Chapter 8

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  • Chapter 8

    1. 1. Chapter 8 Human Development
    2. 2. Ana & Elspeth
    3. 3. Human Development <ul><li>What is development? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some things that change as we age? </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul>
    4. 4. Ana & Elspeth
    5. 5. Developmental Psychology <ul><li>When does life begin? </li></ul><ul><li>Process of Conception: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every 28 days egg is released, which contains 23 chromosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm joins the egg  forming a zygote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>46 chromosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After fertilization, during 2 nd thru 8 th weeks known as embryo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During next several months = fetus </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Alternate Ways to Conceive <ul><li>Artificial insemination – specimen of sperm is injected into woman’s uterus </li></ul><ul><li>In Vitro fertilization – 1978, Louise Brown, 1 st “test tube” baby </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means “in glass or test tube” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mother’s ovum is surgically removed & put into a dish & fertilized with father’s sperm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When ovum grows 6-8 cells is transferred back to mother’s uterus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surrogacy – another woman gives birth to baby and gives baby to couple </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves legal contract </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moral implications of surrogacy, or donating one’s sperm or egg(s)? </li></ul>
    7. 7. Prenatal Influences on Development <ul><li>Environmental factors – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teratogens – environmental stimuli harmful to developing fetus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diseases during pregnancy – any disease that can cross the placenta </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German measles = minor effects on mother, major effects on fetus (blindness, deafness, heart disease) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genital herpes & AIDS= can cross placenta </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drugs – legal & illegal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caffeine = can slow fetal growth & contribute to premature birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FAS = abnormally small head, irritability, hyperactivity & retarded motor development and cognitive development </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Prenatal Development <ul><li>Reflexes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rooting – directs babies toward the food they need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sucking – neonates will suck on anything that touches their face </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grasping- clinging vigorously to any object placed in their hands. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Face Perception: 1 st “thing” an infant sees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rx indicates infants 12-21 days old able to imitate adult facial responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At 3 mos, baby can identify mother’s face from other faces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At 4 mos, baby can perceive different facial expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Depth Perception: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gibson & Walk (1960) </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Philosophical Roots <ul><li>Original Sin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All humans are sinful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thanks Adam & Eve! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holy Spirit can help us become less selfish and sinful </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Philosophical Roots <ul><li>Innate Goodness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jean-Jacques Rousseau (philosopher) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Noble savage” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good people are made unhappy and corrupted by their experiences in society. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bad behavior is learned from others </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Philosophical Roots <ul><li>The Blank Slate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Locke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The mind of a child is a blank slate & adults can mold them into whatever they want them to be. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental influences can explain “good” and “bad” behavior. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Child-Rearing Experts <ul><li>Expert advice: </li></ul><ul><li>Kissing the baby after it has been fed is very likely to cause it to vomit. </li></ul><ul><li>Never let them sit on your lap. </li></ul><ul><li>Shake hands with them in the morning. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. T. Berry Brazelton who seems to think that children are born into this world better people than their parents ever were. </li></ul><ul><li>Babies should cry 15 to 30 minutes a day for &quot;exercise.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Rattle behavior&quot; develops in 53 distinct stages. </li></ul><ul><li>There's the famous, strict behaviorist John Watson, who told mothers of the 1920s and 1930s only to kiss their children on the foreheads - if they must kiss at all - and anyway it was better to shake hands. Of his two sons, one committed suicide and the other had a breakdown and battled suicidal impulses for years. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Cognitive Development <ul><li>Infant Memory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infants are active processors of info </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition is a factor of memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PIAGET </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage theory – all humans move thru an orderly & predictable series of changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilation- person using existing knowledge takes in new info about the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodation- changing existing mental frameworks as a result of new experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilation & accommodation occur simultaneously </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Stages of Cog. Growth: </li></ul><ul><li>Sensorimotor (birth-2) – foundation for later symbolic thought </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accomplishes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A. Familiar with own body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B. Learned events are preceded by some cause </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C. Object permanence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>D. Capable of using thought & language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Preoperational (2-7) – is preoperational because it describes thought that occurs before child are capable of operations – mental manipulations & transformation of info. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deferred imitation – imitation of actions in the absence of a model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolic representation – mental picture or image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child can mentally represent info gathered thru senses, but cannot integrate info in a logical manner </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Stages of Cognitive Development <ul><li>2. Preoperational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolic play- use of symbols to represent reality; make believe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation - physical attributes of an object remain unchanged even though outward appearance changes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concrete Operations (7-11) – characterized by development of logical thought & ability to manipulate symbols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Sun goes to bed at night” 5 y.o.; 7 y.o. sun is inaminate and can explain why sun is not out at night </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Concrete” – child’s thinking still limited by observations of tangible events or objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reversibility – ability to mentally retrace actions in thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Formal Operations (11-15) – able to think abstractly & grasp intrinsic qualities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Idealism – adolescent is freed from bonds of personal experience & able to philosophize about self & role in world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limitations of Piaget’s Model? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used own children (small N) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Underestimated cognitive abilities of infants & young children </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stage theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Left out importance of social interactions </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Information-Processing Model <ul><li>How people receive, represent & process info—does this change with age? This does not, the efficiency & speed of processing info changes </li></ul><ul><li>What does change with age? Ability to use strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mnemonic devices – “King Phillip came over for great spaghetti” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chunking – phone numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clustering – grouping items to be remembered into relevant classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Categories : “cat” belongs to the animal category vs. car category </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the attention-span of a 3 year-old? </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Moral Development <ul><li>Moral reasoning – a cognitive act; a person’s judgment about appropriateness of an action based on some set of rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Moral behavior – actions in which a person engages </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget’s View on Moral Development: </li></ul><ul><li>Premoral judgment (2-5) – not aware of rules and don’t need them. </li></ul><ul><li>Moral realism (5-10) – rules are regarded as sacred & unchangeable. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cup example </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Autonomous morality (10 - ?) - realization that rules are made by people & people are not perfect. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Kohlberg & Moral Development <ul><li>Inspired by Piaget’s work </li></ul><ul><li>Studied boys ages 10-16; used the interview method and presented boys with 10 hypothetical dilemmas </li></ul><ul><li>Preconventional Level (4 -10) – judge morality in terms of consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional Level (10-14) – children reason that good acts serve one’s own purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Postconventional Level (adolescence)- morality is judged on abstract principles. </li></ul>
    18. 18. In Europe a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together $1,000 which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said, “No, I discovered the drug, and I am going to make money from it.” So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife.
    19. 19. Social & Emotional Development <ul><li>Older infants (8-10 mos) demonstrates social referencing – using others’ reactions to appraise an uncertain situation or experience. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Temperament <ul><li>Peron’s inborn characteristics way of responding to stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Believed to be 1 st manifestation of “personality” </li></ul><ul><li>Rx by Thomas & Chess (1977) </li></ul><ul><li>20 year study; 136 people from infancy to adolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Easy baby </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult baby </li></ul><ul><li>Slow-to-warm baby </li></ul>
    21. 21. Attachment <ul><li>Strong, affectional bond between infants & caregivers </li></ul><ul><li>Harlow’s Experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monkeys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unintentional consequence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Strange Situation” test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 Types of attachment: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Secure attachment – 67% of babies; may or may not cry; when parent returns baby will acknowledge with a look, touch or sound. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoidant attachment – 20%; don’t cry; react to strangers same as caregivers; when parent returns, either avoids or slow to acknowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Resistant attachment – 10%; before separation, seeks contact with parent; after returning, babies are angry and push parent away. </li></ul><ul><li>Disorganized attachment – 5%; when reunited with parent baby shows lack of emotion. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Adolescence <ul><li>Period beginning with puberty and ending with onset of adult roles & responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Puberty – rapid spurt in growth accompanied by sexual maturation. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Growth spurt lasting 2-3 years </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in height, weight, body proportions & dev’t of secondary sex characteristics </li></ul>
    23. 23. Cognitive Development <ul><li>“ adolescent recklessness” – engaging in risky or dangerous behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Why do teenagers engage in risky behaviors? </li></ul><ul><li>Rx by Arnett (1995) suggests several factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensation seeking – adolescents crave novel & intense experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egocentric thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Immortality?) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Adulthood & Aging <ul><li>Physical Change: </li></ul><ul><li>Early Adulthood – 30s; physical changes are slow & minimal. </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Adulthood – 40s; age-related changes; cardiac output decreases; fx’ing of reproductive system changes greatly </li></ul><ul><li>Late Adulthood – 60s +; no more likely than middle adulthood to suffer from chronic illnesses </li></ul>
    25. 25. Cognitive Changes <ul><li>Aging & Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STM & retaining info > no difference for older vs. younger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STM & processing . differences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aging & Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most tasks of intelligence do not decline with age, rather speed of tasks decline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crystallized Intelligence – abilities that depend on previously learned info to make decisions or problem solve. Culturally derived; learned in school. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid Intelligence – ability to form concepts, reason & identify similarities; increases with age. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Theories of Aging <ul><li>Wear & Tear Theories – aging results from continual use of cells & organs in our bodies. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic Theories – attribute aging to genetic programming; built-in biological clock. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Death <ul><li>Types of Death </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological – physical processes which sustain life cease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain – total absence of brain activity for 10 minutes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social – process by which other people relinquish their relationships with the deceased. </li></ul></ul>

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