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# Straight Motion Regular Report by Fildia Putri

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### Straight Motion Regular Report by Fildia Putri

1. 1. STRAIGHT MOTION REGULAR Fildia Putri, Rafika Sri Rahayu,Nul Lailah , NurulWisnaAfianti, NurRahmah Marisa Raden. Departement of Chemistry, Faculity of Mathematics and Natural Science State University of Makassar 2013 Abstract Have done experiment titled “Straight Motion Regular”.The purpose of experiment are understand the difference between distance and displacement, determine the speed and the average speed, determining the relationship between displacement (Δx) with mileage time (t) objects moving Straight Motion Regular (GLB) , and (4) understand the regular rectilinear motion (GLB).Data obtained from measurements of distance, displacement and travel time by using the threetrack a moving object with a rectangular-shaped objects, each of which varies the speed, the three objects start at point A and then move to the next point until the point where the first object moves.Then proceed with data collection by measuring the distance and travel time in regular “Straight Motion Regular” GLB tube that hung in stative by taking four samples, each point has a different distance and any use distance measurements using different also, measurements were made three times over and to get the maximum results and accurate.Activity results 1 in lab can be concluded that the faster object moves does it take to get geared increasingly shorter and the activities 2 can be concluded that the higher an object is placed, faster the movement of objects from one to the other. Keywords: GLB, distance, displacement, velocity, pace, travel time, speed, meter, stative, GLB tube. I. PURPOSE 1. Students can understand the difference between distance and the displacement.
2. 2. 2. Students can determine the speed and average speed. 3. Students can investigate the relationship between displacement (Δx) with time (t) regular moving body straight (GLB). 4. Students can understand the regular rectilinear motion (GLB). II. EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGY A. A Brief Theory Position In order to describe the motion of an object, you must first be able to describe its position—where it is at any particular time. More precisely, you need to specify its position relative to a convenient reference frame. Earth is often used as a reference frame, and we often describe the position of an object as it relates to stationary objects in that reference frame. For example, a rocket launch would be described in terms of the position of the rocket with respect to the Earth as a whole, while a professor’s position could be described in terms of where she is in relation to the nearby white. Displacement If an object moves relative to a reference frame (for example, if a professor moves to the right relative to a white board or a passenger moves toward the rear of an airplane), then the object’s position changes. This change in position is known as displacement. The word “displacement” implies that an object has moved, or has been displaced. Displacement is the change in position of an object: Δx= xf − x0where Δxis displacement, xfis the final position, and x0 is the initial position. In this text the upper case Greek letter Δ (delta) always means “change in” whatever quantity follows it; thus, Δxmeans change in position. Always solve for displacement by subtracting initial position x0 from final position xf. Distance
3. 3. Although displacement is described in terms of direction, distance is not. Distance is defined to be the magnitude or size of displacement betweentwo positions. Note that the distance between two positions is not the same as the distance traveled between them. Distance traveled is the total length of the path traveled between two positions. Distance has no direction and, thus, no sign. For example, the distance the professor walks is 2.0 m. The distance the airplane passenger walks is 4.0 m. It is important to note that the distance traveled, however, can be greater than the magnitude of the displacement (by magnitude, we mean just the size of the displacement without regard to its direction; that is, just a number with a unit). For example, the professor could pace back and forth many times, perhaps walking a distance of 150 m during a lecture, yet still end up only 2.0 m to the right of her starting point. In this case her displacement would be +2.0 m, the magnitude of her displacement would be 2.0 m, but the distance she traveled would be 150 m. In kinematics we nearly always deal with displacement and magnitude of displacement, and almost never with distance traveled. One way to think about this is to assume you marked the start of the motion and the end of the motion. The displacement is simply the difference in the position of the two marks and is independent of the path taken in traveling between the two marks. The distance traveled, however, is the total length of the path taken between the two marks. Time, Velocity, and Speed. Time As discussed in Physical Quantities and Units, the most fundamental physical quantities are defined by how they are measured. This is the casewith time. Every measurement of time involves measuring a change in some physical quantity. It may be a number on a digital clock, a heartbeat, or the position of the Sun in the sky. In physics, the definition of time is simple— time is change, or the interval over which change occurs. It is impossible to know that time has passed unless something changes. The amount of time or change is calibrated by
