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  • targets individuals with serious problems that constitute a chronic condition and
  • This team should be made up of an administrator, grade level representatives, support staff, and parents.

    2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Identify and define the critical features of SWPBS: outcomes, data, practices, and systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the three tiers of SWPBS intervention: primary (or universal), secondary (or targeted group), and tertiary (or individualized). </li></ul><ul><li>Articulate the steps schools take to implement the primary tier of SWPBS. </li></ul><ul><li>State how schools support students who do not respond to primary tier interventions by implementing secondary and tertiary tier interventions. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the empirical evidence that supports each tier of SWPBS. </li></ul>
    3. 3. What Is School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS)? <ul><li>The PBIS Model: Universal, Targeted, and Individualized Supports </li></ul>
    4. 4. Primary prevention is universal.
    5. 5. Secondary prevention (targeted intervention) supports students at risk.
    6. 6. Tertiary prevention (intensive intervention)
    7. 7. Six Essential Components <ul><li>Secure administrator agreement of active support and participation. </li></ul><ul><li>Self assessment of the current school-wide discipline system. </li></ul><ul><li>Data collection on a regular basis. </li></ul><ul><li>School-wide leadership team to guide and direct the process. </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment from at least 80% of the staff for active support and participation. </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation action plan based on data. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Let’s unpack a few of these essential components
    9. 9. Data Collection on a Regular Basis <ul><li>We can analyze </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Office Discipline Referrals (ODRs) </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Using ODR data <ul><li>Fourth Grade Referrals by Location </li></ul>
    11. 11. School-wide leadership team to guide and direct the process. <ul><li>An administrator </li></ul><ul><li>A representative group of teachers </li></ul><ul><li>One or more members of special service faculty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., counselor, school psychologist, social worker </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One or more non-certified staff members </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., paraprofessional, security officer, administrative assistant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One or more parents </li></ul><ul><li>One or more students </li></ul>
    12. 12. Individuals should be invited to participate on the SWT on the basis of… <ul><li>Supporting the implementation of SWPBS </li></ul><ul><li>Having a skill set that contributes to the team </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., behavioral expertise, knowledge of other school interventions and systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Having social influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., the ability to positively impact the opinions and behaviors of other staff </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Functions of Coaches <ul><li>Coaches function as facilitators, holding SWT members accountable to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing an action plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing items on the action plan by specified timelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staying true to the SWPBS content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., implementing evidence-based practices as intended, using data to make decisions </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Functions of Coaches <ul><li>Coaches serve as the link between SWPBS trainers and their SWT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They will often participate in additional training activities where they receive advanced content, which they should bring back to their SWT. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarly, when SWT members have questions or require additional information, coaches should have the resources to contact SWPBS trainers and other content experts to gather requested information. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Therefore, coaches should be individuals who: <ul><li>Are comfortable taking a leadership role, gathering and sharing information, and facilitating school-wide team meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Have a flexible schedule that will allow them to perform coaching responsibilities </li></ul>
    16. 16. 80% of Staff Agree on Rules and Consequences <ul><li>Clearly defined rules for specific settings and classrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to communicate and teach behavioral expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent consequences for inappropriate behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle in the classroom? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Send to the office? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspension inside or outside of school? </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. The Action Plan <ul><li>The action plan is a working document that guides planning (year 1) and implementation (years 2+) activities. </li></ul><ul><li>It is regularly reviewed and revised at team meetings. </li></ul>
    18. 18. In order to develop an action plan, you must first identify KEY OUTCOMES. <ul><li>The SWT members are asked to bring current data to the team training. Based on areas of need and desired improvement, SWT members will identify key outcomes. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Outcomes may be developed in the areas of: <ul><li>Student social behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., decreasing suspensions or expulsions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Student academic behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., improvements on district- and state-wide tests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Staff behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., increasing implementation fidelity </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. For example, a school may develop the following outcome on behavior: <ul><ul><li>“ Following SWPBS implementation, we will see a decrease in the number of ODRs given to students for problem behavior 20% (i.e., from 5,000 ODRs to 4,000) by the end of the school year.” </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. After the SWT members identify relevant outcomes, they begin to develop an ACTION PLAN .
