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Creativity
Principles and techniques
François Guély
francois@guely.com
What is
Creativity ?
Defining creativity
• Small or big « C »
• All domains
– Science, technique
– Business, commerce
– Art, Literature
– Perso...
Why study creativity ?
• Leverage our creative talent
• Better solve problems
• Improve teaching and training
• Be a bette...
History of
creativity
Spiritual stream of thought
Creativity in western culture
Antiquity Romantism
1760 - 1850
Modernism,
impressionnism
1850 -...
Some books on creativity
Artists exaggerate their
eccentricity in
psychological testing
Becker
50% of innovations are made by
10% of domain special...
Motivation and creativity
Intrisic
motivation is
essential for
creativity
Genious is 1%
inspiration and 99%
perspiration
T...
No universal creativity
Creative people are creative only in their
area of ​​expertise
Feldman 74-80, John-steiner 85, Csi...
Eminence and formal education
Formal education
140
120
100
80
Eminence
High
school
Graduate Master Doctorate
Creators
Simo...
Creativity
myths
Creativity comes from
the unconscious ?
… and is uncontrollable ?
– This idea dates from the
romantic era…
– ..and was rei...
Are children more creative ?
Does education kill their creativity ?
This idea dates from
the romantic era
Children were
co...
Is creativity the
expression of the
essential self ?
(« new age » belief)
Is inspiration
spontaneous ?
Are the most creative people
misunderstood geniuses ?
The myth of the
misunderstood genius dates
from the nineteenth centu...
How does
creativity
work?
Analytical
phase
Prospective phase
The three steps of creative problem solving
Identify an
interesting
problem
Divergent
t...
AnalysisProspective
Identify
A problem
Divergent
thinking
Convergent
thinking
Identifying meaningful problems,
asking the ...
Some related qualities :
- Listen to the unusual
- Identify consequences that make the
subject essential
Examples of impor...
Imagine many
possible answers to a
question.
1970/71 : these tests
do not correlate well
with real individual
creativity.
...
Example : the quota method
When at least three good ideas have been found, many more
are generally found!
Always ask at le...
IQ
Tests
Deductive capacity:
deduce the
consequences.
Ability to identify
benefits and risks.
Keep the best and
eliminate ...
Divergent
thinking
Convergent
thinking
Problem
identification
Great advances are
usually the result
of a long process
that...
AnalysisProspective
Why cannot we create a standardized test
measuring individual creativity?
Identify an
interesting
prob...
Analysis
Prospective
Identify an
interesting
problem
Divergent
thinking
Convergent
thinking
Characteristics of creative pe...
Group Creativity
• Collaboration boosts creativity
– Challenge, exchange of ideas…
• Factors group creativity
(Larey & Pau...
Creativity of the organisation
• Related to the ability to create a culture of collaboration
• IQ explains only 10% of job...
Creativity of the organisation
Thomas Edison
1903 Patents and
inventions
How is it possible ?
1866: Telegraph
1869: Telegr...
Can you become more creative?
Individual
creativity level is
not genetic
Everyone
can learn to
be more
creative
Companies
...
Creativity techniques
Constructions:
LEGOs, blocs…
Innovation
games
Luke Hohmann
TRIZ
Genrich Altshuller
Brainstorming,
br...
Idea Gathering Techniques
Brainstorming, brainwriting,
method 365, CPS
Participatory innovation
Idea boxes, idea intranets...
Rational approaches
TRIZ
Lateral thinking, 6 hats…
Mindmaps
Tony Buzan
Edward de Bono
Genrich Altshuller
He discovers univ...
Gaming techniques
Constructions:
LEGOs, blocks…
Innovation games
Frame games
35, Take5, envelope…
Thiagi Luke
Hohmann
Fun ...
« Non rational » Techniques
Ideation phaseDistanciation phase
1/ Blanks fuzzy, ambiguous ideas,
2/ Scanning / crossover: o...
4 Methods useful for Marketing & Sales
Innovation games
BrainstormingLateral thinking, 6 hats
Mindmaps
Represent informati...
4 Methods useful for Marketing & Sales
Innovation games
BrainstormingLateral thinking, 6 hats
Mindmaps
Represent informati...
Principle of Mind Maps
• Representation of facts, ideas, knowledge ...
– Visual
– Compact
– Tree (hierarchical)
– Main con...
