International Project ManagementProf. Dr. Frank HabermannLecture 6 –Requirements Engineering & Modeling
Content   Legal (contractual) requirements vs. product requirements    Project (management) requirements vs. engineering...
each project is       about meetingrequirements                   © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
Requirements are closely linked  to goals and expectations                                                                ...
Requirements are closely linked  to goals and expectations             THE PERSONAL REQUIREMENTS                          ...
Requirements are closely linked  to goals and expectations                       A BUNCH OF                  PERSONAL REQU...
Remember lecture 2:each corporate perspective is a source of requirements                                        subject m...
As a project manager you have to deal with  all these kinds of requirements                       A BUNCH OF              ...
Time drives requirements (number and level of detail)                                      Pre-Project               Main ...
Time drives requirements (number and level of detail)                                      Pre-Project               Main ...
Time drives requirements (number and level of detail)                                      Pre-Project               Main ...
Time drives requirements (number and level of detail)                                      Pre-Project               Main ...
Time drives requirements (number and level of detail)                                      Pre-Project                    ...
Two main taks: developing and managing reqirements                                      Pre-Project             Main Proje...
Two main taks: developing and managing reqirements                                      Pre-Project             Main Proje...
Requirements levels                             one   enterprise                      some                departments     ...
Requirements levels                                    Business                                    Challenge engineering  ...
Requirements levels                                    Business                                    Challenge engineering  ...
Requirements levels                                Business                Requirements engineering in a strict sense     ...
project requirements             versus      productrequirements                       © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
Requirements engineering is aboutproduct requirements                    THE CONTRACTUAL REQUIREMENTS                    W...
Requirements engineering is aboutproduct requirements                       THE CONTRACTUAL REQUIREMENTS                  ...
Requirements engineering is aboutproduct requirements                         THE CONTRACTUAL REQUIREMENTS  requirements  ...
Remember lecture 1…                                           PROJECT                  RESULT                             ...
The product can also be a service product!             PROJECT                   PRODUCT         Deliverable              ...
Relationship between processes, services, products  „Dining at a fine restaurant“  Process chain                       Be ...
Relationship between processes, services, products  „Dining at a fine restaurant“  Process chain                       Be ...
Another famous example of service innovationPicture source: http://www.n-tv.de/img/          © Becota | www.becota.org | 2...
some brief considerations             about          productquality                                      © Becota | www.be...
What is product quality?    The International Standardization    Organization (ISO) says:    “The totality    of features ...
What is product quality?    The International Standardization    Organization (ISO) says:            in just two words…   ...
Unfortunately, a project manager has to cope with many  expectations from all kinds of stakeholders…                      ...
… and this – to make matters worse – is a great source ofmisunderstanding (e.g. in IT projects)Picture source: http://govf...
… and this – to make matters worse – is a great source of misunderstandingPicture source: http://govfor.us         © Becot...
… and this – to make matters worse – is a great source of misunderstandingPicture source: http://govfor.us         © Becot...
… and this – to make matters worse – is a great source of misunderstandingPicture source: http://govfor.us         © Becot...
… and this – to make matters worse – is a great source of misunderstandingPicture source: http://govfor.us         © Becot...
… and this – to make matters worse – is a great source of misunderstandingPicture source: http://govfor.us         © Becot...
… and this – to make matters worse – is a great source of misunderstandingPicture source: http://govfor.us         © Becot...
… and this – to make matters worse – is a great source of misunderstandingPicture source: http://govfor.us         © Becot...
… and this – to make matters worse – is a great source of misunderstandingPicture source: http://govfor.us         © Becot...
… and this – to make matters worse – is a great source ofmisunderstanding (e.g. in IT projects)Picture source: http://govf...
In projects there is much room for misunderstanding                                                                       ...
this leads us to             enterprisemodeling                          © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
Architects (and artists) start with a model…                                                                              ...
What‘s a model?                  © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010
Modeling – an example                        Model Domain  Modeling Purpose        Abstract       Modeling Method       e....
Develop your individual example                                  Context (Model Domain)                                   ...
Missing the two-faced god orwhy technical system design needs architectures and models                                    ...
Missing the two-faced god orwhy technical system design needs architectures and models                     Understanding  ...
Missing the two-faced god orwhy technical system design needs architectures and models                                    ...
Missing the two-faced god orwhy system design needs architectures and models               Markets, Orders,               ...
