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Fire safety-program 1122


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fire safety at home level

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Fire safety-program 1122

  4. 4. Fire, helpful and destructive to mankind, is more than a necessary evil: controlled, it provides warmth and food, but uncontrolled, it produces death and destruction. Because of the power of fire, its unintentional origin and behavior are difficult to predict and determine.
  5. 5. In order to understand the behavior of fire, one must have an understanding of the chemical principles that control its origin and spread and the physical phenomena that result from its behavior. Fire itself is a chemical phenomenon, all fuels are (synthetic or organic) chemical compounds and when fuel is ignited, the result is a chemical reaction with predictable physical effects.
  6. 6. FIRE consists of three basic elements, as represented by the fire triangle: HEAT, FUEL and OXYGEN. These basic components have been recognized in the science of fire protection for over 100 years. The diffusion flame process (fire) is a rapid self-sustaining oxidation process accompanied by the evolution of heat and light of varying intensities.
  7. 7. Oxygen is always present in the home.   If, however, you can separate heat sources from fuel sources (combustibles), you will have taken the first step toward fire prevention.  HEAT SOURCES - Anything that produces heat. Damaged electrical wiring Stoves Heating appliances     FUEL SOURCES - Anything that will burn. Clothing Curtains Furniture Flammable liquids
  8. 8. The combustion reaction can be depicted more accurately by a four-sided solid geometric form called a tetrahedrontetrahedron. TEMPERATURE FUEL UNINHIBITED CHAIN REACTION OF COMBUSTION PROCESS OXYGEN The four sides represent HEATHEAT, FUELFUEL, OXYGENOXYGEN, and UNINHIBITED CHAINUNINHIBITED CHAIN REACTIONSREACTIONS.
  9. 9. 1.CLASS A = FIRES INVOLVING ORDINARY COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS. Ex. Rubber, plastics, fibers, wood, papers etc. 2. CLASS B = FIRES INVOLVING FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS AND GASES. Ex. Gasoline, paints, Liquefied petroleum gas 3. CLASS C = FIRES INVOLVING ENERGIZED ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS. Ex. Overloading electrical system, short circuit, defective appliances 4. CLASS D = FIRES INVOLVING COMBUSTIBLE METALS. Ex. Sodium, potassium, explosives 1. COOLING / QUENCHING = REDUCTION OF TEMPERATURE. 2. BLANKETTING = REMOVAL OF OXYGEN. 3. STARVING = REMOVAL OF FUEL.
  11. 11. HOW DOES FIRE WILL INTENSIFY? THRU THE FACTORS WHICH WILL AFFECT THE RATE OF INTENSITY OF  HEAT. 1. Amount of fuel available for burning. 2. Calorific value of fuel 3. Oxygen supply available 4. Surfaced area of exposure 5. Flame length produce
  12. 12.    AUTOMATI C HOME FI RE SPRI NKLER SYSTEM Consider inst alling an aut omat ic home f ire sprinkler syst em in your home. Sprinklers can cont ain and even ext inguish a home f ire in less t ime t han it t akes t he f ire depart ment t o arrive.    I NSTALL SMOKE ALARMS   Smoke alarms save lives by warning you about a f ire while t here' s t ime t o escape. I nst all alarms on every f loor of your home, including t he basement , and out side each sleeping area - inside as well, if you sleep wit h t he door closed - and t est t hem once a mont h. Smoke alarms lose t heir sensit ivit y over t ime. Replace alarms 10 or more years old.
  13. 13.  PLAN YOUR ESCAPE   I f t here’s a f ire, you have t o get out f ast , so be prepared. Draw a f loor plan of your home, marking t wo ways out of each room. Go over t he plan wit h your household so t hat everyone knows how t o escape if t here' s a f ir e, t hen physically walk t hrough each escape rout e. Decide on an out side meet ing place in f ront of your home where everyone will meet af t er t hey' ve escaped. Pract ice your escape plan by holding a f ire drill t wice a year.
