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Experiment Joule Report by. Fildia Putri


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Experiment Joule Report by. Fildia Putri

  1. 1. EXPERIMENT JOULE Fildia Putri, Rafika Sri Rahayu,Nul Lailah , NurulWisnaAfianti, NurRahmah Marisa Raden. Department Of Chemistry ICP FMIPA UNM 2013 Abstract Have done the experiment titled "Joule Experiment" aimed to determine the heat of reaction or heat of dissolution with the calorimeter. Thermochemical study of heat is generated or required by a chemical reaction. The principle of the experiment is the Principle of Black, Black is a legal principle that the study of heat change of the system to the environment and vice versa. Equal to the heat given off heat absorbed (Q accept = Qloose). The method used in this experiment is a method of calorimetryby using a tool called a calorimeter. In this experiment the electrical energy released will be accepted by the water and calorimeter. Heat equal to the heat released is accepted, then the electrical energy that is released will be accepted by the water in the calorimeter and the calorimeter itself, so there will be changes in the water and calorimeter heat. On joule experiments were based on the theory of the calorific value of equivalence of electricity at 4,186 Joules / calorie values of equality, while the heat energy and mechanical energy based on our calculation of 4,72 Joule / calorie. This difference is caused by the system and the environment while doing the experiment. PRELIMINARY Thermodynamics target is to get the energy relations of against the other. With the conservation of energy, so if a kind of energy shrinkage, other energy kinds will be generate for example, energy electricity produced by a generator does not just happen, but the generator is driven by the potential energy and depreciation kinetic energy of water. Electrical energy generated by the generator plus the energy lost due to friction force should be equal to the energy mechanically given by the turbine. The first law of thermodynamics is a general statement the process of change is one form of energy into a form of energy other. Presumably it is always possible to make heat energy equivalent to another energy. If a certain mass of the falling weight of a height, the potential and kinetic energy lost will change equivalent to thermal energy. This event would not have happened otherwise so alone, but must wear specific tools to elevate the fallen
  2. 2. mass. Not possible mass falling energy is directly equivalent to the potential energy back position to the original. Here is the first law never said direction of a process. To determine the direction of the latter is to talk about the law, so that a combination of the first and second laws can be used to predict where that process can occur If there is an electric current in a conductor, then the tone aka electrical energy is converted into heat energy. I definitely flow, energy conversion greater resistance to arrest or larger conductors. This phenomenon has the same analogy to the conversion of chemical energy into thermal energy due to friction resistance. The resulting heat (electric deleted) in an electrical circuit called the Joule heat (Joule heat), because they were discovered by the English physicist James Prescott Joule (1818-1889). The experts examined the conversion of electrical energy into heat energy (also mechanical energy into heat energy). In some electrical applications, such as electric motors, heat joule is something that is not desirable, but in other applications such as electric power and heat grill, electrical energy is converted into heat intentionally. In this study, the effect of heat on the electric current and the heat equivalent of the electricity will be investigated Key Words: Calorie, Joule, Energy, Calorimeter. Objectives Practicum 1. Understanding the principle of equality (equivalence) the heat energy and mechanical energy. 2. Determining the value of equality mechanical energy and heat energy. EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGY Brief Theory Heat transfer is energy in transit, and it can be used to do work. It can also be converted to any other form of energy. A car engine, for example, burns fuel for heat transfer into a gas. Work is done by the gas as it exerts a force through a distance, converting its energy into a variety of other forms—into the car’s kinetic or gravitational potential energy; into electrical energy to run the spark plugs,
  3. 3. radio, and lights; and back into stored energy in the car’s battery. But most of the heat transfer produced from burning fuel in the engine does not do work on the gas. Rather, the energy is released into the environment, implying that the engine is quite inefficient. It is often said that modern gasoline engines cannot be made to be significantly more efficient. We hear the same about heat transfer to electrical energy in large power stations, whether they are coal, oil, natural gas, or nuclear powered. Why is that the case? Is the inefficiency caused by design problems that could be solved with better engineering and superior materials? Is it part of some money-making conspiracy by those who sell energy? Actually, the truth is more interesting, and reveals much about the nature of heat transfer. Basic physical laws govern how heat transfer for doing work takes place and place insurmountable limits onto its efficiency. This chapter will explore these laws as well as many applications and concepts associated with them. If we are interested in how heat transfer is converted into doing work, then the conservation of energy principle is important. The first law of thermodynamics applies the conservation of energy principle to systems where heat transfer and doing work are the methods of transferring energy into and out of the system. The first law of thermodynamics states that the change in internal energy of a system equals the net heat transfer into the system minus the net work done by the system The first law of thermodynamics: The first law of thermodynamics is a statement of the law of conservation of energy. This law describes the results of many experiments which connects the work done on the system, heat is added or subtracted from the system, and the system's internal energy. From the initial definition of calories, we know that it takes 1 calorie of energy to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water to 1 0 C. But we also can raise the temperature of water or any other system to do her business without adding a bit of heat from the outside.