    22. 22. Critical Features of an Action Plan <ul><li>Although there are a variety of formats for action planning, the critical features of any action plan include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear descriptions of tasks to be completed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of the team member responsible for completing (or ensuring completion of) each task or activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specification of timelines by which each task will be completed </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>The SWT members learn about specific evidence-based practices that are effective at achieving desired changes in students’ social and academic behavior, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing a small number of positively stated expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicitly teaching expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing a continuum of strategies to monitor and recognize student behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing a continuum of strategies to monitor and respond to student behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simonsen, Sugai, & Negron, 2008 </li></ul>
    24. 24. Products to Facilitate the Implementation of Practices <ul><li>SWT members are guided to develop products that will facilitate the implementation of each practice. </li></ul><ul><li>As SWT members develop each product, they should solicit feedback from larger school faculty to ensure that they maintain staff support throughout the planning process. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Characteristics of School-Wide Expectations <ul><li>First, SWT members choose a small number (i.e., three to five) of school-wide expectations (e.g., Be Safe, Be Respectful, Be Responsible) that are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positively stated (tell students what to do , rather than what not to do) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad enough to encompass all desired behavior (as opposed to a list of specific behaviors like “raise your hand before you ask a question”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutually exclusive (i.e., specific behaviors should not fall into more than one category) </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. <ul><li>What expectations would you choose if you were implementing SWPBS in your school? </li></ul>
    27. 27. Specific Rules for Every School Setting <ul><li>After school-wide expectations are selected, SWT members then translate each expectation into specific rules for every school setting. </li></ul><ul><li>They do this by operationally defining what each expectation looks like in the context of each school setting (e.g., classroom, hallway) or routine (e.g., transitions, lunch). </li></ul>
    28. 28. Development of a Rules-Within-Routines Matrix
    29. 29. Lesson Plans <ul><li>What should each lesson plan contain? </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s review Table 2-1. </li></ul>
    30. 31. STUDENT RECOGNITION PROGRAM WITH CONTINUUM OF STRATEGIES <ul><li>For example, one school may choose to use specific praise paired with a positive behavior ticket (i.e., a small card that states that the student was observed exhibiting rule-following behavior), which students can collect and use to purchase privileges (e.g., lunch with their favorite teacher) or items at the school store. The school may collect and graph the number of positive behavior tickets awarded as an indicator of pro-social behavior. </li></ul>
    31. 32. Program Criteria <ul><li>Individual occurrences of desired behavior should be systematically recognized </li></ul><ul><li>Students should be told what behavior is being recognized (i.e., staff should provide specific and contingent praise) </li></ul><ul><li>A variety of strategies should be employed to recognize student behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Data should be collected to monitor program implementation and effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Adjustments should be made to ensure the program is resulting in increases in expectation-following behavior </li></ul>
    32. 33. <ul><li>What kind of recognition program would you have liked when you were a student? </li></ul><ul><li>How would a recognition program look at the elementary, middle, and high school level? </li></ul>
    33. 34. <ul><li>Schools implementing SWPBS are advised to ensure that their ODR form is specific, includes a section on possible motivation for the behavior (e.g., get attention, escape work), and clearly describes to context (e.g., what happened before and after the behavior occurred, where and when the behavior occurred). </li></ul>
    34. 35. <ul><li>Similarly, SWPBS schools define and teach staff what types of behaviors should be managed in the classroom (e.g., minor disruptive behavior) and what types of behaviors should be sent to the office (e.g., physical aggression). </li></ul><ul><li>We call this a T-Chart, because it has two columns (minor and major). </li></ul>
    35. 36. SWT members develop a PREDICTABLE SET OF STAFF RESPONSES for each type of student behavior.
    36. 37. <ul><li>For behavior to be addressed in the classroom, teachers are instructed to employ classroom management strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>For office managed behaviors, the SWT members identify a clear continuum of consequences, which may range from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A lunch group focused on re-teaching expectation-following behavior to remediate frequent disruptive behavior in the cafeteria, to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An expulsion for bringing a weapon to school and engaging in violent behavior on school property </li></ul></ul>
    37. 38. Your Turn <ul><li>Identify a behavior problem in your school that results in referrals to the office. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify universal strategies that involve: (a) a simple rule that students could be taught, (b) adapting an existing routine or creating a new routine, or (c) changing the physical structure of the environment or the presence of adults in the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the pro’s and con’s of each approach. </li></ul>
    38. 39. What About the Students Who Do Not Respond to the Primary Tier? <ul><li>SWPBS schools implement targeted and intensive interventions to support the remaining 16% of students. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapters 8-11 discuss these interventions. </li></ul><ul><li>Here’s an example. </li></ul>
    39. 40. Check in Check Out: A Targeted Intervention
    40. 41. What are the Effects of SWPBS?
    41. 42. SWPBS has demonstrated <ul><li>Improved overall performance of students (i.e., increases in positive interactions, decreases in ODRs </li></ul><ul><li>Improved performance of individual students with chronic problem behavior (i.e., being able to state school-wide expectations, </li></ul><ul><li>increases in self-management). </li></ul>