4. 4. comparison with a standard. The SI unit for time is the second, abbreviated s. We might, for example, observe that a certain pendulum makes one full swing every 0.75 s. We could then use the pendulum to measure time by counting its swings or, of course, by connecting the pendulum to a clock mechanism that registers time on a dial. This allows us to not only measure the amount of time, but also to determine a sequence of events. How does time relate to motion? We are usually interested in elapsed time for a particular motion, such as how long it takes an airplane passenger to get from his seat to the back of the plane. To find elapsed time, we note the time at the beginning and end of the motion and subtract the two. Velocity Your notion of velocity is probably the same as its scientific definition. You know that if you have a large displacement in a small amount of time youhave a large velocity, and that velocity has units of distance divided by time, such as miles per hour or kilometers per hour. Average Velocity Average velocity is displacement (change in position) divided by the time of travel, (2.5) v - = Δx Δt= xf − x0 tf − t0 , where v - is the average (indicated by the bar over the v) velocity, Δxis the change in position (or displacement), and xfand x0 are thefinal and beginning positions at times tfand t0, respectively. If the starting time t0 is taken to be zero, then the average velocity is simply (2.6) v - = Δxt. Notice that this definition indicates that velocity is a vector because displacement is a vector. It has both magnitude and direction. The SI unit for velocity is meters per second or m/s, but many other units, such as km/h, mi/h (also written as mph), and cm/s, are in common use. Suppose, for example, an airplane passenger took 5
5. 5. seconds to move −4 m (the negative sign indicates that displacement is toward the back of the plane). His average velocity would be (2.7) v - = Δx t = −4 m 5 s = − 0.8 m/s. Speed In everyday language, most people use the terms “speed” and “velocity” interchangeably. In physics, however, they do not have the same meaning and they are distinct concepts. One major difference is that speed has no direction. Thus speed is a scalar. Just as we need to distinguish between instantaneous velocity and average velocity, we also need to distinguish between instantaneous speed and average speed. Instantaneous speed is the magnitude of instantaneous velocity. For example, suppose the airplane passenger at one instant had an instantaneous velocity of −3.0 m/s (the minus meaning toward the rear of the plane). At that same time his instantaneous speed was 3.0 m/s. Or suppose that at one time during a shopping trip your instantaneous velocity is 40 km/h due north. Your instantaneous speed at that instant would be 40 km/h—the same magnitude but without a direction. Average speed, however, is very different from average velocity. Average speed is the distance traveled divided by elapsed time. We have noted that distance traveled can be greater than displacement. So average speed can be greater than average velocity, which is displacement divided by time. For example, if you drive to a store and return home in half an hour, and your car’s odometer shows the total distance traveled was 6 km, then your average speed was 12 km/h. Your average velocity, however, was zero, because your displacement for the round trip is zero. (Displacement is change in position and, thus, is zero for a round trip.) Thus average speed is not simply the magnitude of average velocity.
6. 6. Said moving object if the object changed position to a reference point. Objects will move through a trajectory with a certain length of time. The total length of the path traversed is called the distance,while the change in the position of the object from the initial position to the final position is called the displacement. Distance is a scalar quantity, whereas the displacement is a vector quantity. Said object moving regular straight (GLB) if the object is moving on astraight path and move at a constant speed or no speed change with time, so the acceleration is zero. Speed is defined as the change in position at any time or in the form of written mathematical; (1.1) while the pace is great mileage per unit of time or in the form of writtenmathematical (1.2) Description : : Speeds (m/s) : Change the position or the displacement (m) : The time interval (s) v : Speed of (m/s) : Distance (m) B. ToolandMaterial 1. Meter
7. 7. 2. Stopwatch 3. GLB tube 4. Stative 5. Tool written write C. IdentificationVariables Activity 1 1. Variable Control As for the control variables of activity 1 is always constant and fixed value is the distance. 2. Variable Manipulation 1 can be seen in the activities that are being manipulated variable displacement because it causes changes in lab activities. 3. Variable Response Response variable in this practicum is the travel time from the object. Activity 2 1. Variable Control Control variables in the second practicum is mileage. 2. Variable Manipulation
8. 8. In the second activity, the height of which is variable manipulation. 3. Variable Response 2 activity response variable is the travel time from titk one particle to another point. D. DefinitionOperationalVariables Activity 1 1. Variable Control Distance is the total length of the path traversed. In the first activity within each track together and fixed. 2. Variable Manipulation Displacement is a big change of body position from the initial position to the final position. In the first movement of each activity is different trajectories result of the independent variable. 3. Variable Response Travel time is faster than an object to get to a certain distance. Travel time changes due to the distance through which the object trajectory. Activity 2 1. Variable Control
9. 9. Mileage distance is the total length of the path traversed. In the second activity within each track together and fixed. 2. Variable Manipulation Height is the vertical position of an object from a specific point. Height in this activity is affected by distance trajectory. 3. Variable Response Travel time travel time is faster than an object to get to a certain distance. Travel time changes due to the distance through which the object trajectory. E. Work Procedures a. Activity 1 1. Making tracks in the rectangular space, then measure the length of each side. 2. Provide the code on each corner with code A, B, C, and D. 3. Setting up your friends, as the object is moving at different speeds. 4. The first person standing at point A, then move toward point B, and then measure the time it used to take the path from point A to point B (try moving with constant velocity). Proceed to the second and third then record the results in the table of observations. 5. Perform step 4 with different trajectory for example from point A to point B and then to point C. Followed by some other path, record the results in the table of observations b. Activity 2 1. Take the tube GLB and Statif to pocket one end of the tube 2. Mark of at least 4 points as points A, B, C, and D on the tube (try having the same interval).