How to Mind Map
Put key words, parts of
sentences
– Compact: on one "sheet"
– Gives an overview of a problem
– Helps to re...
Mind Mapping Software
• Proprietary tools interfaced
with MS Office
– Mindjet MindManager
– MatchWare MindView
– MindGeniu...
Avantages of Mind Mapping Software
• Word / PPT / Excel export
• Sharing is easier
• Content is reusable
Mind Maps & Documents
DOCUMENT
Generally underlying tree
structure
– Title
– Chapters
• Sub chapters
– Paragraphs
– Biblio...
Avantages of Mind Mapping Software
• No limitation in page size
Example : Edward de Bono, Penser vite et bien – méthode « ...
Avantages of Mind Mapping Software
• Mask / Develop portions of the tree
Example : Edward de Bono, Penser vite et bien – m...
Avantages of Mind Mapping Software
• Add / suppress anytime : living maps
• Reorganize easily to structure your ideas diff...
Avantages of Mind Mapping Software
• Map Style Management
Some uses of Mind Maps
Brainstorming, creativity,
problem solving
– Present problems, causes,
possible solutions
– Possibi...
4 Methods useful for Marketing & Sales
Innovation games
BrainstormingLateral thinking, 6 hats
Mindmaps
Represent informati...
Brainstorming
• 1938 : Technique invented by Alex Osborn,
co-founder of BBDO to:
– Find many ideas for commercials
– Witho...
Define the
problem
Generate
ideas
(ideation)
• Suspend judgment
• Playful thought
• As many ideas as
possible
• Combine &
...
4 rules of ideation
Do not criticize,
approve, judge,
discourage, evaluate
Unconstrained
thought: impossible,
absurd, craz...
Practical Aspects
With a facilitator
Note each idea
– With the author’s words
• Do not interpret or reformulate
– Telegrap...
« Brainwriting »
• Often done in companies
– Easy to do
• Everybody
– Notes his/her ideas beforehand
– Sticks his/her idea...
Scientific studies refute classic
brainstorming
Scientific research shows that brainstorming
groups produce fewer ideas th...
When to use Brainstorming
Good for
• Advertising, marketing, daily life
• Problems with many possible
solutions
• First st...
How to generate
more ideas, more
creative ?
Brainstorming according to Tom Kelley
• "The idea engine” of IDEO's culture '
• Define the problem to be solved
• Prepare
...
Transgressive Methods
• We are more creative in situations of
transgression
• Create a fun / challenging situation
• What ...
Random Methods
• Escape linear thinking
• Random words
– Draw a word randomly
– See what idea it inspires you
• Random ina...
Random Methods
• Google storming
– Start with a word
– Search it on Google
– Click on a link in the top 5 (that seems inte...
Analogical Methods
• Principle
– Shifts the problem by making analogies
– See what ideas each analogy brings
– Return to t...
Follow the rules of improvisation
• Keep space for yes
– Say « YES »
– Do not criticize
– Say what you find good
– Create ...
6 Thinking Hats
Facts driven
Feelings,
intuition
Careful examination
of negative aspects
Process driven
Optimism : examine...
6 mental attitudes
Personal confusion
Facts
Positive
Directed thought, mastered
• Focus on the most suitable hat
• Change hats when needed
Direct your thought
Example : you want to progress in
tennis
Express your
enthusiasm
(stay
motivated)
Study facts to
learn...
Intra-personal confusion
Facts
Positive
Example
dissatisfied
customer
Sales person that
is process minded
lack of
understanding
Resonate – to establish communication
Facts
Positive
Une on same
wavelength, I
can change the
hat
As long as we are
not on the same
wavelength won’t
change my point
of view
I ...
Example
Unhappy
customer
Sales person who recognizes his frustration
Let’s get to the facts
Let’s get to the process
If I ...
Confused ineffective group
Everyone thinks he hold the truth
Process Feelings
Imaginati
on
Critical
Positive
controversies...
Parallel, cooperative thinking
• Focus everyone on a hat
• Change hat together
Benefits
Accelerates meetings
Prevents ego
One thing at a time avoids
confusion
More diverse thinking
Better focus
Avoid i...
4 Methods useful for Marketing & Sales
Innovation games
BrainstormingLateral thinking, 6 hats
Mindmaps
Represent informati...
Innovation Games
Fun activities for product strategy &
marketing:
With clients / internal
One or more games at a time
Many...