Missing the two-faced god orwhy system design needs architectures and models                              Business-       ...
Towards a modeling architecture                             Business                         Shared Model World           ...
Towards a modeling architecture                             Business                            Technology                ...
Modeling views                          Business                 Data   Orga   Function   …                        Technol...
Modeling phases                   Business                    Step 1                    Step 2                     …      ...
Modeling architecture a.k.a. methodology                                      Business                        Data   Orga ...
Modeling – a business example                                     Model Domain     Modeling Purpose                   Abst...
Types vs. instances            Business type                    Business instance•   Process: Aircraft production   •   Pr...
Summary:Ways of reducing complexity…    1. Reduce information by having    a step-by-step approach (phase model)          ...
Summary:Ways of reducing complexity…    1. Reduce information by having         2. Reduce information by concentrating    ...
Summary:Ways of reducing complexity   3. Reduce information by identifying   common rules and characteristics   (develop a...
Summary:Ways of reducing complexity   3. Reduce information by identifying            4. Reduce information by setting   c...
Imagine your product would be a car …                                        © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
What are its parts?Picture source: h ttp://farm3.static.flickr.com/2317/2066997439_41215dcafa_o.jpg   © Becota | www.becot...
And how can you model their hierarchical structure?                                                …                      ...
Aggregation / specification –another example (now service engineering)                                        external    ...
Aggregation / specification –another example (now service engineering)                                            external...
Aggregation / specification –another example (now service engineering)                                             externa...
Top-down vs. bottom-up modeling(in practice you combine both approaches)                       external                   ...
Summary: Modeling      VIEW                     METHOD                              PHASE  (e.g. process)           (e.g. ...
To sum it up:   we use models to find a common language …                    nationality                 education        ...
… in order to avoid inconsistent solutions …                                               © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
… as well as unpleasant misfits                                  © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
I cannot overemphasize this point!                                     © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
last but not least …             how to collectinformation             for      requierements analysis   ?                ...
Analyse the requirements (1/2)        Usability    Organisational     Technical        External      Requirements   Requir...
Analyse the requirements (2/2)                   Usability          Organisational      Technical        External         ...
Inquiry problems –the difficulties of capturing the actual situation •   Crucial question: Where do you get your informati...
Thank you very much!presentation byFrank Habermann     founder of Becota and Professor of Business     http://de.linkedin....
If you have enjoyed this presentation,please let us know!You can download this file from the   Berlin Consulting Forum-> j...
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Lessons in Project Management - 6 - Requirements Engineering

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Lessons in Project Management - 6 - Requirements Engineering

  1. 1. International Project ManagementProf. Dr. Frank HabermannLecture 6 –Requirements Engineering & Modeling
  2. 2. Content Legal (contractual) requirements vs. product requirements Project (management) requirements vs. engineering requirements Business (organisational) requirements vs. personal requirements Product versus service engineering Introducing enterprise models (as a method for connecting perspectives) Introducing enterprise architectures The problem of collecting information © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010
  3. 3. each project is about meetingrequirements © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  4. 4. Requirements are closely linked to goals and expectations THE LEGAL REQUIREMENTS the project contract requests a certain quality to meet the project‘s objectivesPicture sources: http://3.bp.blogspot.com; http://blogs.seattleweekly.com/dailyweekly/contract.jpg © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  5. 5. Requirements are closely linked to goals and expectations THE PERSONAL REQUIREMENTS THE LEGAL REQUIREMENTS a stakeholder the project contract requests a certain feature or quality requests a certain quality to to meet his/her objectives meet the project‘s objectivesPicture sources: http://3.bp.blogspot.com; http://blogs.seattleweekly.com/dailyweekly/contract.jpg © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  6. 6. Requirements are closely linked to goals and expectations A BUNCH OF PERSONAL REQUIREMENTS THE LEGAL REQUIREMENTS ... and many stakeholders the project contract request various features and qualities requests a certain quality to to meet their perspectives meet the project‘s objectivesPicture sources: http://3.bp.blogspot.com; http://blogs.seattleweekly.com/dailyweekly/contract.jpg © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  7. 