you actually faced something similar in real life? <br /> <br />I truly do not think that I would cope very well with this situation at the onset. I have lost the use of my legs for about 6 months in 1995 and it was a very scary situation for me. I went to bed one evening very normal only a slight ache in my lower back that I thought nothing of just took an Aleve and went to sleep. When I awoke the next morning I swung my legs off the side of the bed and they felt as though they weighed ten thousand pounds apiece. I went to stand and all was well until I could not take the first step no matter how hard I tried. My brain was saying pick up your foot and move it forward, but my foot was not responding. I fell back on the bed and just laid there for a few moments I tried standing again and for the second time I fell back on the bed. I scooted my body to the other side of the bed to get the phone. I called my husband who had left for work early. He did not believe what I <br />
  22. 22. Diversity cont.<br />was telling him and he rushed home. We went to the doctor that day and was referred to a neurologist from there it was 6 months before I was normal again. I went through so many tests to try to find out what was happening to me and there were many speculations as to what it could be. I was never in a wheelchair because I refused to give in to what was happening to me. I began taking injections of cortisone in my back and slowly begin having some movement but my walking gate was very unstable for about 4 months. As quickly as this onset occurred it went away just like that. I went to bed and woke up the next morning normal just small tingles in my legs every now and then. <br /> <br />All during that time I felt scared and thinking what if I will never be able to walk again. My family was supportive during that time but sometimes I felt that they resented my not being able to do for myself. I could not do the things for my children or my husband and they had to do for themselves which really caused major problems. Now I think it would be different I am divorced and my kids are grown and out of the house. I really would feel like a burden if one of them had to stop their lives to take care of me. I am a strong women and I really think that after getting over the initial shock and pity I would adjust and learn to life a happy, fulfilled life among family, friends, and colleagues.<br />
  23. 23. Knowledge of Psychology<br />1. Which of these two perspectives on dreams do you find more accurate? Explain your rationale clearly and thoroughly. <br /> <br />For Freud dreams were the “royal road to the unconscious” (Corey, 2005). In his theory dreams were the unconscious mind’s way of expressing wishes, needs and fears. He believed that some of our motivations are so bad that they are expressed in dreams as symbols and disguises. Dreams to Freud served to protect the conscious mind from anxieties that will threaten our waking life. He felt that dreams are repressed feelings from childhood experiences. To Freud dreams had two levels of content: latent and manifest content. In dreaming according to Freud the latent content of dreams is transformed into the less threatening manifest content (Corey, 2005). In therapy with Freud it is his task to uncover the disguised meanings by studying the symbols in the manifest content of the dream which is what the dreamer dreams.<br />Jung on the other hand taught that dreams contain messages from the deepest layer of the unconscious, which he described as the source of creativity (Corey, 2005). To Jung a dream was the connection with the universal humanity of the past, present and future. Like Freud Jung believed that dreams provide a pathway into the unconscious but he sees their interpretation differently (Feist & Feist, 2009). He sees the interpretation as creative efforts of the dreamer in struggling with contradiction, complexity and confusion (Corey, 2005). Jung contends that the aim of a dream is to resolve and integrate issues that arise in the unconscious from experiences of the past and those that could happen in the future.<br />The perceptions of both theories have some accuracy to them but Jung’s theory for this day in time seems more accurate. I believe that dreams serve a purpose of universal creativity. I believe dreams serve the purpose of sorting out the experiences of our waking hours. Jung expressed this in terms of the persona (our face we wear to protect ourselves), the animus and anima (masculine and feminine self), and the shadow (our dark side). In order for our creativity to respond to consciousness we must have a way of putting all of our experiences into perspective and Jung’s dream theory is the closes in explaining how this integration of the archetypes takes place during a dream.<br />2. Provide one example from your dreams to support your view from question 1 above.