J. Alfredo Martínez Hernández
Granada 18th sept 2013
Benefits and mechanisms of moderately high protein or
high fiber diet...
INTRODUCCIÓN
High Prevalence
Public health Burden
Mortality cause
Hypertension, hiperinsulinemia, dislipidemias,
diabetes, cardiovascul...
Genetics
Introducción
BODY FAT
EXCESS
OBESITY
DEFINICIÓN DE OBESIDAD
Environment
Lifestyle
+
+ +
ENERGY
INTAKE
ENERGY
EXPE...
ADIPOSITY
Fatty acids
Metabolic Syndrome
Glucose Intolerance
Diabetes mellitus type II
Inflammation
Hypertension
Glucose
i...
TRATAMIENTO DE LA OBESIDAD
Negative Energy
Balance
Weight and fat loss
RISK FACTORS IMPROVEMENT
Objetive
intake
Energy exp...
OBESITY TREATMENT
Nutritional therapies Lifestyle Adaptation
Physical Activity
programmes
Pharmacological approaches
Surge...
DIETS
Low Carb vs High
protein diets
High carb / low fat diets
GI
VLCD 400-1000 kcal
Products,………
Capsules, powders, teas…...
Macronutrient distribution may
have a role in body weight loss and
maintenance as well as on
associated obesity manifestat...
LOW CALORIE DIETS
Fat losses
lean tissue maintenance
Macronutrient distribution
Food Composition
Proteins, 3 fatty acids,...
Body weight composition
DEXA, Bio-impedance
Energy expenditure
Indirect Calorimetry
Mitochondrial Oxidation
Breath tests f...
RESULTADOS:
Resultados
Labayen et al. 2004,Clin Nutr; 23:571-578
Net Lipid Oxidation
Resultados
Resultados
Labayen et al. 2004,Nutr Res; 24: 7-18
Efecto termogénico y utilización postprandial de nutrientes
Fat Balance
-180
-160
-...
EFECTS OF PROTEIN VS CARBOHYDRATE-RICH DIETS
ON FUEL UTILISATION IN OBESE WOMEN DURING
WEIGHT LOSS
Elmadfa I, Ankalm E, Kö...
Labayen et al., 2003. Forum Nutr. 23: 168-170
Cambios en leptina y utilización de nutrientes
+51% (p<0.05) in leptin conce...
Resultados
EFECTO SOBRE LA OXIDACIÓN MITOCONDRIAL:
Test en aliento 2-ceto[1-13C]isocaproato
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
Dieta control Dieta ...
Resultados
N=10
CONTROL
N=9
HIGH PROTEIN
N=8
LEGUMES
N=8
FATTY FISH
35 Men; Age: 387 years;
BMI: 31,83,0 kg/m2
>Protein
<Carbohydra...
Pérdida de peso durante el período de intervención nutricional
Abete et al., 2008. J Med Food; 12:100-108
-9
-8
-7
-6
-5
-...
Waist
Circumference
(%)
-14
-12
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
Dieta control Dieta legumbres
Dieta pescado
azul Dieta hiperproteica
*
*...
Resultados
EVOLUCIÓN DE LA PERDIDA DE PESO
Resultados
Larsen et al, 2010. N Engl J Med; 363:2102-13
Background
PROYECTO DiOGenes: Diet, Obesity and Genes. 8 European countries
...
Larsen et al, 2010. N Engl J Med; 363:2102-13
PHASE II: Weight Maintenance
773 adults with weight loss >8%
↑ Prot
↓ IG
Con...
Larsen et al, 2010. N Engl J Med; 363:2102-13
CAMBIOS EN PESO CORPORAL
Resultados
Resultados
Resultados
Possible interactions of dietary intake with genetic variability to affect disease risk.
Jenab MZ et al. Hum Genet (2009) ...
 DEPARTAMENTO DE CIENCIAS DE LA ALIMENTACIÓN,
FISIOLOGÍA Y TOXICOLOGÍA
 GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA Y UNIÓN EUROPEA
Agradecimien...
