“Project-based learning is an approach in which learners investigate a question, solve a problem, plan an event, or develop a product”(Weinstein, 2006, in Beckett & Miller, p.161).
have a process and product require students to take some orientation responsibility for their own learning through gathering, processing, and be defined, at least in part, by reporting of information from target students, to encourage student language resources ownership in the project extend over a period of time require teachers and students to (rather than a single class assume new roles and session) responsibilities (Levy, 1997) encourage the natural integration of skills result in a tangible final product make a dual commitment to conclude with student reflection on language and content learning both the process and the product.” oblige students to work in groups and on their own (Stoller, 2006, in Beckett & Miller, p.24)
Project work focuses on content learning rather than on specific language targets. Project work is student-centered. Project work is cooperative rather than competitive. Project work leads to the authentic integration of skills and processing of information from varied sources, mirroring real- life tasks. Project work culminates in an end product that can be shared with others, giving the project a real purpose. Project work is potentially motivating, stimulating, empowering and challenging.
Learners using their own language Some learners doing nothing Groups working at different speeds Lack of enthusiasm in learners Learners fail to see the value in project-work A mismatch in expectations between learners and teachers
“A tool that addresses the simultaneous learning of language, content, and skills” whose primary purpose “is to show the students the language, content, and skill development which occurs through project work.” (Beckett, 2005, p.110) Graphic Planner The graphic provides a structured frame to a project and allows learners to categorize relevant language, content, and skills for their project. Project Diary The project diary encourages students to reflect on the language, content, and skills they used during the week on their project. Benefits 79% of the learners in Beckett’s study noticed that they had learned “language, subject matter content, and skills simultaneously.” (Beckett, 2005, p.114).
Beckett, G.H. (2006). Beyond second language acquisition: Secondary school ESL teacher goals andactions for project‐based instruction. In G.H. Beckett & P.C. Miller (Eds.), Project‐based second andforeign language education: Past, present, and future (pp.55‐70). Greenwich, CT: Information AgePublishing Inc.Beckett, G.H. (2002). Teacher and student evaluations of project‐based instruction. TESL Canadajournal, 19(2), 52‐66.Beckett, G.H. & Slater, T. (2005). The Project Framework: a tool for language, content, and skillsintegration. ELT Journal, 59(2), 108‐116.Fried‐Booth, D.L. (2002). Project work (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Miller, P.C. (2006). Integrating second language standards into project‐based instruction. In G.H. Beckett& P.C.Stoller, F. (2006). Establishing a theoretical foundation for project‐based learning in second and foreignlanguage contexts. In G.H. Beckett & P.C. Miller (Eds.), Project‐based second and foreign languageeducation: Past, present, and future (pp.19‐40). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing Inc.Weinstein, G. (2001). Developing adult literacies. In M. Celce‐Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a secondor foreign language (3rd ed.) (pp.171‐186). Boston: Heinle & Heinle.Weinstein, G. (2006). “Learners’ lives as curriculum:” An integrative project‐based model for languagelearning. In G.H. Beckett & P.C. Miller (Eds.), Project‐based second and foreign language education:Past, present, and future (pp.159‐165). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing Inc.