7. Remember lecture 2:each corporate perspective is a source of requirements subject matter perspective (m) Perspectives to be integrated : m*h*r hierarchical perspective (h) regional perspective (r) © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  8. 8. As a project manager you have to deal with all these kinds of requirements A BUNCH OF PERSONAL REQUIREMENTS THE LEGAL REQUIREMENTS Type Type Number Number Level of Detail Level of DetailPicture sources: http://hirepm.com; http://blogs.seattleweekly.com/dailyweekly/contract.jpg © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  9. 9. Time drives requirements (number and level of detail) Pre-Project Main ProjectLevel of requirements specification KNOWLDGE GAINED TIME © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  10. 10. Time drives requirements (number and level of detail) Pre-Project Main ProjectLevel of requirements specification KNOWLDGE GAINED TIME © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  11. 11. Time drives requirements (number and level of detail) Pre-Project Main ProjectLevel of requirements specification KNOWLDGE GAINED Fit TIME © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  12. 12. Time drives requirements (number and level of detail) Pre-Project Main ProjectLevel of requirements specification KNOWLDGE GAINED Gap Fit TIME © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  13. 13. Time drives requirements (number and level of detail) Pre-Project Main ProjectLevel of requirements specification Gap Gap Fit TIMEPicture sources: http://3.bp.blogspot.com; http://blogs.seattleweekly.com/dailyweekly/contract.jpg © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  14. 14. Two main taks: developing and managing reqirements Pre-Project Main Project developLevel of requirements specification requirements to the right level of detail TIME © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  15. 15. Two main taks: developing and managing reqirements Pre-Project Main Project developLevel of requirements specification requirements to the right level of detail manage Gap gaps/conflicts in type and level of detail TIME © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  16. 16. Requirements levels one enterprise some departments (= special interest groups) many employees (= users of the solution) © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  17. 17. Requirements levels Business Challenge engineering (Mission) the contract(blueprintingthe solution) one enterprise some departments (= special interest groups) many employees (= users of the solution) © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  18. 18. Requirements levels Business Challenge engineering (Mission) the contract(blueprintingthe solution) one enterprise some departments (= special interest groups) engineering the solution many employees (= users of the solution) © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  19. 19. Requirements levels Business Requirements engineering in a strict sense Challenge engineering (Mission) means specifying the solution the contract(blueprintingthe solution) one enterprise departments engineering the solution users © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  20. 20. project requirements versus productrequirements © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  21. 21. Requirements engineering is aboutproduct requirements THE CONTRACTUAL REQUIREMENTS WHAT HOW The „object“ to The „way“ of be delievered, i.e. running the project the project product and producing the deliverables PRODUCT requirements PROJECT requirements © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  22. 22. Requirements engineering is aboutproduct requirements THE CONTRACTUAL REQUIREMENTS WHAT HOW • Solution components • Project rules (e.g. corporate forms) • Solution features • Project guidelines (e.g. following Prince2) • Solution-related services • Project tools and methods (e.g. MS Project) •… •… © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  23. 23. Requirements engineering is aboutproduct requirements THE CONTRACTUAL REQUIREMENTS requirements engineering is modeling the project product WHAT HOW • Solution components • Project rules • Solution features ímpacts • Project guidelines • Solution-related services • Project tools and methods •… •… © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  24. 24. Remember lecture 1… PROJECT RESULT 1. Temporary 2. Unique (a project got a (a project provides individual clear start and end date) and substantial results)Picture Source: www.infrastructurist.com © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  25. 25. The product can also be a service product! PROJECT PRODUCT Deliverable COULD BE SERVICE PHYSICAL PRODUCT PRODUCT e.g. designing e.g. designing an innovative an innovative restaurant process and delicious meal service engineering product engineering requirements engineering © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  26. 26. Relationship between processes, services, products „Dining at a fine restaurant“ Process chain Be seated Place order Get served Eat Pay Meal © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  27. 27. Relationship between processes, services, products „Dining at a fine restaurant“ Process chain Be seated Place order Get served Eat Pay Meal „Dining at a fast-food restaurant“ Process chain Seat Place order Pay Get served Eat yourself Meal > Sometimes the service makes the difference! © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  28. 28. Another famous example of service innovationPicture source: http://www.n-tv.de/img/ © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  29. 29. some brief considerations about productquality © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  30. 30. What is product quality? The International Standardization Organization (ISO) says: “The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.“ © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  31. 