Resultados
Resultados
Resultados
DNA RNA PROTEINS
Transcription Translation
Gene Expression= f (DNA  Environmental factors)
GENOTYPE  PHENOTYPE
Regulatory Elements Estructural Functions
Proteins
Energy
Nutrients
NUTRIENT FUNCTIONS
Fatty Acids
Retinoids
Vitamin D
Glucose
Energy
Transcription
mRNADNA Proteíns
Translation
Amino acids
Iron
Selenium
Postra...
Cascade
Kinases
Mechanisms : - Receptors (membrane/nucleus)
Nutrients
Nutrients

Nutrients &
Metabolites
- Metabolism int...
Genetic make up can determine
unique nutritional requirements
and responses to different foods.
Based on:
- The sequencing...
Epigenetic processes modulate gene activity and expression
without changes in the DNA nucleotide sequence
EPIGENETICS
Me
DNA Methylation
Histone Modifications DNA Packaging
around Nucleosomes
Me
Me
Chromatin Packaging
Alterations
Me
Me
Me
M...
Sullivan KE et al.
Epigenetic regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha.
Mol Cell Biol 2007, 27: 5147-5160.
TNF-α promoter...
24 obese subjects
(BMI: 30.5 ± 1.5 kg/m2)
12 men 12 female
Serum: TNF-a
Blood, PBMC: DNA
8-week hypocaloric diet
Weigh los...
TNF-a gene
% Methylation
Weight Loss
Baseline TNF-a
Final TNF-a
Subjects less
methylated lose
more weight
Subjects with more
baseline TNF have
the ...
CONCLUSIONES
Conclusiones
2) La utilización de lípidos tras la ingesta de una comida con
alto aporte proteico es significativamente may...
3) El aumento del contenido proteico a expensas de los
hidratos de carbono dentro de una dieta hipocalórica
produjo un aum...
Conclusiones
5) La ingesta moderadamente alta de proteína y la
reducción del índice glucémico dentro de una dieta
habitual...
Genetics Genomics Epigenetics
Nutrition, perinatal programming and
disease
Nutrition and Health
Genetics Genomics Epigenetics
Nutrition, perinatal programming and
disease
CONCLUSIONES
Conclusiones
2) La utilización de lípidos tras la ingesta de una comida con
alto aporte proteico es significativamente may...
3) El aumento del contenido proteico a expensas de los
hidratos de carbono dentro de una dieta hipocalórica
produjo un aum...
Conclusiones
5) La ingesta moderadamente alta de proteína y la
reducción del índice glucémico dentro de una dieta
habitual...
Abete I et al., Arch Med Res. 2009 May;40(4):306-10. 2009
Inflammatory state and stress condition in weight-lowering Lys10...
Goyenechea E et al .(Diabetes Res; 2008)Goyenechea E et al .(Diabetes Res; 2008)
Enhanced short-term improvement of insuli...
Goyenechea E et al .(Diabetes Res; 2008)Goyenechea E et al .(Diabetes Res; 2008)
Enhanced short-term improvement of insuli...
Goyenechea E et al .(Diabetes Res; 2008)
Enhanced short-term improvement of insulin response to a low-caloric diet in
obes...
Goyenechea E et al .(Br. J Nutr. 2006)
Weight regain after slimming induced by an energy-restricted diet depends on interl...
Goyenechea E et al .(Br. J Nutr. 2006)
Weight regain after slimming induced by an energy-restricted diet depends on interl...
Goyenechea E et al .(Br. J Nutr. 2006)
Weight regain after slimming induced by an energy-restricted diet depends on interl...
Goyenechea E et al .(Br. J Nutr. 2006)
Weight regain after slimming induced by an energy-restricted diet depends on interl...
Crujeiras AB et al. (OMICS. 2008)
Differential expression of oxidative stress and inflammation related genes in peripheral...
Crujeiras AB et al. (OMICS. 2008)
Differential expression of oxidative stress and inflammation related genes in peripheral...
Crujeiras AB et al. (OMICS. 2008)
Crujeiras AB et al. (OMICS. 2008)
Differential expression of oxidative stress and inflam...