  14. 14.  I N A FI RE, CRAWL LOW UNDER SMOKE   Smoke and heat rise, so during a f ire t here' s cleaner, cooler air near t he f loor. Always t ry anot her exit if you encount er smoke when you are escaping a f ire. But if you have t o escape t hrough smoke, crawl on your hands and knees wit h you head I t o 2 f eet (30 t o 60
  15. 15.   SMOKERS' SAFETY   Don' t smoke in bed or when you' re drowsy. Give smokers large, deep, non- t ip ash t rays, and soak but t s and ashes bef ore dumping t hem. I f someone has been smoking in your home, check on and around f urnit ure, including under cushions, f or smoldering cigaret t es. 
  16. 16. COOK SAFELY   Always st ay wit h t he st ove when cooking, or t urn of f burners if you walk away. Wear clot hes wit h snug - rolled up - sleeves when you cook t o avoid cat ching your clot hes on f ire. Turn pot handles inward where you can' t bump t hem and children can' t grab t hem, and enf orce a "kid-f ree zone" 3 f eet around your st ove when you 
  17. 17.    KEEP MATCHES AND LI GHTERS OUT OF SI GHT Keep mat ches and light ers away f rom children. Lock t hem up high and out of reach, and use only child- resist ant light ers. Teach young children t o t ell you if t hey f ind mat ches or light ers; t each older children t o bring mat ches and light ers t o an adult bef ore t hey f all int o young hands.   USE ELECTRI CI TY SAFELY   Know t he warning signs of problems f or elect rical appliances: f lickering light s, smoke or odd smells, blowing f uses, t ripping circuit breakers or f rayed or cracked cords. Check caref ully any appliances t hat display a warning sign, and repair or replace. Don' t run ext ension cords across doorways or where t hey can be walked
  18. 18.  STOP, DROP, AND ROLL   I f your clot hing cat ches on f ire, remember:   STOP:  Don' t run. Running f eeds oxygen t o t he f ire and makes it worse. DROP:  I nst ead, drop immediat ely t o t he f loor. ROLL:  Cover your f ace wit h your hands and roll over and over t o smot her t he f lames. Cool t he burn wit h cool wat er f or 10 - 15 minut es. Call f or help.
  19. 19.  TEST DOORS BEFORE OPENI NG   You can easily be overcome by heat , smoke or f lames when you open a door t o an area where a f ire has spread.   DON' T LOCK SAFETY GATES ON WI NDOWS Fumbling f or a key or combinat ion during an emergency will reduce t he opport unit y f or a saf e exit .
  20. 20. Unattended cooking equipment Improper discarding of cigarette butts Improper wiring system Octopus connection – overloading of circuit. Unattended electric iron
  21. 21. Unattended children playing matches Mosquito coils near combustible rugs Fire trapped window grills
  22. 22. Never leave a warm or hot iron unattended. An unattended iron that is on will scorch fabric and may cause a fire.
  23. 23. Never leave food on a stove or in an oven unattended. Keep cooking areas free of flammable objects such as potholders, towels and curtains.
  24. 24. Never disable or remove the battery from a smoke alarm. Frequently test smoke alarms and make sure that you replace batteries regularly.
  25. 25. Burning candles should never be left unattended. Keep flammable items like fabric and paper away from candles.
  26. 26. Store gasoline, newspapers and other combustibles away from sources of flame.
  27. 27. Keep air conditioning unit on a level surface away from fabric and other flammable items.
  28. 28. The fire safety plan is a very important part of the overall fire and life safety program within the building. Its purpose is to prevent potential injuries and deaths and to protect your residential and/or company from damage or loss due to fire.
  29. 29. If a fire starts in your home you will be scared, but try very hard to stay calm. Having a Fire Escape Plan, so you know what to do if there is a fire, could saveyour life.