10. 10. 3. Determine / measure the path length of the bottom of the tube (0 cm) to point A, to point B, to point C, and to point D. 4. Hanging one end of the tube at a certain height stative, start of height about 5 cm from the bottom / base. 5. Lifting the other end of the tube, so that the bubble in the tube is in the raised end. 6. Lowering the tip had reached the base / pedestal so that the bubble will move up, measure the time it takes a bubble to reach point A (start the stopwatch when the bubble right across the 0 cm position on the tube), repeated retrieval of data as much as 3 times. 7. Repeat steps 4, 5 and 6, with different mileage (to point B, to C, and to point C) record the results in the table of observations. III. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DATA ANALYSIS A. Observations D 1,55 C 3,7 2,15 A B 2,13 1. Activity 1 Tabel 1.1.Results Measurement Distance, Displacement and Travel Time. NST Stopwatch : 0,1 s NST Metered : 0,1 cm Distance No Shift Travel Time (m) (m) (s) Trajectory
11. 11. 1. 1 From point A to B 2,13 1. 2. 2,13 2. 3. 2,13 2,13 2,50 3. 3.2,13 8,00 2. 2,13 1. 2,3 1. to C to D 2. 4,28 2. 3,02 2. 5,70 4,28 3. 3,02 3. 4,80 3,70 1. 1,53 1. 16,00 2. 3,70 2. 1,53 2. 10,90 3,70 3. 1,53 3. 7,00 5,83 1. 2,13 1. 4,61 2. 5,83 2. 2,13 2. 4,61 3. From point A to B 4 13,60 1. From point A to D 1. 3. 3 3,02 1. and to C 1. 3. From point A to B 2 4,28 5,83 3. 2,13 3. 4,61 2. Activity2 10 20 30 40 cm A B C Tabel 1.2.Results Measurement Mileage and Travel Time Regular Straight In Motion. D
12. 12. NST Stopwatch NST GLB Tube No : 0,1 s : 0,1 cm Height (cm) Mileage (cm) Travel Time (s) 1. 4,00 2. 4,00 4,40 1. 6,50 2. 6,70 3. 6,50 1. 8,70 2. 8,70 3. 8,40 1. 1,30 2. 1,30 3. 1,20 5 30 40 2 2,30 3. 1 2,00 1. 20 2. 3. 10 2,00 10 10
13. 13. 1. 5,10 2. 5,00 5,00 1,00 2. 1,00 1,00 1. 1,90 2. 2,00 3. 2,00 1. 30 3,70 3. 20 3,60 1. 15 2. 3. 3 3,60 1. 10 2,70 3. 40 2,50 1. 30 2. 3. 20 2,60 2,90 2. 3,00 3. 2,90
14. 14. 1. 2. 3,90 3. 40 4,00 3,80 B. DataAnalysis 1. Activity 1 Based on the observations / measurements, great speed and average speed of each person on each track are as follows: a. Speed  From point A to B First Person: Second Person: Third Person:  From point A to B to C First Person :
15. 15. Second Person : Third Person :  From point A to D First Person : Second Person : Third Person :  From point A to B to C to D First Person : Second Person : Third Person : b. Speed of  From point A to B First Person :
16. 16. Second Person : Third Person  From point A to B to C First Person : Second Person : Third Person :  From point A to D First Person : Second Person : Third Person :  From point A to B to C to D First Person :
17. 17. Second Person : Third Person : c. Errors Analysis Speed  From point A to B First Person :
18. 18. Second Person :
19. 19. Third Person :
20. 20.  From point A to B to C First Person :
21. 21. Second Person : Third Person :
22. 22.  From point A to D First Person :
23. 23. Second Person :
24. 24. Third Person :
25. 25.  From point A to B to C to D First Person : Second Person :
26. 26. = Third Person : =
27. 27. Speed of  From point A to B First Person :
28. 28. Second Person : Third Person :
29. 29. ,00 ,00  From point A to B to C First Person :
30. 30. Second Person :
31. 31. Third Person :
32. 32.  From point A to D First Person : Second Person :
33. 33. Third Person :
34. 34.  From point A to B to C to D First Person :
35. 35. Second Person :
36. 36. Third Person : 2. Activity 2 a. Speed  Height of 5 cm Point A
37. 37. Point B Point C Point D  Height of 10 cm Point A Point B Point C Point D  Height of 15 cm Point A Point B Point C
38. 38. Point D b. Errors Analysis  Height of 5 cm Point A
39. 39. Point B
40. 40. Point C
41. 41. Point D  Height of 10 cm Point A
42. 42. Point B
43. 43. Point C
44. 44. Point D  Height of 15 cm
45. 45. Point A Point B
46. 46. Point C
47. 47. Point D
