POLITICS OF NATIONALISM

10. EXPLAINING
NATIONALISM
POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
10. EXPLAINING NATIONALISM
OUTLINE
•Re-Cap: nationalist mobilisation
•Birth of nationalism
•Growth of nationalism
•Victory of nationalism /
establish...
Nationalisms
1. State nationalism - integrationist nationalism
•From state – metropolitan power
•Seeks to homogenize the n...
Nationalisms
3. Separatist nationalism
•Peripheral nationalism
•Anti-colonial nationalism
•What to do with the colons/ cre...
COMMON FEATURES
NATIONALIST ACTORS:
• Three identifiable in principle:
–Metropolitan power (remote: e.g. imperial
capital ...
COMMON FEATURES
NATIONALIST ACTORS:
• Variable significance of three actors:
–Metropolitan power encounters very little
op...
COMMON FEATURES
EXAMPLE: SMALLER EUROPEAN
NATIONS: 19th c. Estonia
Nobility
(German)

alliance

Townsfolk
(German)
Peasant...
COMMON FEATURES
EXAMPLE: LATIN AMERICA

Spaniards
Creoles
Mestizos

alliance
conflict

conflicts

Indians,
Blacks
POLITICS...
COMMON FEATURES
NATIONALIST PROGRAMME:
• Nation as an entity whose distinctiveness is to
be preserved, and whose mission t...
OUTLINE
cultural / territorial
distinctiveness
A0

A1

cultural
assimilation

cultural
differentiation
B0

geopolitical
co...
BIRTH OF NATIONALISM
THEORIES OF ORIGINS OF NATION (SMITH):
•Primordialism: primeval ties
•Perennialism: long life-span
•E...
BIRTH OF NATIONALISM
“MODERNIST” THEORIES
•Wimmer:

Uniting diverse groups under common umbrella

identity, a ‘cultural co...
Class evolution
rural

Modernity
urban

labourers
lower classes

workers and
middle classes

Slow and few

assimilation

F...
GROWTH OF NATIONALISM
ETHNIC v. CIVIC NATIONS?
• Commonly referred to as the “Kohn
dichotomy” after Hans Kohn (1944)
• In ...
GROWTH OF NATIONALISM
ETHNIC v. CIVIC NATIONS?
• “Ethnic” nation: Herder, Fichte; nation an
entity in which membership is ...
CIVIC VS ETHNIC NATIONALISM

POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
10. EXPLAINING NATIONALISM
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10. EXPLAINING NATIONALISM
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  1. 1. POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 10. EXPLAINING NATIONALISM POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 10. EXPLAINING NATIONALISM
  2. 2. OUTLINE •Re-Cap: nationalist mobilisation •Birth of nationalism •Growth of nationalism •Victory of nationalism / establishment of statehood POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 10. EXPLAINING NATIONALISM
  3. 3. Nationalisms 1. State nationalism - integrationist nationalism •From state – metropolitan power •Seeks to homogenize the nation: integration, assimilation •Seeks fit of physical borders with cultural content •May conflict with periphery •May conflict with neighbouring state (irredentism) 2. Colonial nationalism – Separatist nationalism •Separation from colonial power •State building •Elites remain colons •Domination over indigenous population •Conflict with metropolitan power •Conflict with indigenous population POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 10. EXPLAINING NATIONALISM
  4. 4. Nationalisms 3. Separatist nationalism •Peripheral nationalism •Anti-colonial nationalism •What to do with the colons/ creoles •How to define national identity? •Language / religion / birth / others… •May lead to local conflicts POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 10. EXPLAINING NATIONALISM
  5. 5. COMMON FEATURES NATIONALIST ACTORS: • Three identifiable in principle: –Metropolitan power (remote: e.g. imperial capital in Europe; or adjacent: capital of local state) –Regional centre (economically, socially and politically privileged; “high” culture) –Regional periphery (economically, socially and politically marginal; separate culture) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 10. EXPLAINING NATIONALISM
  6. 6. COMMON FEATURES NATIONALIST ACTORS: • Variable significance of three actors: –Metropolitan power encounters very little opposition (integrationist nationalism) –Regional centre the major victor, but two other actors relevant (colonial nationalism) –Regional periphery the victor, but two other actors relevant (separatist nationalism) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 10. EXPLAINING NATIONALISM
  7. 7. COMMON FEATURES EXAMPLE: SMALLER EUROPEAN NATIONS: 19th c. Estonia Nobility (German) alliance Townsfolk (German) Peasants (Estonian) conflict conflict POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 10. EXPLAINING NATIONALISM Metropole (Russia)
  8. 8. COMMON FEATURES EXAMPLE: LATIN AMERICA Spaniards Creoles Mestizos alliance conflict conflicts Indians, Blacks POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 10. EXPLAINING NATIONALISM Metropole (Spain)
  9. 9. COMMON FEATURES NATIONALIST PROGRAMME: • Nation as an entity whose distinctiveness is to be preserved, and whose mission to humanity is to be promoted • Nation as a community with a shared past, perhaps with a common descent and racial background, and with a homeland of its own • Political ambition to secure the unity of the nation in relation to potentially disruptive forces within its own borders, and to establish its independence in relation to external rivals. POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 10. EXPLAINING NATIONALISM
  10. 10. OUTLINE cultural / territorial distinctiveness A0 A1 cultural assimilation cultural differentiation B0 geopolitical context Birth B1 political absorption political mobilisation C0 continuing territorial demands Growth C1 territorial unification / separation Victory POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 10. EXPLAINING NATIONALISM
  11. 11. BIRTH OF NATIONALISM THEORIES OF ORIGINS OF NATION (SMITH): •Primordialism: primeval ties •Perennialism: long life-span •Ethno-symbolism: rediscovery of past myths/symbols •Modernism: nation a modern phenomenon •Post-modernism: new form of shifting, fragmented identity POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 10. EXPLAINING NATIONALISM
  12. 12. BIRTH OF NATIONALISM “MODERNIST” THEORIES •Wimmer: Uniting diverse groups under common umbrella identity, a ‘cultural compromise’ between separate groups which foregrounds this level of (national, state-centred) solidarity •Bauer: marxist approach (internationalism and the national question?, urbanisation -> identity change/affirmation) •Hroch: three stages (A, B, C) •Gellner: industrial society •Anderson: print capitalism’, to create new ‘imagined community’ POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 10. EXPLAINING NATIONALISM
  13. 13. Class evolution rural Modernity urban labourers lower classes workers and middle classes Slow and few assimilation Fast and many identity mobilisation POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 10. EXPLAINING NATIONALISM
  14. 14. GROWTH OF NATIONALISM ETHNIC v. CIVIC NATIONS? • Commonly referred to as the “Kohn dichotomy” after Hans Kohn (1944) • In fact, nineteenth-century roots • Has strong normative connotations (not just German v. French, “eastern” v. “western”, exclusive v. inclusive, but “bad” v. “good”) • Better seen as referring to ideal types POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 10. EXPLAINING NATIONALISM
  15. 15. GROWTH OF NATIONALISM ETHNIC v. CIVIC NATIONS? • “Ethnic” nation: Herder, Fichte; nation an entity in which membership is inherited, e.g. blood, language • “Civic” nation: Rousseau, Renan; nation an entity in which membership is voluntary, “daily plebiscite” • Can we separate the two that clearly? Could we have elements of each type in all national ideologies? Are there regional variations? POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 10. EXPLAINING NATIONALISM
  16. 16. CIVIC VS ETHNIC NATIONALISM POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 10. EXPLAINING NATIONALISM
  17. 17. THE END … NEXT: THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 10. EXPLAINING NATIONALISM

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