  30. 30.  Stay calm. Wakeup all themembersof your family.  Makeyour way out together, through thenearest exit.  Do not open any other doors.  If adoor feelshot, DO NOT open it. FIREPLAN PART1 If you are woken up by the sound of your smoke alarm or by thesound of what you think isafire, remember:
  31. 31. FIRE PLAN PART 1  When everyone is safely outside call the Fire Service from a public telephone or a neighbor’s house.  DO NOT GO BACK TO THE HOUSE for any reason until the Fire Service tells you it is safe to return.  If the fire is blocking your way or you cannot use the stairs for any reason, you must use the second part of your Fire Escape Plan.
  32. 32. FIREPLAN PART2 In fires, there is sometimes a lot of smoke. This can kill you. If you have to go through a smoke - filled hallway or room, get down on your handsand kneesand crawl under it. Get all the family into a room from where it would be safest to drop from awindow, onto aflat roof or into thegarden. ALWAYSpasschildren down first. Never leavechildren until last.  Remember – never jump!  Lower yourself to armslength and then drop.  When everyone is out safely, find a telephone and dial 1122.  If you are trapped by smoke and cannot escape through a window, use part three of your Fire Escape Plan.
  33. 33. FIREPLAN PART3 If you are trapped in a room by smoke or fire, you need to try to stop smokegetting into theroom. Closethedoor.  Block any gaps into the room. Use towels, blankets or spare clothes. If thereisatelephonein theroom dial 1122.  If thereisno telephone, go to thewindow and shout for help.  Once you know you have been heard and help is on the way, stay near to the floor by the window. Smoke and heat rise so you are safer near to theground. If your windows are double glazed, use a heavy object and hit the window in a bottom corner. Make any jagged edges safe with a towel or blanket.
  34. 34. Every business establishment should have a fire safety plan, which should be reviewed with all new employees when they begin their job and with all employees when the plan is changed.
  35. 35.    All ignition sources (i.e., open flames, cutting torches, spark producing equipment, electric motors, heating equipment, etc.) should be controlled and contact with combustible and flammable materials must be avoided. Keep all combustible materials at least five feet from such ignition sources and all flammable liquids at least twenty feet away. Extensive use of electrical extension cords should be avoided. Any damaged or frayed electrical wiring, equipment cords, extension cords, etc. should be removed from service immediately and replaced or repaired.   THE FOLLOWING ARE SOME GENERAL FIRE PREVENTION PRACTICES:
  36. 36. BUILDING FIRE EXITS: Each area of the building shall have at least two means of escape remote from each other that are to be used in a fire emergency. The location of exits and the path of egress should be shown on maps posted throughout the building. Fire exit doors must not be blocked or locked to prevent emergency use when employees are within the building. Exit routes from the building must be clear and free of obstructions. All exits are marked with signs designating exits from the building.
  37. 37. FIRE EXTINGUISHERS:   Every area in the building should have a full complement of the proper type of fire extinguisher for the fire hazards present. The fire extinguishers should be inspected annually by a fire protection equipment company and tagged with the date of inspection. If a fire extinguisher is used or discharged for any reason, it must be removed from service and replaced with another properly charged extinguisher while it is being recharged.
  38. 38. Employees who are expected or anticipated to use fire extinguishers should be instructed on the hazards of fighting fires, how to properly operate the fire extinguishers available, and what procedures to follow in alerting others to the fire emergency. These employees will attempt to extinguish only small incipient fires. If a fire cannot be immediately and easily extinguished with a fire extinguisher, the employees will evacuate the building rather than try to fight the fire. All employees who are not trained and designated to fight fires are to immediately evacuate the building at the first sign of fire or initiation of the fire alarm and are prohibited from using an extinguisher. FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
  39. 39. EMERGENCY EVACUATION If any employee discovers a fire or smoke, the employee should immediately pull the nearest fire alarm box. If there is time and it is safe to do so, the employee will also call the front office receptionist to report the fire. If the fire does not involve the office, the receptionist will call 1122 and report the fire to the nearest fire department. The receptionist will then make an announcement over the public address system that there is a fire, give the location of the fire and instruct all employees to evacuate the building. The receptionist will then exit the building.