48. 48. c. Graph showing the relationship between mileage and travel time Travel Time (s) Height of 5 cm 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 t = 0,219x - 0,135 R² = 0,998 Height of 5 cm Travel Distance Linear (Height of 5 cm Travel Distance) 0 10 20 30 Travel Distance (cm) 40 50
49. 49. Travel Time (s) Height of 10 cm 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 t = 0.0987x R² = 0.9997 Height of 5 cm Travel Distance Linear (Height of 5 cm Travel Distance) 0 10 20 30 Travel Distance (cm) 40 50
50. 50. Travel Time (s) Height of 15 cm Travel Distance 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 t = 0.0987x R² = 0.9997 Height of 5 cm Travel Distance Linear (Height of 5 cm Travel Distance) 0 10 20 30 40 50 Travel Distance (cm) IV. DISCUSSION 1. Activity 1 In activities 1 have been carried out on the measurement of distance, displacement and travel time by using stopwacth and rectangular shaped trajectory. In Activity 1 required 3 models that will move at different speeds, but the trajectory starting from point A to B, point A to B to C, point A to B to C to D, and the last track from point A to B to C to D and back to A.
51. 51. The observations in the table it can be seen that there are differences in the travel time of each model, it is because the difference in speed of each model. In the data analysis performed summation error analysis it is intended to see the error at the time of measurement, because each measurement there must be mistakes. Measurement error can be caused by several factors, among which kejlihan reading measurement tools, precision holder with models during the stopwatch stops and starts, the measuring instrument itself, etc. 2. Activity 2 Activities 2 have been carried out on the measurement of distance and travel time in uniform rectilinear motion with a stopwatch, stative, and GLB tube, and meters. On the activities needed four points with the same distance between one point with another point. Data collection was performed by three in order to obtain more accurate data. On the activities of these measurements, the height of the tube GLB changed from 5 cm to 15 cm in turn. Measurement results obtained were different from each trajectory and height of the tubes GLB. However, in these measurements, there are several errors that are caused by these factors. The factors that promote the occurrence of measurement errors tube placement is not appropriate, the reading results are less precise measurements, there is no measurement tool that can read the distance between the two scales, the slope of the tube does not fit, the measuring instrument itself, etc..
52. 52. V. CONCLUSION 1. Activity 1 Based on the observations that have been made to the measurements of distance, displacement and travel time of an object in order to achieve certain goals or to get to the point of one another to the point that it can be concluded that the faster the object is moving toward the point purpose the time needed to arrive at the destination is getting shorter or in other words the slower the object wascirclingtrajectorythe longer the timeit takesand vice versa. 2. Activity 2 Based on the observations that have been made to the measurements of distance and travel time in straight motion regular can be concluded that the higher the placement of objects then the faster the object moves left the place of origin or the higher the position of objects that travel time to the movement of an object or move for reached the surface only takes a short time.
53. 53. REFERENCES LaboratoriumFisika Unit PraktikumFisikaDasar-FMIPA Makassar. 2013. PenuntunPraktikumFisikaDasar I. UniversitasNegeri Rice University &OpenStage College .2013. College Physics. Alonso, Marcello & Edward J. Finn. 1980. Dasar-Dasar Fisika Universitas. Erlangga. Jakarta . http://biologimediacentre.com/mengenal-macam-variabel-dalam-percobaan/ http://temukanpengertian.blogspot.com/2013/06/pengertian-variabel-kontrol.html Makassar, Assistant, November 2013 Praktikan, Muh. IhsanulAmri Fildia Putri Nim: 1112040183 Nim:1313440017