What for ?
Remember
the future
Spider web
Start your
day
Vision of the future PrioritisationBrainstorming on features
Know...
Creativity   theory and practice
Creativity   theory and practice
Creativity   theory and practice
Creativity   theory and practice
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Creativity theory and practice

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This presentation aims at boosting your creativity, whether you need it for your innovation processes, for your marketing and sales or for other purposes.
It will inform you about:
- what the creativity process is
- how creativity was perceived in history
- what are the main scientific discoveries about creativity
- what cutting edge creativity building techniques exist today
- practical information about these techniques, for instance :
- brainstorming and related approaches
- innovation games
- lateral thinking, 6 hats
- mindmaps
- improvisation derived approch
- who have been the main innovators in creativity techniques and what they have developped

By the way, I practice these techniques and teach them to companies and at the "Ecole Supérieure de Ventes" of Saint Germain en Laye.

Published in: Business, Technology, Education

Creativity theory and practice

  1. 1. Creativity Principles and techniques François Guély francois@guely.com
  2. 2. What is Creativity ?
  3. 3. Defining creativity • Small or big « C » • All domains – Science, technique – Business, commerce – Art, Literature – Personal • Individual or group – Companies – Improvisation (Jazz, theater) • Without application, experimentation – How to know if an idea is worthwhile ? – What would be an artist who does not practice art ? Original and worthwhile (according to peers) idea or solution And its application!
  4. 4. Why study creativity ? • Leverage our creative talent • Better solve problems • Improve teaching and training • Be a better salesman, engineer, artist… • Become a more innovative company Improve your or your organisation’s creativity
  5. 5. History of creativity
  6. 6. Spiritual stream of thought Creativity in western culture Antiquity Romantism 1760 - 1850 Modernism, impressionnism 1850 - 1940 Post-modernism 1920 – 2012 Comes from unconscious, instinct, madness, excentricity, childhood. Expressionism, Surrealism 1910 - 1950Comes from gods & muses (Plato) Lumières 1670-1820 Comes from emotion, du daydream, inspiration is spontaneous. Demands a conscious rational work (Aristotle) Renaissance 1300 - 1600 Reason, learning, work, knowledge. Leonardo da Vinci Newton, Diderot, Voltaire genious Reason, observation Relativism, pluralism, scepticism, rejection of utopia New age 1940 - 2012 Discovery of essential self Therapy Inspiration may be a form of superconsciousness, or perhaps of subconsciousness - I wouldn't know. But I am sure it is the antithesis of self- consciousness. Aaron Copland I want to be a machine Andy Warhol The true work of art is born from the 'artist': a mysterious, enigmatic, and mystical creation. Vassily Kandinsky, Concerning the spiritual in art Form follows fonction. Le Corbusier One morning, one of us lacking black, used blue : impressionnism was born. Pierre-Auguste Renoir Classicism is health, romanticism is sickness… Goethe Rational stream of thought
  7. 7. Some books on creativity
  8. 8. Artists exaggerate their eccentricity in psychological testing Becker 50% of innovations are made by 10% of domain specialists Simonton The breakdown in communication between the brain hemispheres kills creativity (we need the left brain AND right brain to be creative) Restak Creativity cannot be inherited genetically - research on monozygotic and heterozygous twins Barron, Vanderberg, Reznikoff et al. Above IQ=120, creativity does not increase Getzels & Jackson Failed attempts to measure creativity by a standard test 1962 The « science » of creativity 1950 - 70 1993 1968-73 1999 2000 Nobel laureates publish twice more than other scientists Simonton 1988
  9. 9. Motivation and creativity Intrisic motivation is essential for creativity Genious is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration Thomas Edison External rewards (eg financial) do not seem to help and in some cases may interfere Torrance 65 / Amabile 80-96 / Eisenberger & Cameron 96 / Hennessey 03
  10. 10. No universal creativity Creative people are creative only in their area of ​​expertise Feldman 74-80, John-steiner 85, Csikszenmihalyi 88 Creativity cannot be explained without action We reached our optimum after 10,000 hours of practice (5 years full time) Malcolm Gladwell J.S. Bach Pablo PicassoSteve JobsAlbert Einstein Image : commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Albert_Einstein_Head.jpg Image : en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Matt_Yohe Image : en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Johann_Sebastian_Bach.jpg Image : en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pablo_picasso_1.jpg