  40. 40. EMERGENCY EVACUATION When the fire alarm sounds or a fire is otherwise announced, all employees (except those designated and trained to use fire extinguishers) are expected to immediately exit the building by proceeding to the nearest exit in an orderly fashion. If the nearest exit is blocked by fire or smoke, the employees should proceed to an alternate exit. There should be no running, shouting, pushing, etc. A calm orderly evacuation is the safest for all concerned.
  41. 41. Upon exiting the building, all employees are to proceed to the designated meeting area(s) so that they are away from the building, are not hampering access by fire fighters, and can be counted and accounted for. The designated meeting area(s) for our building is (insert the location(s) where employees are to meet outside the building). Supervisors and managers will account for all of their employees to ensure that no one is still in the building and unaccounted for. Where needed, special procedures for helping physically impaired employees will be established. This will be done on a case by case basis when the employee is first hired or when the physical impairment first occurs. EMERGENCY EVACUATION
  42. 42. EMPLOYEE TRAINING All new employees should receive fire prevention and emergency evacuation training when they are hired. All employees should receive a refresher training and a review of this plan on an annual basis. Fire drills, to include a practice evacuation of the building should be conducted at least annually. These drills will be used to evaluate employee response and behavior and will help us determine where more training is needed. Those employees who are designated and authorized to use fire extinguishers to fight small fires will receive training in the proper use of extinguisher, how to extinguish a fire, the hazards involved in fighting fires, and when not to fight a fire and evacuate the area instead.
  43. 43. THE FOLLOWING SECTIONS SHOULD BE ESTABLISHEDWITHIN THE FIRE SAFETY PLAN. Map the complete layout of the building, verifying all the exit locations, occupied rooms, offices, incorporating the property lot and building size measurements, highlighting street access and names, noting any other vital fire fighter entry information. Document the locations of the onsite fire extinguishers, fire hoses, standpipe stations, fire alarm system & detection devices, emergency lighting, fire pumps, sprinkler risers etc. Describe fire alarm system specifications, including the operation sequence of the control panel and layout of all fire detection devices (i.e. heat and smoke detectors, fire bells, pull stations, also any auxiliary shuts downs, door releases and monitoring agency functions and information).
  44. 44. THE FOLLOWING SECTIONS SHOULD BE ESTABLISHEDWITHIN THE FIRE SAFETY PLAN. Outline the preventative maintenance program, including servicing requirements, monthly inspections and tests, performance details, and fire logging methods pertaining to the audit of all the fire protection equipment within the building. Provide sample signage indicating overall floor plans, each exit within the building and the location of the fire extinguishers, fire hoses and stations, fire alarm & devices, emergency lighting, sprinkler systems, emergency gas and water shut off valves and electrical disconnect switches. Outline fire drill intervals, occupant emergency evacuation procedures and alternative measures in fire emergency situations. Indicate of all on-site fire hazards and measures to be taken by the supervisory staff and fire wardens.
  45. 45. Although extinguishers can vary in size, color and type of extinguishing agent, all devices operate basically the same way. If the fire is small and heavy smoke is NOT present and you have an exit available to you for evacuation purposes, grab the nearest appropriate extinguisher and the P-A-S-S procedure.
  46. 46. - PULL the pin located in the extinguisher's handle. P A -   AIM the nozzle, horn or hose at the base of the fire. Aim the discharge toward the base of the flames. Do not aim the fire extinguisher directly onto the source, as it may spread the flames. Begin discharging 8-10 feet away from the fire source. SS - SQUEEZESQUEEZE or press the handle. - SWEEP from side to side at the base of the fire until it is out. S