Sirtuin gene expression in human mononuclear cells is modulated by caloric restriction
Crujeiras AB et al. (Eur J Clin Inv...
Crujeiras AB et al. (Eur J Clin Invest 2008)
Sirtuin gene expression in human mononuclear cells is modulated by caloric re...
Crujeiras AB et al. (Eur J Clin Invest 2008)
Sirtuin gene expression in human mononuclear cells is modulated by caloric re...
Goyenechea E et al. (Ann Nutr Metab. 2008)
A nutrigenomic inflammation-related PBMC-based approach to predict the weight-l...
Goyenechea E et al. (Ann Nutr Metab. 2008)
A nutrigenomic inflammation-related PBMC-based approach to predict the weight-l...
Goyenechea E et al. (J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2008)
Expression of two inflammation-related genes (RIPK3 and RNF216) in ...
Goyenechea E et al. (J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2008)
Expression of two inflammation-related genes (RIPK3 and RNF216) in ...
SPAIN
33%
11%
PORTUGAL
33%
9%
FRANCE
24%
7%
IRELAND
31%
8%
NETHERLANDS
29%
10%
U. K.
30%
12%
BELGIUM
31%
9%
DENMARK
31%
8%...
20131003 H2020 Pamplona JAlfredo Martínez: Proyecto diogenes. dieta, obesidad y genes
20131003 H2020 Pamplona JAlfredo Martínez: Proyecto diogenes. dieta, obesidad y genes
20131003 H2020 Pamplona JAlfredo Martínez: Proyecto diogenes. dieta, obesidad y genes
20131003 H2020 Pamplona JAlfredo Martínez: Proyecto diogenes. dieta, obesidad y genes
20131003 H2020 Pamplona JAlfredo Martínez: Proyecto diogenes. dieta, obesidad y genes
20131003 H2020 Pamplona JAlfredo Martínez: Proyecto diogenes. dieta, obesidad y genes
20131003 H2020 Pamplona JAlfredo Martínez: Proyecto diogenes. dieta, obesidad y genes
20131003 H2020 Pamplona JAlfredo Martínez: Proyecto diogenes. dieta, obesidad y genes
20131003 H2020 Pamplona JAlfredo Martínez: Proyecto diogenes. dieta, obesidad y genes
20131003 H2020 Pamplona JAlfredo Martínez: Proyecto diogenes. dieta, obesidad y genes
20131003 H2020 Pamplona JAlfredo Martínez: Proyecto diogenes. dieta, obesidad y genes
20131003 H2020 Pamplona JAlfredo Martínez: Proyecto diogenes. dieta, obesidad y genes
20131003 H2020 Pamplona JAlfredo Martínez: Proyecto diogenes. dieta, obesidad y genes
20131003 H2020 Pamplona JAlfredo Martínez: Proyecto diogenes. dieta, obesidad y genes
20131003 H2020 Pamplona JAlfredo Martínez: Proyecto diogenes. dieta, obesidad y genes
20131003 H2020 Pamplona JAlfredo Martínez: Proyecto diogenes. dieta, obesidad y genes
20131003 H2020 Pamplona JAlfredo Martínez: Proyecto diogenes. dieta, obesidad y genes
20131003 H2020 Pamplona JAlfredo Martínez: Proyecto diogenes. dieta, obesidad y genes
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20131003 H2020 Pamplona JAlfredo Martínez: Proyecto diogenes. dieta, obesidad y genes

  1. 1. J. Alfredo Martínez Hernández Granada 18th sept 2013 Benefits and mechanisms of moderately high protein or high fiber diets in body weight loss and maintenance: The DIOGENES project Departamento de Nutrición, Ciencias de la Alimentación y Fisiología Pamplona Spain
  2. 2. INTRODUCCIÓN
  3. 3. High Prevalence Public health Burden Mortality cause Hypertension, hiperinsulinemia, dislipidemias, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cáncer OBESITY PREVALENCE Life quality impairments Introducción SPAIN 33% 11% PORTUGAL 33% 9% FRANCE 24% 7% IRELAND 31% 8% NETHERLANDS 29% 10% U. K. 30% 12% BELGIUM 31% 9% DENMARK 31% 8% SWEDEN 33% 7% LUXEMBOURG 27% 9% ITALY 30% 7% GREECE 35% 11% GERMANY 35% 11% AUSTRIA 32% 10% FINLAND 33% 10% 33% OW
