Chapter1 G E N

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Chapter1 G E N

  1. 1. General Psychology 211 Chapter One
  2. 2. Modern Psychology <ul><li>Origins </li></ul><ul><li>1. Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>a. empiricism - knowledge can be gathered through observation. </li></ul><ul><li>b. rationalism - knowledge can be gathered through logic & reasoning. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Modern Psychology <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>1. Structuralism </li></ul><ul><li>-1879 Wundt, 1st psych. lab </li></ul><ul><li>-study the mind objectively </li></ul><ul><li>-4 students attended his 1st </li></ul><ul><li>lecture </li></ul><ul><li>-mid 1880s > many students </li></ul><ul><li>- stresses past experiences </li></ul>
  4. 4. Modern Psychology <ul><li>2. Functionalism </li></ul><ul><li>-James (founding father) </li></ul><ul><li>-1st Am. born psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>-consciousness is a continuous </li></ul><ul><li>flow </li></ul><ul><li>-linked past experiences to </li></ul><ul><li>repetition/habit </li></ul><ul><li>-how an organism uses its learning or perceptual abilities to function in the environment </li></ul>
  5. 5. Modern Psychology <ul><li>3. Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>-Watson </li></ul><ul><li>-1st student to receive PhD in </li></ul><ul><li>psy </li></ul><ul><li>-discounted consciousness & </li></ul><ul><li>focused on behavior(s) that you </li></ul><ul><li>can OBSERVE </li></ul>
  6. 6. Modern Psychology <ul><li>-based experiments on Pavlov </li></ul><ul><li>-”Little Albert” </li></ul><ul><li>-study of observable, measurable behavior(s) </li></ul><ul><li>-Skinner </li></ul><ul><li>-added new element to </li></ul><ul><li>behaviorism = reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>-pigeons </li></ul>
  7. 7. Modern Psychology <ul><li>4. Psychoanalysis </li></ul><ul><li>-Freud (founding father) </li></ul><ul><li>-conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>-unconsciousness </li></ul><ul><li>-founder of psychotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>5. Gestalt </li></ul><ul><li>- gestalt = “whole” </li></ul><ul><li>-tendency to see patterns </li></ul>
  8. 8. Modern Psychology <ul><li>-how people perceive & </li></ul><ul><li>experience objects as whole </li></ul><ul><li>patterns </li></ul><ul><li>6. Existential </li></ul><ul><li>-concerned with meaninglessness& alienation in modern life, which they believe can lead to fear, apathy & other psy’l problems </li></ul>
  9. 9. Modern Psychology <ul><li>7. Humanistic </li></ul><ul><li>-Carl Rogers </li></ul><ul><li>-focuses on empathy </li></ul><ul><li>8. Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>-interested in perception of info, storage of info & retrieval of info </li></ul><ul><li>-memory </li></ul>
  10. 10. 3 Themes <ul><li>Stability vs. Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what extent do we change or remain stable or unchanged over time? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nature vs. Nurture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>which is the greater influence? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rationality vs. Irrationality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>at times, we act in a rational, logical manner; other times we overwhelm reason with emotion </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Perspectives <ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Biological </li></ul><ul><li>Sociocultural </li></ul><ul><li>Psychodynamic </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary </li></ul>
  12. 12. Psychologists <ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PhD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PsyD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subfields/Categories/Specialties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>APA Divisions </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Scientific Method <ul><li>Theory - framework for explaining events or processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis - testable predictions derived from theories. </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Thinking vs. Common Sense </li></ul><ul><ul><li>affected by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mood </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Scientific Method <ul><ul><li>Confirmation bias - (aka: selective hearing); tend to remember, hear, or see things that confirm our perceptions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability heuristic - perception that things are easily brought to mind (remembered) are important. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlation - DOES NOT IMPLY CAUSATION! Tendency for one aspect of the world to change with another aspect of the world. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Research Methods <ul><li>Basic research - research done for its own sake. Concerned with description, explanation & prediction. </li></ul><ul><li>Applied research - direct study of a specific problem. Concerned with prediction & control. Intends to change human behavior. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Research Methods <ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>naturalistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>systematic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Case Study </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys </li></ul>
  17. 17. Experimental Method <ul><li>Independent Variable - the variable which is controlled. </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent Variable - the variable which is measured. </li></ul><ul><li>Random Assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Double-blind procedure </li></ul>
  18. 18. Ethical Issues <ul><li>Deception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>informed consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>debriefing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use of animals </li></ul><ul><li>Practicing psychologist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>confidentiality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>boundaries/professionalism </li></ul></ul>

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