  11. 11. Eminence and formal education Formal education 140 120 100 80 Eminence High school Graduate Master Doctorate Creators Simonton, 1983 Notes : 1/ Relevant for USA 2/ Average school level has increased since then The most famous designers in their field are not necessarily those who have the most education
  12. 12. Creativity myths
  13. 13. Creativity comes from the unconscious ? … and is uncontrollable ? – This idea dates from the romantic era… – ..and was reinforced by Freudian psychoanalysis But we are creative only in our domains of expertise! … research shows that creativity is mostly the result of conscious work – The more creative geniouses are also the most productive ones – Nobel price laureates publish twice more than other researchers (Simonton 1988)² John Keats Freud Jacques Lacan Percy Bysshe Shelley Image : commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sigmund_Freud_Anciano.jpg Image : commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jacques_Lacan.jpg Image : www.reusableart.com/v/people/portraits/arts/artists-03.jpg.html Image : commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Percy_Bysshe_Shelley_by_Alfred_Clint.jp
  14. 14. Are children more creative ? Does education kill their creativity ? This idea dates from the romantic era Children were considered pure and adults corrupted But creativity demands competence to flourish Education makes creativity possible
  15. 15. Is creativity the expression of the essential self ? (« new age » belief)
  16. 16. Is inspiration spontaneous ?
  17. 17. Are the most creative people misunderstood geniuses ? The myth of the misunderstood genius dates from the nineteenth century. Misunderstood geniuses are actually very rare. It is often believed that Mendel and impressionists were misunderstood in their time but ... Mendel and his work were renowned at his time (but the true scope of his work could not be understood at the time, even by himself) The Impressionists had their own galleries and buyers in their lifetime Image : commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gregor_Mendel.png Gregor Mendel Image : en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PARenoir.jpg Pierre-Auguste Renoir
  18. 18. How does creativity work?
  19. 19. Analytical phase Prospective phase The three steps of creative problem solving Identify an interesting problem Divergent thinking Convergent thinking
  20. 20. AnalysisProspective Identify A problem Divergent thinking Convergent thinking Identifying meaningful problems, asking the right questions is a key characteristic of creative people… If I had one hour to save the world, I would spend 59 minutes defining the problem and one minute solving it… Albert Einstein Computers are useless. They can only give answers… Pablo Picasso
  21. 21. Some related qualities : - Listen to the unusual - Identify consequences that make the subject essential Examples of important questions : Why is the speed of light the same everywhere ?... led to the discovery of relativity by Einstein How to use colors differently?… one of the essentiel questions that led to impressionnism How to make bus stop shelters viable?... led to the worldwide success of Decaux AnalysisProspective Identify A problem Divergent thinking Convergent thinking
  22. 22. Imagine many possible answers to a question. 1970/71 : these tests do not correlate well with real individual creativity. Divergent thinking tests have been developed in the 60s. Also called lateral thinking (Edward De Bono) Image: commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Zureks AnalysisProspective Identify A problem Divergent thinking Convergent thinking
  23. 23. Example : the quota method When at least three good ideas have been found, many more are generally found! Always ask at least 3 ideas from your team (& yourself!): - Different options, alternate solutions >> Or refuse to decide Break the "linear thinking" propensity to : - settle for the first idea - logical reasoning, that locks you in the first solution AnalysisProspective Identify A problem Divergent thinking Convergent thinking
  24. 24. IQ Tests Deductive capacity: deduce the consequences. Ability to identify benefits and risks. Keep the best and eliminate wrong answers. Evaluation / selection. Positive and critical thinking No standard test AnalysisProspective Identify A problem Divergent thinking Convergent thinking
  25. 25. Divergent thinking Convergent thinking Problem identification Great advances are usually the result of a long process that is a sum of intuitions and successive progresses.
