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The birth of adolescence

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The Story of G Stanley Hall and Adolescence

Published in: Education
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The birth of adolescence

  1. 1. The Birth of Adolescence: GS Hall BYD Dr. Fiona Beals
  2. 2. We need to be thinking about the implications of knowledge for each time when apply it to young people
  3. 3. “The ways in which adolescents are treated during their teenage years create tensions that last forever. Class, race, and gender identities are formed in interaction with institutions. If the definitions of youth that we build into our policies and programs in schools and elsewhere are as much a part the problem as they are a part of a supposed solution, then we risk creating identities that will come back to haunt us for generations to come” (Michael Apple, 2001)
  4. 4. Academic theories Written by adults Defines ‘youth’/‘adolescence’ as different to ‘adults’ Young people are typically seen as developmentally lacking adult traits Young people are seen as a risk (at risk and a risk) Developmental knowledge allows adult and adult institutions to control the development of young people Developmental knowledge also marginalises some young people
  5. 5. The Birth of Industrial Society The 1800s Changes in the structure of society were reflected in the crimes of society Increased deviance in working-class populations Increased deviance in working-class children Population Statistics Calculations of Risk Child Psychology Mass Education
  6. 6. Economic Instability The 1890s Reflections of the depression Increased crime of the working-class The rise of the adolescent delinquent Statistics Eugenics G.S. Hall Education
  7. 7. The birth of adolescence G. Stanley Hall Combination of myth and scientific truth Explained a social condition psychologically The birth of stereotypes The ‘problem’ of adolescence ‘Storm and stress’ Developmentally different Needing guidance and control
  8. 8. Caucasian Australian Aborigine Asian/Indian
  9. 9. Autonomous Adult Dependent Child Adolescence
  10. 10. Civilization Adult Nature/ hild Adolescence
  11. 11. Recapitulation Theory Stereotyped all young people as different to adults and problematic Raging hormones Propensity to deviance Positioned some young people as more problematic than others … groups who would be seen in the years following as being trapped in dependency and adolescence
  12. 12. Caucasian/ Adult Australian Aborigine/ Child Adolescence
  13. 13. "When I became interested in this subject, I found teachers and social workers who would point directly to this child or that one and say he was well on his way to becoming a serial murderer or some other kind of criminal. In some instances, they would make these disturbing predictions within the child's hearing. They would give up on children as young as five and seven years old, allowing them to drift through their classrooms or placements, hoping the child would not harm anyone while under their watch. 'I just hope I'm not around when he explodes,' one teacher said to me of a child I tutored. She believed that there was nothing she nor anyone else could do to straighten him out. 'Whether it's genetics or environment, it's over for this child. Move on to another.'
  14. 14. I did not believe that was true. After writing this book, I know it is not. The problem is adults allowing children who are already well on their way to sociopathic behaviour - children who clearly exhibit ominous warnings - to continue freely down such a path. Just as disturbing are the parents who turn a blind eye or are in denial of their children's bullying or maladaptive behavior, attraction to violence, or interest and accumulation of weapons, especially guns. In my research, I could see the patterns of behavior that led professionals to proclaim that a child was a ticking bomb. But I came to believe that it was a self-fulfilling prophecy only if nothing was done for the child" (Toth, 2002, 282-283)
  15. 15. “In classrooms around New Zealand, right now, there are a number of children whose destiny is already in place – unless a miracle occurs in their life, they will come to prison … And the age of these children? … the children I am thinking of are currently 5, 6 and 7 years of age. They are children who occupy the thoughts of teachers as they try to change the destiny already visible; children who will struggle every moment of their life simply because of the reality into which they were born” (Lashlie, 2002, 12)
  16. 16. References Beals, F. (2000). Youth-at-risk: definition, identification, intervention and prevention. In School of Education (Ed.), Victoria-Police Education Programme: EDUC 114 understanding human development and behaviour. Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington. Beals, F. M. (2004). Education, Lily's Medicinal Compound for Today's Wayward Youth. Paper presented at the Conference Name|. Retrieved Access Date|. from URL|. Beals, F. M. (2006a). Digital Connections: Alternative methods of building connections with young people. Paper presented at the Conference Name|. Retrieved Access Date|. from URL|. Beals, F. M. (2006b). Reading between the lines: Representations and constructions of youth and crime in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Unpublished Doctor of Philosophy (Education) thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington. Beals, F. M. (In Progress). It's not just empowering: The implications of psychology and risk knowledge in explanations of youth crime. Beals, F. M. (Work in Progress). Socialisation, Risk, and Education: Youth-at-risk in Education. Teachers College Record. Epstein, R. (2007). The case against adolescence: Rediscovering the adult in every teen. Sanger, California: Quill Driver Books. Fairclough, N. (1992). Discourse and Social Change. Cambridge: Polity Press. Fairclough, N., & Wodak, R. (1997). Critical Discourse Analysis. In T. A. Van Dijk (Ed.), Discourse as Social Interaction: discourse studies: a multidisciplinary introduction (Vol. 2, pp. 258-284). London: Sage Publications. Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and Punish: The birth of the prison (A. Sheridan, Trans.). London: Penguin Books. Fowler, R. (1991). Language in the News: discourse and ideology in the press. London: Routledge.
  17. 17. References France, A. (2007). Understanding youth in late modernity. Maidenhead, United Kingdom: Open University Press. Gordon, C. (Ed.). (1980). Power/Knowledge: selected interviews & other writings 1972- 1977 by Michel Foucault. New York: Pantheon Books. Lesko, N. (1996a). Denaturalizing Adolescence: the politics of contemporary representations. Youth & Society, 28(2), 139-161. Lesko, N. (1996b). Past, Present, and Future Conceptions of Adolescence. Educational Theory, 46(4), 453-472. Lesko, N. (2001). Act Your Age! A cultural construction of adolescence. New York: Routledge Falmer. Poynting, S., & White, R. (2004). Youth Work: challenging the soft cop syndrome. Youth Studies Australia, 23(4), 39-45. Shaw, J. (2005). Body Mind Spirit: You shake that fist! Tearaway Retrieved 19 May, 2005, from http://tearaway.co.nz/Article.aspx?PostingID=4384 Stereotype. (2006, 19 November). Retrieved 21 November, 2006, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereotypes White, R., & Wyn, J. (2007). Youth and Society: Exploring the social dynamics of youth experience (2nd ed.). Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Wyn, J., & White, R. (1997). Rethinking Youth. London: Sage Publications. Wyn, J., & White, R. (2000). Negotiating Social Change: the paradox of youth. Youth & Society, 32(2), 165-183.

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