  4. 4. Genetics Introducción BODY FAT EXCESS OBESITY DEFINICIÓN DE OBESIDAD Environment Lifestyle + + + ENERGY INTAKE ENERGY EXPENDITURE Neuroendocrine factors - -
  5. 5. ADIPOSITY Fatty acids Metabolic Syndrome Glucose Intolerance Diabetes mellitus type II Inflammation Hypertension Glucose intolerance Atherosclerosis Insulin Resistance Endothelial dysfunctions Introducción
  6. 6. TRATAMIENTO DE LA OBESIDAD Negative Energy Balance Weight and fat loss RISK FACTORS IMPROVEMENT Objetive intake Energy expenditure Introducción
  7. 7. OBESITY TREATMENT Nutritional therapies Lifestyle Adaptation Physical Activity programmes Pharmacological approaches Surgery 1º 2º 3º Introducción
  8. 8. DIETS Low Carb vs High protein diets High carb / low fat diets GI VLCD 400-1000 kcal Products,……… Capsules, powders, teas… Specific foods Pinaapple, cider,apple,berries,..…
  9. 9. Macronutrient distribution may have a role in body weight loss and maintenance as well as on associated obesity manifestations Hipótesis
  10. 10. LOW CALORIE DIETS Fat losses lean tissue maintenance Macronutrient distribution Food Composition Proteins, 3 fatty acids, glycemic index, fiber, amino acids… Risk factors 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1 2 Carbohydrates Lípids Proteíns
  11. 11. Body weight composition DEXA, Bio-impedance Energy expenditure Indirect Calorimetry Mitochondrial Oxidation Breath tests for stable isotopes Blood Sampling Lipids, carbohydrates, leptin Energy expenditure Energy - 30% DIET Anthropometrics Weight, stature, circumferences,…….. Material y Métodos
  12. 12. RESULTADOS:
  13. 13. Resultados
  14. 14. Labayen et al. 2004,Clin Nutr; 23:571-578 Net Lipid Oxidation Resultados
  15. 15. Resultados
  16. 16. Labayen et al. 2004,Nutr Res; 24: 7-18 Efecto termogénico y utilización postprandial de nutrientes Fat Balance -180 -160 -140 -120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 Day 0 Day 70 Fatbalance(kJ) * P < 0.10 Resultados
  17. 17. EFECTS OF PROTEIN VS CARBOHYDRATE-RICH DIETS ON FUEL UTILISATION IN OBESE WOMEN DURING WEIGHT LOSS Elmadfa I, Ankalm E, König JS (eds): Modern Aspects of Nutrition. Present knowledge and future perspectives. Forum Nutr. Basel, Karger, 2003, vol 56: 168-170 Labayen I, Díez N, González A, Parra D, Martínez JA Resultados
  18. 18. Labayen et al., 2003. Forum Nutr. 23: 168-170 Cambios en leptina y utilización de nutrientes +51% (p<0.05) in leptin concentration in protein diet. OXIDACIÓN DE PROTEÍNAS 0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2 Dieta HP Dieta HC Tasadeoxidación(g/kg*d) Inicio Final p=0.052 Resultados HP Diet HC Diet Basal Final
  19. 19. Resultados
  20. 20. EFECTO SOBRE LA OXIDACIÓN MITOCONDRIAL: Test en aliento 2-ceto[1-13C]isocaproato 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 Dieta control Dieta hiperproteíca Inicio Final p=0.036 p=0.597 TrazerOxidation(%) Abete et al., 2008. Int J Food Sci Nutr; 1-13 Resultados Control diet High protein diet Basal Final
  21. 21. Resultados
  22. 22. N=10 CONTROL N=9 HIGH PROTEIN N=8 LEGUMES N=8 FATTY FISH 35 Men; Age: 387 years; BMI: 31,83,0 kg/m2 >Protein <Carbohydrates 30%P; 33%CHO; 37%FAT > Fiber >Protein 19%P; 52%CHO; 30% FAT > 3 Fatty acids 18.5%P; 51%CHO; 32%AG Balanced Energy restricted 19%P; 51%CHO; 30%FAT Resultados