31. What is product quality? The International Standardization Organization (ISO) says: in just two words… “The totality of features and characteristics MATCHED of a product or service that bears its ability to satisfy EXPECTATIONS stated or implied needs.“ © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  32. 32. Unfortunately, a project manager has to cope with many expectations from all kinds of stakeholders… > First rule: stay manageable, i.e. learn to say „no“Picture source: www.blackcommentator.com © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  33. 33. … and this – to make matters worse – is a great source ofmisunderstanding (e.g. in IT projects)Picture source: http://govfor.us © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  34. 34. … and this – to make matters worse – is a great source of misunderstandingPicture source: http://govfor.us © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  35. 35. … and this – to make matters worse – is a great source of misunderstandingPicture source: http://govfor.us © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  36. 36. … and this – to make matters worse – is a great source of misunderstandingPicture source: http://govfor.us © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  37. 37. … and this – to make matters worse – is a great source of misunderstandingPicture source: http://govfor.us © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  38. 38. … and this – to make matters worse – is a great source of misunderstandingPicture source: http://govfor.us © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  39. 39. … and this – to make matters worse – is a great source of misunderstandingPicture source: http://govfor.us © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  40. 40. … and this – to make matters worse – is a great source of misunderstandingPicture source: http://govfor.us © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  41. 41. … and this – to make matters worse – is a great source of misunderstandingPicture source: http://govfor.us © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  42. 42. … and this – to make matters worse – is a great source ofmisunderstanding (e.g. in IT projects)Picture source: http://govfor.us © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  43. 43. In projects there is much room for misunderstanding > Second rule: for requirements engineering choose a language that everybody accepts and understandsPicture source: http://jarodrosello.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/ © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 © Becota
  44. 44. this leads us to enterprisemodeling © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  45. 45. Architects (and artists) start with a model… … before beginning a bigger project … before fabricating something which cannot be changed anymore … before investing serious time and money Thus a model always – serves a higher purpose – is an instrument – is „made for something“Picture source: http://www.marmo.ch/var/scultura/storage/images/www_home/kurse © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010
  46. 46. What‘s a model? © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010
  47. 47. Modeling – an example Model Domain Modeling Purpose Abstract Modeling Method e.g. your e.g. interviewing your friend‘s birthday Grandma and taking hand-written notes Model © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  48. 48. Develop your individual example Context (Model Domain) ??? Modeling Purpose Abstract Modeling Method ??? ??? Model ???Source: Scheer/Habermann/Thomas © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  49. 49. Missing the two-faced god orwhy technical system design needs architectures and models © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010
  50. 50. Missing the two-faced god orwhy technical system design needs architectures and models Understanding Understanding Business Technology Business Technical World World (here: ICT) © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010
  51. 51. Missing the two-faced god orwhy technical system design needs architectures and models Tech People Business People Business ICT World World © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010
  52. 52. Missing the two-faced god orwhy system design needs architectures and models Markets, Orders, Efficiency, Costs, Revenues… Servers, Systems, Classes, Tools, Plattforms… Tech People Business People Business ICT World World © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010
  53. 53. Missing the two-faced god orwhy system design needs architectures and models Business- oriented View Technology oriented View Shared Model World Business ICT World World © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010
  54. 54. Towards a modeling architecture Business Shared Model World Technology © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010
  55. 55. Towards a modeling architecture Business Technology © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010
  56. 56. Modeling views Business Data Orga Function … Technology © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010
  57. 57. Modeling phases Business Step 1 Step 2 … Step n Technology © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010
  58. 58. Modeling architecture a.k.a. methodology Business Data Orga Functions … … Analysis Design EA … Implementation … Technology © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010
  59. 59. Modeling – a business example Model Domain Modeling Purpose Abstract Modeling Method e.g. introduction of here: Value Chain a new logistics system Diagram Model here: process modelSource: Scheer/Habermann/Thomas © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010