<br /> <br />In a recent dream I was on a bridge that was very tall and at the top of the bridge the road split into 4 directions and in each direction there was rushing water almost like a violent storm was taking place but the sun was shining only the water was violent. As I approached the top of the bridge where I would have to choose which way to go my car stalls and I am stuck holding up traffic in all directions. I panic and wake up. Each night I dream this dream briefly and then wake up. Each time I’m in a different car sometimes there are passengers with me and sometimes I am all alone. This is a dream that occurs when I feel that I am pushed against the wall with financial pressures and life stressors. I have never managed to make it across the bridge but each dream brings me closer to the point where I will choose which road to take to get to the other side. I think that if Jung were to help me interpret what is happening in my life he would say that my dark side is trying to have a stronger position in my consciousness and the passengers represent the other archetypes. This dream is a way of me trying to deal with some darkness that I may have experienced in the past.<br />Reference:<br />Corey, G. (2005). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. Belmont, California: Brooks/Cole.<br />Feist, J., & Feist, G. (2009). Theories of Personality. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin.<br />
  24. 24. Knowledge of Applied Psychology<br />Human Sexuality<br /> <br />Course Project: Human Sexuality — Different Facets <br /> <br /> <br />Course Code: PSY304<br /> <br />Submitted by: Sharon Thomas<br /> <br />Date: August 2, 2010<br /> <br />
  25. 25. Cont.<br />Module 5 <br /> <br />Delayed Pregnancy and Infertility Treatment<br /> <br />Part I: Although Marsha and Liam’s marriage is able to weather the conflict arising from Marsha’s diagnosis of HPV. Marsha is treated as successfully as possible, and the virus seems to be in remission. The couple decides to postpone starting a family until they both have more time to develop their respective careers. Although they discuss starting a family periodically, it isn’t until Marsha turns 35 that they both agree it is time. <br /> <br />They visit a fertility counselor. Based on your learning from this module’s readings and lectures, answer the following in two to four pages:<br /> <br /> <br />Analyze at least five advantages and disadvantages of not starting a family till Marsha turns 35. Note the intellectual, financial, physiological, emotional, and social factors that may contribute to these advantages and disadvantages.<br /> <br />Many consider the 30s the happy-medium age for motherhood. You're more apt to be secure in your career and in your relationship, which will provide a firm foundation for your growing family. That's the good news. The bad news is there's a tremendous difference between your ability to get pregnant in your early versus your late 30s. As the decade progresses, a woman's fertility goes into free fall. This could be an emotional ride for many women not excluding Marsha.<br />Since Marsha has been diagnosed with HPV, waiting to conceive would give her body the opportunity to possibly correct itself. Most people will have genital HPV at some time in their lives. Usually the infection goes away on its own ( Since there is no cure for HPV, by waiting it will give her and her doctor time to treat any health problems that may arise from having it then she will be able to make informed decisions concerning child birth.<br />
  26. 26. Cont.<br />Pregnancy at any age comes with distinct advantages and disadvantages. In many ways, having children in your 30s makes financial and practical sense. You probably have a higher income and a better financial cushion than in your 20s, because you've had more time to become established in the working world. While everyone develops differently, women at this age are likely to know themselves better than women in their 20s do. Marsha at this age will probably be more equipped to handle the issues that arise from raising a child due to her knowing herself better.<br />The down side to this is that 35 is the age of reckoning for women when it comes to having children. In your early 30’s, the chances of getting pregnant are only slightly lower that in your late 20’s. Age 35 is also the point when Down syndrome and other genetic abnormalities become more of a concern, so experts routinely recommend amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling, or other detailed fetal screening during pregnancy from the mid-30s on. Miscarriage rates also rise slowly but steadily as women age, as do pregnancy-related complications. A woman over 35 is more likely than a younger woman to have an ectopic pregnancy. Cesarean rates are also higher for women over 35: First-time mothers this age have a 40 percent chance of a c-section delivery compared to 14 percent of first-time mothers in their 20s. Experts say these increased cesarean rates are caused by pregnancy problems like fetal distress or prolonged second-stage labor, which are more common for older mothers.