  23. 23. Pérdida de peso durante el período de intervención nutricional Abete et al., 2008. J Med Food; 12:100-108 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Dieta control Dieta legumbres Dieta pescado azul Dieta hiperproteica Pérdidadepeso(%) * * # Energy restriction effect p<0,001 Weeks Dier effect p=0,05 # p<0,05 legumes vs control * p<0,05 Higher protein vs control Resultados Control diet Legumes diet Fatty fish diet High protein diet
  24. 24. Waist Circumference (%) -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Dieta control Dieta legumbres Dieta pescado azul Dieta hiperproteica * * * * FatMass(%) -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 Dieta control Dieta legumbres Dieta pescado azul Dieta hiperproteica * * * * -7,6 -7,55 -7,5 -7,45 -7,4 -7,35 -7,3 Dieta control Dieta legumbres Dieta pescado azul Dieta hiperproteica Restingenergy expenditure(%) * * * * Cambios observados tras el período de intervención nutricional *P<0,05. Basal vs final Abete et al., 2008. J Med Food; 12:100-108 Resultados Control diet Legume diet Fatty fish diet High protein diet Control diet Legume diet Fatty fish diet High protein diet Control diet Legume diet Fatty fish diet High protein diet
  25. 25. Resultados
  26. 26. EVOLUCIÓN DE LA PERDIDA DE PESO
  27. 27. Resultados
  28. 28. Larsen et al, 2010. N Engl J Med; 363:2102-13 Background PROYECTO DiOGenes: Diet, Obesity and Genes. 8 European countries Nutritional Intervention - PHASE I: Weight loss  - 800 kcal for 8 weeks - PHASE II: Mantenimiento  Maintenance for 26 weeks . 1209 adults 938 PHASE I  773 adults in PHASE II Resultados
  29. 29. Larsen et al, 2010. N Engl J Med; 363:2102-13 PHASE II: Weight Maintenance 773 adults with weight loss >8% ↑ Prot ↓ IG Control↑ Prot ↑ IG ↓ Prot ↑ IG ↓ Prot ↓ IG N= 159 N= 155 N= 150N= 154 N= 155 Protein = 25% E GI= 58.0 vs 61.3 Protein = 13% E IG = 58.2 vs 61.4 AD LIBITUM WITH NO ENERGY RESTRICTION !  26 weeks with monthly advice. Resultados
  30. 30. Larsen et al, 2010. N Engl J Med; 363:2102-13 CAMBIOS EN PESO CORPORAL Resultados
  31. 31. Resultados
  32. 32. Resultados
  33. 33. Possible interactions of dietary intake with genetic variability to affect disease risk. Jenab MZ et al. Hum Genet (2009) 125: 507–525 Nutrition and genetic interactions
  34. 34.  DEPARTAMENTO DE CIENCIAS DE LA ALIMENTACIÓN, FISIOLOGÍA Y TOXICOLOGÍA  GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA Y UNIÓN EUROPEA Agradecimientos
  35. 35. Resultados
  36. 36. Resultados
  37. 37. Resultados
  38. 38. DNA RNA PROTEINS Transcription Translation Gene Expression= f (DNA  Environmental factors) GENOTYPE  PHENOTYPE
  39. 39. Regulatory Elements Estructural Functions Proteins Energy Nutrients NUTRIENT FUNCTIONS
  40. 40. Fatty Acids Retinoids Vitamin D Glucose Energy Transcription mRNADNA Proteíns Translation Amino acids Iron Selenium Postranslation Minerals Vitamins Gene expression – Nutritional control
  41. 41. Cascade Kinases Mechanisms : - Receptors (membrane/nucleus) Nutrients Nutrients  Nutrients & Metabolites - Metabolism intermediate FT - Transcription Factors (FT): affinity & concentrations RE Gene expression control: Mechanisms
  42. 42. Genetic make up can determine unique nutritional requirements and responses to different foods. Based on: - The sequencing of the human genome, - subsequent analyses of human genetic variation, -studies that associate gene variants with disease markers -Impact of nutrition/nutrients on gene expression Personalized Medicine and Nutrition
  43. 43. Epigenetic processes modulate gene activity and expression without changes in the DNA nucleotide sequence EPIGENETICS
