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  2. 4. Assessing Reading <ul><li>According to the National Center for Education Statistics (2007), reports from national assessments of reading progress indicate that in 2007 approximately 34 percent of fourth-grade students read below a basic level of achievement (i.e., little or no mastery of reading knowledge and skills necessary to perform work at grade level), and only 32 percent attained a proficient reading achievement level. </li></ul>
  3. 5. Assessing Reading <ul><li>Moreover, in 2005, about 27 percent of eighth-grade students were below a basic level of reading achievement and only 29 percent achieved proficient reading standards. In addition, Rampey, Dion, and Donahue (2009) report that the 2008 reading score for twelfth-grade students was not significantly different when compared to the score in 1971. </li></ul>
  4. 6. The Reading Process <ul><li>Theories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adams’s Model of the Reading Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chall’s Reading Stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ehri’s Phases of Sight Word Development </li></ul></ul>
  5. 7. Emergent Literacy <ul><li>Emergent literacy assessment includes assessment of concepts about print and phonological awareness. If children fail to learn these emergent literacy skills prior to beginning formal reading instruction in kindergarten, the likelihood of reading failure is very high (Moats, 2000). </li></ul>
  6. 8. Emergent Literacy <ul><li>Uhry (1999) states that students with dyslexia or reading problems experience difficulty in understanding the alphabetic principle. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deficits in phonological awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems going from decoding to encoding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited short term memories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process print and sound too slowly </li></ul></ul>
  7. 10. Phonological Awareness <ul><li>Language Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Word </li></ul><ul><li>Syllable </li></ul><ul><li>Onset and Rime </li></ul><ul><li>Phoneme </li></ul>
  8. 11. Phonological Awareness <ul><li>Language Awareness Tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Word oddity </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Word segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Sound matching </li></ul><ul><li>Blending </li></ul><ul><li>Word manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Syllable splitting </li></ul><ul><li>Phoneme segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Phoneme Manipulation </li></ul>
  9. 12. Assessment of Reading Skills <ul><li>Formal reading assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement and Diagnostic Tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General achievement tests assess a student’s ability in various academic areas. Achievement tests with reading subtests often are used to obtain an overall measure of reading achievement.    </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostic reading test batteries are designed to measure many reading subskills. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 13. Assessment of Reading Skills <ul><li>Formal Reading Assessment (cont’d) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criterion-Referenced Tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whereas norm-referenced tests compare a student’s performance with the scores of others, criterion-referenced tests describe performance according to fixed criteria. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The teacher discovers which skills the student has learned, which are being learned now, and which still must be taught. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 14. Assessment of Reading Skills <ul><li>Informal Reading Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves examining the student’s daily work or administering teacher-constructed tests by which the teacher can assess any measurable reading skill. The teacher also can determine specific strengths and weaknesses by analyzing reading errors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two advantages: (1) they require less time to administer than formal tests, and (2) they can be used with classroom materials during regular instruction periods. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 15. Informal Reading Assessment <ul><li>When observing the student’s performance on various reading tasks, the teacher should consider the following questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the student’s attitude toward reading? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What specific reading interest does the student have? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the student making progress in reading? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What strengths and weaknesses in reading does the student exhibit? </li></ul></ul>
  13. 16. Informal Reading Assessment <ul><li>Questions to Consider (cont’d) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During oral reading, does the student read word-by-word or with fluency? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What kinds of errors does the student make consistently? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What word analysis skills does the student use? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the student use context clues to recognize words? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the student have a good sight vocabulary? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the student appear to pay attention to the meaning of the material when reading? </li></ul></ul>
  14. 17. Informal Reading Assessment <ul><li>Graded word lists: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine the student’s word recognition skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Informal reading inventory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides information about the student’s general reading level. It uses reading passages of increasing difficulty from various graded materials, such as selections from a basal reading series with which the student is unfamiliar. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 18. Assessing Silent Reading <ul><li>An informal reading inventory also can be used to assess silent reading. Whereas oral reading focuses on word-attack skills, silent reading emphasizes comprehension. The student silently reads each passage and then answers comprehension questions. The percentage of correct responses indicates the student’s silent reading level: independent (i.e., 90 to 100 percent), instructional (i.e., 75 percent), or frustration (i.e., 50 percent). </li></ul>
  16. 19. Types of Oral Reading Errors <ul><li>Omissions </li></ul><ul><li>Insertions of words </li></ul><ul><li>Substitutions </li></ul><ul><li>Reversals </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitions </li></ul><ul><li>Mispronunciations </li></ul><ul><li>Self-corrections </li></ul><ul><li>Hesitations </li></ul><ul><li>Aided Words </li></ul><ul><li>Unobserved punctuation marks </li></ul>
  17. 20. Oral Reading Errors and Marking System
  18. 21. Curriculum Based Assessment <ul><li>Any approach that uses direct observation and recording of a student’s performance in the school curriculum as a basis for obtaining information to make instructional decisions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) refers to a specific set of standardized procedures in which rate samples are used to assess a student’s achievement in academic skills (Deno, 1987, 1989). </li></ul></ul>
  19. 22. Portfolio Assessment <ul><li>A reading portfolio consists of a collection of materials that reflect the student’s personal reading history and accomplishments as a reader. </li></ul>
  20. 23. CLOZE Procedure <ul><li>Used to measure reading levels and comprehension informally </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the teacher to estimate the difficulty the student will have with a specific reading material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher presents an unfamiliar reading passage of about 250 words to the student. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The first sentence is typed completely, but in subsequent sentences every fifth word is replaced with a blank. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The remainder of the selection is typed as it appears in text. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The student reads the passage and fills in the missing words or synonyms. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 24. Teacher-Made Tests <ul><li>The teacher can devise an informal test to obtain a quick estimate of a specific skill. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probe sheets </li></ul></ul>