  60. 60. Types vs. instances Business type Business instance• Process: Aircraft production • Process: Production of aircraft 4711• Activity: Check turbine • Activity: Check turbine 4711-13b• Customer: Airline • Customer: Emirates (order 201012)• Process duration: • Process duration: 22 days (on avarage) May 1st, 2009 to June 3rd, 2009 © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010
  61. 61. Summary:Ways of reducing complexity… 1. Reduce information by having a step-by-step approach (phase model) Business Analysis Design … Implementation Technology © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010
  62. 62. Summary:Ways of reducing complexity… 1. Reduce information by having 2. Reduce information by concentrating a step-by-step approach (phase model) on particular enterprise aspects (set your focus by selecting a view) Business Business Analysis Data Orga Function … Design … Implementation Technology Technology © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010
  63. 63. Summary:Ways of reducing complexity 3. Reduce information by identifying common rules and characteristics (develop a model!) types Shipping Procure- Pro- Sales ment duction Support Sales 4711 Sales 4712 Sales 4713 … instances © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010
  64. 64. Summary:Ways of reducing complexity 3. Reduce information by identifying 4. Reduce information by setting common rules and characteristics the focus on parts and pieces (develop a model!) (develop specified sub-models) types level 1 Shipping Shipping Procure- Pro- Procure- Pro- Sales Sales ment duction ment duction Support Support Check Resources Sales 4711 Sales 4712 Sales 4713 … Handle Request Prepare Proposal Present Proposal Negotiate Contract level 2 instances … level 3, 4, 5 … © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010
  65. 65. Imagine your product would be a car … © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  66. 66. What are its parts?Picture source: h ttp://farm3.static.flickr.com/2317/2066997439_41215dcafa_o.jpg © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  67. 67. And how can you model their hierarchical structure? … … … … … © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  68. 68. Aggregation / specification –another example (now service engineering) external external event customer.. Shopping at ebay ebay © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  69. 69. Aggregation / specification –another example (now service engineering) external external event customer.. Shopping at ebay ebay Shipping.. seeking insights (here: sub-processes) Explo- Auction Payment ration Support © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  70. 70. Aggregation / specification –another example (now service engineering) external external event customer.. Shopping at ebay ebay Shipping.. seeking insights (here: sub-processes) Explo- Auction Payment ration Support.. aiming at a deeper understanding A2 of all business activities (i.e. their A1 A4 A5 hierarchical structure as well as A3 their business logic) … © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  71. 71. Top-down vs. bottom-up modeling(in practice you combine both approaches) external external event customer ebay top- down Shipping Explo- Auction Payment ration Support bottom- up A2 A1 A4 A5 A3 … © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  72. 72. Summary: Modeling VIEW METHOD PHASE (e.g. process) (e.g. Value Chain) (e.g. design) (SUB)MODEL focus shape REAL WORLD © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  73. 73. To sum it up: we use models to find a common language … nationality education nationality education profession ethnicity age group profession ethnicity age group Hierarchical Hierarchical gender gender position position belief, belief, behavior behavior knowledge knowledge syntax MODEL = TRANSLATOR sematicsPicture inspired by www.filderfunkost.org/lk_bayreuth/pix/interdiscourse.jpg © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  74. 74. … in order to avoid inconsistent solutions … © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  75. 75. … as well as unpleasant misfits © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  76. 76. I cannot overemphasize this point! © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  77. 77. last but not least … how to collectinformation for requierements analysis ? © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  78. 78. Analyse the requirements (1/2) Usability Organisational Technical External Requirements Requirements Requirements Requirements COLLECT © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010
  79. 79. Analyse the requirements (2/2) Usability Organisational Technical External Requirements Requirements Requirements Requirements COLLECT DISCUSS APPROVE System Analysis Architecture Functions Data Others…Picture Source: Sony © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010
  80. 80. Inquiry problems –the difficulties of capturing the actual situation • Crucial question: Where do you get your information from? -> often from document studies, observation and interviews • Problem: those process descriptions typically don‘t match the reality – Information is missing/incomplete – Information is redundant/inconsistent – Information is misleading/false – Two particular problems in practice, if you interview people: • Is the person unbiased and objective? • Can and will the person risk to be “brutally” honest? – Descriptions are on divergent levels of detail – Descriptions are in the „language“of the business area, where the knowledge owner belongs to © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010
  81. 81. Thank you very much!presentation byFrank Habermann founder of Becota and Professor of Business http://de.linkedin.com/in/frankhabermann/en
  82. 82. If you have enjoyed this presentation,please let us know!You can download this file from the Berlin Consulting Forum-> join the forum at http://consultingforum.becota.org-> visit our corporate website at http://www.becota.com

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