  44. 44. Me DNA Methylation Histone Modifications DNA Packaging around Nucleosomes Me Me Chromatin Packaging Alterations Me Me Me Me Me Me Me Me Me Me Me MeAc Ac Ac Ac Epigenetic Modifications
  45. 45. Sullivan KE et al. Epigenetic regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha. Mol Cell Biol 2007, 27: 5147-5160. TNF-α promoter methylation is tissue specific
  46. 46. 24 obese subjects (BMI: 30.5 ± 1.5 kg/m2) 12 men 12 female Serum: TNF-a Blood, PBMC: DNA 8-week hypocaloric diet Weigh loss ≥ 5% of initial body Responders Non-responders Serum: TNF-a Experimental design
  47. 47. TNF-a gene % Methylation
  48. 48. Weight Loss Baseline TNF-a Final TNF-a Subjects less methylated lose more weight Subjects with more baseline TNF have the promoter more methylated Subjects with the promoter more methylated decrease less the TNF levels Results
  49. 49. CONCLUSIONES
  50. 50. Conclusiones 2) La utilización de lípidos tras la ingesta de una comida con alto aporte proteico es significativamente mayor comparada con una comida alta en hidratos de carbono. 1) La sustitución de hidratos de carbono por proteínas en el contexto de una dieta hipocalórica favorece la pérdida de peso y masa grasa (10% y 5.5%, respectivamente), además de promover la oxidación endógena de lípidos sin afectar al metabolismo proteico.
  51. 51. 3) El aumento del contenido proteico a expensas de los hidratos de carbono dentro de una dieta hipocalórica produjo un aumento específico de la oxidación mitocondrial, limitando el descenso del gasto energético en reposo frente a la restricción calórica 4) Las dietas hiperproteicas pueden ser una estrategia dietética a corto plazo más efectiva en cuanto a la pérdida de peso, masa grasa, resistencia a la insulina, control del apetito y descenso del gasto energético en reposo. Conclusiones
  52. 52. Conclusiones 5) La ingesta moderadamente alta de proteína y la reducción del índice glucémico dentro de una dieta habitual favorece el mantenimiento de peso, evitando la recuperación del peso perdido y de la masa grasa específicamente.
  53. 53. Genetics Genomics Epigenetics Nutrition, perinatal programming and disease
  54. 54. Nutrition and Health
  55. 55. Genetics Genomics Epigenetics Nutrition, perinatal programming and disease
  56. 56. CONCLUSIONES
  57. 57. Conclusiones 2) La utilización de lípidos tras la ingesta de una comida con alto aporte proteico es significativamente mayor comparada con una comida alta en hidratos de carbono. 1) La sustitución de hidratos de carbono por proteínas en el contexto de una dieta hipocalórica favorece la pérdida de peso y masa grasa (10% y 5.5%, respectivamente), además de promover la oxidación endógena de lípidos sin afectar al metabolismo proteico.
  58. 58. 3) El aumento del contenido proteico a expensas de los hidratos de carbono dentro de una dieta hipocalórica produjo un aumento específico de la oxidación mitocondrial, limitando el descenso del gasto energético en reposo frente a la restricción calórica 4) Las dietas hiperproteicas pueden ser una estrategia dietética a corto plazo más efectiva en cuanto a la pérdida de peso, masa grasa, resistencia a la insulina, control del apetito y descenso del gasto energético en reposo. Conclusiones
  59. 59. Conclusiones 5) La ingesta moderadamente alta de proteína y la reducción del índice glucémico dentro de una dieta habitual favorece el mantenimiento de peso, evitando la recuperación del peso perdido y de la masa grasa específicamente.