  4. 4. Thermometer Calorie meter Joule + Element V + A VS _ Picture 7.1. Devices Joule experiment Image. 7.1 above shows the schematic diagram of the Joule modification that can be used to determine the amount of effort equivalent to a certain amount of heat, the amount of effort required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius. The water in the calorimeter in Fig enclosed in walls insulation system so that the temperature can’t be affected by the heat in or out of it. By giving potential difference V S at the ends of the coil in the calorimeter, an electric current will flow through the ammeter and the potential difference will occur at the ends of the coil that will produce electricity businesses on the system to heat the water. This effort is known as joule heating, which can be expressed as, W V I [7.1] t WhereV is the potential difference of the ends of the element, I is the electric current in the circuit, and t is the time drainage flows into the system. Heat energy given off by the electrical elements will be accepted by the water and calorimeter system so that the temperature is increased (the exception phase change). Q is the heat energy needed to raise the temperature of water is proportional to the change in temperature T and mass m, namely: Q m c T [7.2]
  5. 5. Wherec is the specific heat of water. Joule experimental results and subsequent experiments is that the effort it takes 4.18 units of mechanical or electrical (joule) to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 0 C, or 4.18 J of mechanical or electrical energy is equivalent to 1 cal of heat energy. Tools and Materials 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Variable DC Power Supply, Ammeters 0 - 5 A DC, Voltmeter 0 - 50 V DC, Joule Calorimeter complete, Thermometer, Stop Watch, 311g Balance Sheet, Connector cable. Variable Identification a. Control Variable : Strains b. Manipulation Variable : Mass of water and Calorimeter c. Respond Variable : Time OperationalDefinition ofVariables 1. Manipulation Variable : Water Mass and Calorie Meter The density is the mass per unit of volume measurement object. The higher the density of an object, the greater the mass per volume. 2. Respond Variable : Time Time is all of series when process, act, or state lasts. In this condition, more high the water mass, the time for upper the 100c temperature is too long. And the otherwise 3. Control Variable : Strains
  6. 6. Voltage is the different of electricity potential between two points in electrical circuits, and stated in volt unit. This scale measure the potential energy from electric field which involve the electricity from electrical conductor. In this situation, more high the voltage, the electricity which flow into calorie meter is higher. It’s such as time which need for increase the temperature in the amount of 10º c is faster. Work Procedures a. Assemble experimental scheme in Figure 7.1 above. b. Do not turn on the power supply before you make sure that the polarity and measuring limit of the source and flow measuring instruments and correct voltage. c. Measure the mass of the empty calorimeter + stirrer. d. Fill the calorimeter with water and measure its mass by half. e. Put on the full calorimeter circuit, then turn on the power supply and set it to the current flowing at 2A, note the current and potential difference across the ends of the coil. f. Turn off the Power Supply back with no change in the position of the voltage regulator. g. Measure the temperature of the calorimeter and its contents and record the initial temperature. h. Turn on the Power Supply along with running a stop watch to measure the time until the current drainage system temperature rose to 10 0 C (in consultation with the Assistant Supervisor) of the initial temperature and stop the stop watch simultaneously by turning off Power Supply. Note the appointment of a stop watch. i. Repeat this activity up to 3 (three) times. RESULTS OF OBSERVATIONS AND DATA ANALYSIS RESULTS OF OBSERVATIONS Ohauss Balance NST = 311 g Voltmeter NST = 0,2 V Ampere meter NST = 0,1 A Thermometer NST = Stopwatch NST = 0,2 s
