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Chinese Nationalism


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Chinese Nationalism

  1. 1. Akeem Jade G. Fabila Instructor Asian Nationalism
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>What are the basis of the formation? </li></ul><ul><li>What should be its territorial bounds? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is included amongst its members and citizens? </li></ul><ul><li>What purposes should the Chinese state serve? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the character of its foreign relations? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Imperial Legacy <ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longest Tradition of continuous statehood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A state that was centrally administered in accordance with an enduring civic ethos, laws, administrative hierarchy etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-standing territorial domain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lucian Pye </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ China is a civilization pretending to be a state” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not a state in the modern sense </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Modern Transformation Emergence of Chinese Nationalism Development of Chinese Modern State Challenges of the West
  5. 5. Approaches <ul><li>Reformers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Argued that it was necessary to adapt to Western ways if China were to strengthen itself and once again acquire the power and wealth to repel aggressors and re-establish its significance as a major centre of power and culture in the world” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advocates of Moral Grounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ This was tantamount to ‘Westernisation’ which would inevitably undermine the key values that the reformers claimed to uphold” </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Paradox <ul><li>That as long as they maintained that the values of their political system were fundamentally different from those of the modern/Western world, China would be isolated and would fall behind technologically, making it vulnerable as a power. On the other hand, carrying out programmes of modernisation/Westernisation meant that they risked subverting the very values that these were designed to protect </li></ul>
  7. 9. Sino-Japanese War 1894-1895 <ul><li>Cause: Japanese Attack against China </li></ul><ul><li>European Powers Believed that China, the bigger empire would easily crush little Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan won all the battles in land and sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The war exposed the weakness of China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China signed the treaty of Shimonoseki on April 17, 1985, China Lost Formosa and Pescadores to japan </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Spheres of Influence Divide China <ul><li>Western powers sliced up China into their own spheres of influence </li></ul><ul><li>“ A sphere of influence” is a piece of territory in which a foreign nation enjoyed exclusive rights to exploit resources and trade </li></ul><ul><li>Russia acquired Manchuria, France acquired Kwangsi, Kwantung and Yunnan and the island of Hainan, Germany acquired the shantung Province, and Britain the Yangtze Valley </li></ul><ul><li>To bring some order, U.S. Secretary of State proposed the “open door policy” on September 6, 1899 </li></ul>
  9. 11. Boxer Rebellion <ul><li>Cause: empress Tzu His encouraged her people to rise in arms and drive out all the foreigners from China </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ho Chuan” ( Righteoous Fists) organized an anti-foreign uprising – They were called the boxers by the foriegners </li></ul><ul><li>“ Down with the Foreign Devils” </li></ul><ul><li>Boxers destroyed foreigned owned properties </li></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>China was punished by foreign powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On September 7, 1900 the Boxer Protocol was signed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Payment of War indemnity of 333 Million </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Death Penalties for all the Boxers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revision of commercial treaties </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Sun Yat-Sen <ul><li>Western Educated and a Protestant Christian </li></ul><ul><li>President of the Chinese Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Founded Kuomintang </li></ul><ul><li>Father of Chinese Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Laid down 3 Principles of the People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People’s Livelihood </li></ul></ul>