  60. 60. Abete I et al., Arch Med Res. 2009 May;40(4):306-10. 2009 Inflammatory state and stress condition in weight-lowering Lys109Arg LEPR gene polymorphism carriers.
  61. 61. Goyenechea E et al .(Diabetes Res; 2008)Goyenechea E et al .(Diabetes Res; 2008) Enhanced short-term improvement of insulin response to a low-caloric diet in obese carriers the Gly482Ser variant of the PGC-1alpha gene
  62. 62. Goyenechea E et al .(Diabetes Res; 2008)Goyenechea E et al .(Diabetes Res; 2008) Enhanced short-term improvement of insulin response to a low-caloric diet in obese carriers the Gly482Ser variant of the PGC-1alpha gene
  63. 63. Goyenechea E et al .(Diabetes Res; 2008) Enhanced short-term improvement of insulin response to a low-caloric diet in obese carriers the Gly482Ser variant of the PGC-1alpha gene
  64. 64. Goyenechea E et al .(Br. J Nutr. 2006) Weight regain after slimming induced by an energy-restricted diet depends on interleukin-6 and peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma2 gene polymorphisms
  65. 65. Goyenechea E et al .(Br. J Nutr. 2006) Weight regain after slimming induced by an energy-restricted diet depends on interleukin-6 and peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma2 gene polymorphisms
  66. 66. Goyenechea E et al .(Br. J Nutr. 2006) Weight regain after slimming induced by an energy-restricted diet depends on interleukin-6 and peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma2 gene polymorphisms
  67. 67. Goyenechea E et al .(Br. J Nutr. 2006) Weight regain after slimming induced by an energy-restricted diet depends on interleukin-6 and peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma2 gene polymorphisms
  68. 68. Crujeiras AB et al. (OMICS. 2008) Differential expression of oxidative stress and inflammation related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to a low-calorie diet: a nutrigenomics study.
  69. 69. Crujeiras AB et al. (OMICS. 2008) Differential expression of oxidative stress and inflammation related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to a low-calorie diet: a nutrigenomics study.
  70. 70. Crujeiras AB et al. (OMICS. 2008) Crujeiras AB et al. (OMICS. 2008) Differential expression of oxidative stress and inflammation related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to a low-calorie diet: a nutrigenomics study.
  71. 71. Sirtuin gene expression in human mononuclear cells is modulated by caloric restriction Crujeiras AB et al. (Eur J Clin Invest 2008)
  72. 72. Crujeiras AB et al. (Eur J Clin Invest 2008) Sirtuin gene expression in human mononuclear cells is modulated by caloric restriction
  73. 73. Crujeiras AB et al. (Eur J Clin Invest 2008) Sirtuin gene expression in human mononuclear cells is modulated by caloric restriction
  74. 74. Goyenechea E et al. (Ann Nutr Metab. 2008) A nutrigenomic inflammation-related PBMC-based approach to predict the weight-loss regain in obese subjects
  75. 75. Goyenechea E et al. (Ann Nutr Metab. 2008) A nutrigenomic inflammation-related PBMC-based approach to predict the weight-loss regain in obese subjects
  76. 76. Goyenechea E et al. (J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2008) Expression of two inflammation-related genes (RIPK3 and RNF216) in mononuclear cells is associated with weight-loss regain in obese subjects.
  77. 77. Goyenechea E et al. (J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2008) Expression of two inflammation-related genes (RIPK3 and RNF216) in mononuclear cells is associated with weight-loss regain in obese subjects.
  78. 78. SPAIN 33% 11% PORTUGAL 33% 9% FRANCE 24% 7% IRELAND 31% 8% NETHERLANDS 29% 10% U. K. 30% 12% BELGIUM 31% 9% DENMARK 31% 8% SWEDEN 33% 7% LUXEMBOURG 27% 9% ITALY 30% 7% GREECE 35% 11% GERMANY 35% 11% AUSTRIA 32% 10% FINLAND 33% 10%

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