  7. 7. DATA ANALYSIS Table 1.Table of observation The measurements Scale measurements I II III Mass of empty calorimeter + stirrer, m1 (kg)) 60,89 60,89 60,89 Mass of calorimeter + water, m2 (kg) 194,97 211,15 225,73 Mass of water, ma (kg) 134,08 150,26 164,84 voltages, V (volt) 8,7 8,7 8,7 Electricity, I (A) 1,5 1,5 1,5 The first temperature, T0 (0C) 30 30 30 The last temperature, Tf (0C) 40 40 40 Time , t (s) 533 589,4 65 Analysis Measurement 1
  8. 8. Calorie
  9. 9. Measurement 2 A ,
  10. 10. Measurement 3
  11. 11. Table 2. Table of analysis Measurements I II
  12. 12. III DISCUSSION Calorimeter is a tool to determine the specific heat of thin copper included in the larger vessel. On the reason given several pieces of cork wedge. In principle, the small vessel (inner wall) with large vessel (outer wall) is limited by the material that can’t be drained of heat (adiabatic). Then, given a cap that has two holes to insert / place the thermometer and stirrer. With the specific heat measurements are based on the principle of Black Calorimeter, which is received by the Calorimeter heat equal to the heat supplied by the heat of its kind sought substance. This implies that if two objects of different temperatures come in contact with each other, it will be towards thermodynamic equilibrium. At this time experiments related to two forms of energy, ie heat and electricity waterwheel. Electrical energy produced by a power supply on a resistor is expressed by the equation: Where W = electrical energy (joules) V = voltage (volts) I = electric current (Volt) t = time / long flow of electricity (second) The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a substance is expressed by the equation: Q = mc (T a - T) Where Q = amount of heat required (calories) m = mass of substance (g) substance c = specific heat (cal / g 0 C) T a = Final temperature of substances (0 C) T = Initial temperature (0 C) The working principle of the calorimeter is the flow of electric current in the coil of wire conductor is inserted into distilled water. At the time of moving in a wire conductor (due to potential difference) of the charge carriers collide with the metal atoms and lose energy. As a result of the charge carriers collide with a constant speed that is proportional to the electric field strength. Collisions by the charge carriers will cause metal electrified the energy gain of heat energy / heat.
  13. 13. Based on the results of lab data is known that the greater the value of voltage and electric current in a material so hot power possessed by the material gets smaller. In the lab result data as shown that measurements using small currents produce little value. This is an incorrect assumption because the The first measurement of changes in temperature, which is very small in contrast to data using large currents. But if the temperature changes as large as it is fast, little has a great power. CONCLUSION Of experiments, observations and calculations have been carried out, it can be concluded as follows. 1. Not all hot absorbed by water and calorimeter however also by wire spiral in case this not be calculated as well as plastic black cover calorimeter. 2. On calorimeter there energy dissipation. energy dissipation can mean energy lost from one systems. 3. More and more increasingly large volt large energy generated electricity. 4. More and more the small volt small Q generated. And From the above experiments it can be concluded that large - small mass of water and the time used greatly affect the resulting temperature or in other words, high and low temperature produced is strongly influenced by the mass amount of water used and the length of time and the amount of voltage used. With a large number of voltages and currents are still going strong rise in water temperature every minute on the minute, although certain REFERENCES LaboratoriumFisika Unit PraktikumFisikaDasar-FMIPA Makassar. 2013. PenuntunPraktikumFisikaDasar I. LaboratoriumFisikaDasarJurusanFisika-FMIPA PenuntunPraktikumFisikaDasar II Universitas UniversitasNegeri Riau. Rice University &OpenStage College .2013. College Physics. Alonso, Marcello & Edward J. Finn. 1980. Dasar-Dasar Fisika Universitas. Erlangga. Jakarta . 2011.
  14. 14. 2011.Buku Penuntun Praktikum Fisika Dasar . Universitas Pakuan. Bogor