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Developmental Psychology


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Developmental Psychology

  1. 1. Developmental Psychology PSY 251
  2. 2. Ana & Elspeth
  3. 3. Human Development <ul><li>What is development? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some things that change as we age? </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ana & Elspeth
  5. 5. Philosophical Roots <ul><li>Original Sin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All humans are sinful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thanks Adam & Eve! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holy Spirit can help us become less selfish and sinful </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Philosophical Roots <ul><li>Innate Goodness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jean-Jacques Rousseau (philosopher) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Noble savage” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good people are made unhappy and corrupted by their experiences in society. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bad behavior is learned from others </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Philosophical Roots <ul><li>The Blank Slate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Locke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The mind of a child is a blank slate & adults can mold them into whatever they want them to be. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental influences can explain “good” and “bad” behavior. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Discussion Question… <ul><li>How might a parent who believes in Original Sin respond to a parent who believes in Innate Goodness? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Early Scientific Theories <ul><li>People turned to science for explanations about human dev’t. </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kept detailed records of baby biographies to support notion of evolution. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>G. Stanley Hall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to find more objective ways to study dev’t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used questionnaires & interviews (large # of children) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Norms – average ages at which milestones happen </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Early Scientific Theories <ul><li>Arnold Gesell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maturation – genetically programmed sequential patterns of change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maturation occurred regardless of practice, training or effort. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used movie cameras and one-way observation devices to study children’s behavior </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Child-Rearing Experts <ul><li>Expert advice: </li></ul><ul><li>Kissing the baby after it has been fed is very likely to cause it to vomit. </li></ul><ul><li>Never let them sit on your lap. </li></ul><ul><li>Shake hands with them in the morning. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. T. Berry Brazelton who seems to think that children are born into this world better people than their parents ever were. </li></ul><ul><li>Babies should cry 15 to 30 minutes a day for &quot;exercise.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Rattle behavior&quot; develops in 53 distinct stages. </li></ul><ul><li>There's the famous, strict behaviorist John Watson, who told mothers of the 1920s and 1930s only to kiss their children on the foreheads - if they must kiss at all - and anyway it was better to shake hands. Of his two sons, one committed suicide and the other had a breakdown and battled suicidal impulses for years. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Parenting Advice… <ul><li>My theory on housework is, if the item doesn't multiply, smell, catch on fire or block the refrigerator door, let it be. No one cares. Why should you? </li></ul><ul><li>Mother's words of wisdom: &quot;Answer me! Don't talk with food in your mouth!&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>No one ever died from sleeping in an unmade bed. I have known mothers who remake the bed after their children do it because there's a wrinkle in the spread or the blanket is on crooked. This is sick. </li></ul><ul><li>No self-respecting mother would run out of intimidations on the eve of a major holiday. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Lifespan Perspective <ul><li>Traditional perspective stated that children were who they were going to be by age five… </li></ul><ul><li>Lifespan perspective states that changes do occur throughout one’s life; in all spheres: social, emotional, personality, physically, etc. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Domains of Development <ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size, shape & characteristics of the body. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in thinking, memory, problem-solving, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship(s) with others. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Key Issues in Dev’t <ul><li>1. Nature vs. Nurture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature = </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nurture = </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inborn Biases : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children are born with tendencies to respond in certain ways. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal Models of Experience </li></ul><ul><li>- individual’s interpretation of events/experiences </li></ul><ul><li>- attributed meaning to experiences </li></ul><ul><li>- interpretations are not governed by mood but rather organized into models (organized sets of assumptions or expectations about self or others). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Key Issues… <ul><li>The Ecological Approach </li></ul><ul><li>- growing importance of looking beyond a child’s immediate family for explanations of dev’t </li></ul><ul><li>- ecology or CONTEXT in which child is growing </li></ul><ul><li>- ie: neighborhood, school, occupations of parents, type of relationship parents have, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each child brings own vulnerabilities and resilience to the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vulnerabilities = emotional irritability, physical abnormality, allergies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resiliencies = easy temperament, high intellect, good coordination. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vulnerabilities and resiliency interact with environment. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Key Issues… <ul><li>Continuity vs. Discontinuity </li></ul><ul><li>Does change occur smoothly over time, or through a series of predetermined steps? Some theories of development argue that changes are simply a matter of quantity; children display more of certain skills as they grow older. Other theories outline a series of sequential stages in which skills emerge at certain points of development. </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Changes that are common to every individual in a species. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes are linked to specific ages. </li></ul><ul><li>i.e., an infant shifting from crawling to walking. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Clock – a set of age norms. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e., when is the right “time” to get married, have children, retire, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Key Issues… <ul><li>Group Specific Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Changes shared by all individuals in a group growing up together. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural Context – systems of meanings and customs (values, attitudes, goals, laws, beliefs, morals, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// /strong/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical Context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Life experiences which alter or affect each generation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cohort – groups of individuals born within same period of time and share the same historical experiences. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Cohort… <ul><li>Great Depression of the 1930s… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rx studied children born in 1928 and adolescents born in 1920. Economic hardship was beneficial to teenagers (they felt needed by their families to provide food, $) but detrimental to children (experienced a loss of cohesion & warmth). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>9/11 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need I say more? </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Research Designs & Methods <ul><li>Basic research - research done for its own sake. Concerned with description, explanation & prediction. </li></ul><ul><li>Applied research - direct study of a specific problem. Concerned with prediction & control. Intends to change human behavior. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Scientific Method <ul><li>Theory - framework for explaining events or processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis - testable predictions derived from theories. </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Thinking vs. Common Sense </li></ul><ul><ul><li>affected by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmation bias - (aka: selective hearing); tend to remember, hear, or see things that confirm our perceptions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability heuristic - perception that things are easily brought to mind (remembered) are important. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Experimental Method <ul><li>Independent Variable - the variable which is controlled. </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent Variable - the variable which is measured. </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental Group </li></ul><ul><li>Control Group </li></ul><ul><li>Random Assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Double-blind procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation - DOES NOT IMPLY CAUSATION! Tendency for one aspect of the world to change with another aspect of the world. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Age-Related Changes <ul><li>Cross-Sectional Designs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ss are selected at each of a series of ages (20 y.o., 50 y.o.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ss tested only once </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal Designs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow the same Ss over a lengthy period of time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice effects – Ss “learn” how to take the tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attrition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sequential Designs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rx’er uses at least two age groups and test them over an extended period of time. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Research Designs <ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>naturalistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>systematic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Case Study </li></ul>
  25. 25. Ethical Issues <ul><li>Deception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>informed consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>debriefing </li></ul></ul>