<br />Compare and contrast what Marsha may experience as a pregnant woman and Liam may experience as an expectant father. <br /> <br /> <br />The vast majority of pregnancies proceed virtually trouble-free from conception to birth, except for some common discomforts for the expectant mother, such as nausea and vomiting, backache, swollen feet and ankles, and hemorrhoids. Nonetheless, these “normal” discomforts can make for a difficult eight to nine months for many women, and the burdens on her body and overall well-being should not be ignored (Hock, 2004).<br />Marsha and Liem will experience pregnancy in different ways. I remember when I was pregnant with my middle child my husband went through all of the things with me. He experienced morning sickness the 2 o’clock headaches and the cravings for crazy foods like hotdogs and mustard and crushed ice from one particular restaurant. He also had weight gain in his buttock as well as in his mid-section with him appearing to be pregnant as well. All of these symptoms may have just been Couvade Syndrome, males can develop the symptoms of pregnancy just like their wives. The frequency of Couvade is unknown, but some researchers estimate that it affects from 11 to 65 percent of expectant fathers. The onset of male "pregnancy" symptoms usually starts near the end of the first trimester and generally stops with the birth of the child. Couvade also seems to be a universal phenomenon, with cases reported across cultures, continents and centuries (Argosy University, 2010).<br />Some of the issues women worry about especially with first-time pregnancies are their ability to give birth to a healthy baby and what labor and delivery will be like. But, women also worry about their attractiveness to their husbands during pregnancy and how much he will actually be involved with prenatal care, labor, delivery, and the first difficult months of infant care (Argosy University, 2010). Partners of pregnant women tend to worry more about increased financial obligations, the possibility of something problematic happening to their female partners during pregnancy and delivery, and being usurped in her affections by an infant, especially if she nurses (2010).<br /> <br />Part II: After a year of attempting to conceive “naturally,” Marsha and Liam begin to consider some assisted reproductive techniques. <br /> <br />Name and describe three possible ways the couple may, with technical assistance, enhance the possibility of Marsha still conceiving with his sperm and her ovum.<br /> <br /> <br />
  27. 27. Cont.<br />Marsha and Liem may choose to use intrauterine insemination which artificially inserts the sperm of Liem into Marsha’s vagina. Also Invitro fertilization could be used in this procedure Marsha will take fertility drugs to increase egg production. Mature eggs are removed and fertilized with Liem’s sperm in a lab dish and the eggs grow in 2 to 3 days. Selected embryos are then inserted directly into the uterus. Finally they may choose to use gamete intrafallopian transfer which the sperm of Liem and the egg from Marsha are mixed in the laboratory and then are placed directly in the fallopian tube.<br /> <br />As you can see, although there are some phenomenal technologies available, the cost is high and the success rate often less than one-fourth of the number of tries. In addition, the mother can face some medical risks, including multiple births, which has now led to another controversial procedure termed “reduction,” where selected fetuses may be terminated in utero using injected saline.<br />Even with all these difficulties, the joy and gratitude of infertile couples who manage to conceive and become parents can make dealing with ART worthwhile and definitely, there can be no doubt that these children are much wanted (Argosy University, 2010<br />References<br />Facts about HPV: Retrieved August 2, 2010 from<br />Argosy University (2010) PSY304 Human Sexuality: Module 5: Experiencing pregnancy: Retrieved August 2, 2010 from<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
  28. 28. My Future in Learning<br />Learning is something that continues to happen over the life span of an individual if that individual chooses to embark on this endeavor. I am one such individual. I have maintained that through experiences we learn, through interactions we learn, through mistakes we learn, through trials we learn. This is not the end of the list of realms of learning. I wish to continue to have the mental capacity to exercise my learning potential to enhance the lives of those that will come after me and to uphold the true essence of life and that is to live freely and learn all that could be learned so that your life is not in vain.<br />As I reflect on being a life long learner I recall a verse from a song written by Earth Wind and Fire.<br />Like learning: Sound never dissipates it only recreates in another place and time. <br />
  29. 29. Contact Me<br />Thank you for viewing my ePortfolio.<br />For further information, please contact me at the e-mail address below. <br /><br />