Chapter Six <ul><li>Information Processing Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding – converting info to be entered into memory...
Human Memory <ul><li>3 Kinds of Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory – temporary info brought to us by our senses. </li></ul><...
CXR RPG AEI BDO VKY QTS LPZ YWF DFG TCN MKQ PXR
Serial Position Curve <ul><li>List of words – tendency to remember first and last words, but not the middle </li></ul><ul>...
STM & LTM <ul><li>Is recall easier with shorter or longer words? </li></ul><ul><li>Is recall easier for similar or unsimil...
LTM <ul><li>Construction  = tendency to fill in details when remembering events or to recall events that never occurred </...
LTM <ul><li>Coding: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elaborative rehearsal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relating new info to someth...
Memory <ul><li>Forgetting & LTM </li></ul><ul><li>retroactive interference  – new info interferes with old info </li></ul>...
Memory <ul><li>Flashbulb Memory </li></ul><ul><li>vivid memories of what we were doing at an emotionally-provoking event <...
Differences between STM & LTM <ul><li>Entry of info </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STM = info enters as a result of applying attent...
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Ch6

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Ch6

  1. 1. Chapter Six <ul><li>Information Processing Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding – converting info to be entered into memory </li></ul><ul><li>Storage – retaining info </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval – locating & accessing info </li></ul>
  2. 2. Human Memory <ul><li>3 Kinds of Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory – temporary info brought to us by our senses. </li></ul><ul><li>Working (aka = short-term) – holds small amounts of info for (how long)? </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term – vast amounts of info for very long periods of time </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Information in Memory </li></ul><ul><li>semantic memory – general knowledge about the world </li></ul><ul><li>episodic memory –specific events that we experience personally </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural memory – memory that can’t be put into words </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory Memory </li></ul><ul><li>What is the capacity of sensory memory? </li></ul><ul><li>Holds information from our senses very briefly </li></ul><ul><li>Working Memory </li></ul><ul><li>also referred to as = “consciousness” </li></ul><ul><li>serial position curve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>example </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. CXR RPG AEI BDO VKY QTS LPZ YWF DFG TCN MKQ PXR
  4. 4. Serial Position Curve <ul><li>List of words – tendency to remember first and last words, but not the middle </li></ul><ul><li>Recency effect – most recent items presented, will recall. </li></ul>
  5. 5. STM & LTM <ul><li>Is recall easier with shorter or longer words? </li></ul><ul><li>Is recall easier for similar or unsimilar words? </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity = 7 to 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Coding = we code info phonologically for STM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We code the way the word sounds even if reading the word </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retention & Retrieval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>decay theory – passing of time will cause the strength of memory to decrease. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interference theory – info gets mixed up with, or pushed aside by other info. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long-Term Memory </li></ul><ul><li>memory which is more or less permanent </li></ul><ul><li>Which type(s) of information is housed here? </li></ul><ul><li>Memory Distortion & Construction </li></ul><ul><li>distortion = alterations in what is remembered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>schemas = set of beliefs or expectations about something that is based on past experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ie: “classroom schema” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. LTM <ul><li>Construction = tendency to fill in details when remembering events or to recall events that never occurred </li></ul><ul><li>eyewitness testimony </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval Cues </li></ul><ul><li>context-dependent memory = info learned in one environment is easier to remember in similar environments </li></ul><ul><li>state-dependent retrieval = easier to recall info when internal state matches that when we stored info </li></ul><ul><li>mood-dependent memory = what we remember in a given mood may be determined in part by what you learned when previously in that mood. </li></ul><ul><li>mood-congruence effects = tendency to remember info congruent with our current mood </li></ul>
  7. 7. LTM <ul><li>Coding: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elaborative rehearsal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relating new info to something that we already know </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Necessary for LTM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires cognitive effort </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent upon how we have to retrieve the info </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ie: fill-in-the-blank versus multiple choice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage & Retrieval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rx suggests info staying in LTM is related to how hard you had to work to “put” it there. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Memory <ul><li>Forgetting & LTM </li></ul><ul><li>retroactive interference – new info interferes with old info </li></ul><ul><li>proactive interference – old info interferes with or blocks new info </li></ul><ul><li>Repression – active elimination from memory; info that is painful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little rx to support; mostly support comes from case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intentional forgetting – trying to forget or ignore info because no longer useful </li></ul><ul><li>Autobiographical memory </li></ul><ul><li>aka = episodic memory </li></ul><ul><li>How accurate is this information? </li></ul><ul><li>Infantile Amnesia </li></ul><ul><li>What is your earliest memory? </li></ul><ul><li>2 Early Explanations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure necessary for autobiographical memory is not present </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of language skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 Current Explanations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of a self-concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack ability to reflect on experiences in past, present & future </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Memory <ul><li>Flashbulb Memory </li></ul><ul><li>vivid memories of what we were doing at an emotionally-provoking event </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate or inaccurate? </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Bases of Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Lashley (1950) removed certain parts of rats brains & rats were still able to recall certain memories. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concluded—no one part of brain is responsible for memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>limbic system – believed to be instrumental in transferring info from STM to LTM </li></ul><ul><li>Amnesia </li></ul><ul><li>retrograde amnesia – can’t remember things before the amnesia-producing event </li></ul><ul><li>anterograde amnesia – can’t remember things after the amnesia-producing event </li></ul><ul><li>Korsakoff’s Syndrome – huge consumption of alcohol; sensory & motor prob’s; accompanied by anterograde and retrograde amnesia </li></ul><ul><li>Alzheimer’s disease – occurs among 5% of people over 65 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Differences between STM & LTM <ul><li>Entry of info </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STM = info enters as a result of applying attention to the stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LTM = if info is rehearsed enough, then transfers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STM = acoustic; visually; semantic (applying meaning to info) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LTM = info encoded semantically </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STM = limited and small </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LTM = No known limit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STM = up to 30 seconds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LTM = potentially a lifetime </li></ul></ul>

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