  26. 26. AnalysisProspective Why cannot we create a standardized test measuring individual creativity? Identify an interesting problem Divergent thinking Convergent thinking IQ testsDivergent thinking tests produce mixed results No standard test for ability to formulate interesting problems Emotional Intelligence Creativity implies domain knowledge Creativity is a process Creativity is often a group phenomenon
  27. 27. Analysis Prospective Identify an interesting problem Divergent thinking Convergent thinking Characteristics of creative people McKinnon 78, Barron & Harrington 81, Feist 88, Tardif & Sternberg 88 Verbal fluency Metaphorical thinking Ability to visualize problems Flexible decision making Tolerance for ambiguity, acceptance of internal conflicts Energetic, willingness to overcome obstacles Alert Ready to take risks Open to new experiences Independence, autonomy Confidence, courage in one’s opinions Little self-censorship High IQ Interest for complex problems
  28. 28. Group Creativity • Collaboration boosts creativity – Challenge, exchange of ideas… • Factors group creativity (Larey & Paulus 99, Taylor & al 58) – Having worked together for a long time – Sharing common knowledge – Complementary expertise • Group more creative than the individual if – The sum of everybody’s knowledge is important to understand the problem • Depends on the phase of the creativity process (Sawyer 03) – Find a problem : diverse participants obtain better results – Solve a problem : participants sharing expertise obtain better results
  29. 29. Creativity of the organisation • Related to the ability to create a culture of collaboration • IQ explains only 10% of job performance • The myth of talent – Assumes that people make the organization intelligent – Most often, the opposite is true (Gladwell 2002) • Many of Edison’s inventors were originally young guys recruited for basic tasks – Self-taught, without electricity or chemistry degree / Chemistry / ...
  30. 30. Creativity of the organisation Thomas Edison 1903 Patents and inventions How is it possible ? 1866: Telegraph 1869: Telegraph multiplex 1874 : TTY 1876​​: Best phone microphone 1877: Gramophone 1879: Improved incandescent bulb 1882: Power Station 1888: Electric Chair 1888 Camera / cinema projector 1893 Production Studio 1893: Cinema 1895: X-ray light 1903: Improved Camera 1913 Camera for talkies 1915: Nickel-iron battery William Hammer: flashlight, illuminated signs, power plants, treatment of cancer by radiation, photoluminescent dials Edward Acheson: carbon lamps, artificial diamond... 70 patents Lewis Howard Latimer: carbon filament manufacturing , carbon globe light bulbs, refrigeration system... George F. Morrison : lamp filament manufacture... Francis Robbins Upton: Watt meter, incandescent lamp, electrical distribution, dynamo, fire alarm ... William Kennedy Dickson : 35mm camera & film projector, celluloid film camera. Henry Ford: Cars ... Miller Reese Hutchison : horn, hearing aid, naval tachometer ... Arthur Kennelly: Electric Chair ... Nikola Tesla: AC motor, radio .. Majority of inventions made by members of his laboratory often in his name Image : commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Edison- at_home_in_Ft._Myers_Florida_1914_detail_LC-LC-USZ62- 131044_.tiff_adjusted.jpg
  31. 31. Can you become more creative? Individual creativity level is not genetic Everyone can learn to be more creative Companies can become more creative 1972 Torrance identifies 142 scientific studies demonstrating that creativity can be enhanced by specific techniques (training or other) Creativity is a group and a social phenomenon
  32. 32. Creativity techniques Constructions: LEGOs, blocs… Innovation games Luke Hohmann TRIZ Genrich Altshuller Brainstorming, brainwriting, method 635, CPS Synectics (analogical reasoning) Frame games Thagi Rational « Serious creativity » Gaming Idea gathering Idea box, idea intranets, participatory innovation Irrational Lateral thinking, 6 hats Edward De Bono Detour approaches Mindmaps Tony Buzan Crowdsourcing Random approaches Improvisation
  33. 33. Idea Gathering Techniques Brainstorming, brainwriting, method 365, CPS Participatory innovation Idea boxes, idea intranets Alex Orborn President & co-founder of BBDO In order to answer a question, generate in a meeting as many ideas as possible in a short time without exercising censorship on the participants. Analyze and prioritize ideas afterwards. Shôgun Tokugawa Yoshimune 1721: the best ideas deposited in a “idea box” (meyasu bako) are rewarded. Seventies : japanese companies develop quality circles and « Kaizen ». 2000s: idea management software, participatory innovation: open procedures for the collection, analysis and application of ideas. 2010s: companies seeking new ideas outside with idea crowdsourcing : Crossing, YourEncore, CrowdSpirit, InnoCentive Image : en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tokugawa_Yoshimune.jpg
  34. 34. Rational approaches TRIZ Lateral thinking, 6 hats… Mindmaps Tony Buzan Edward de Bono Genrich Altshuller He discovers universal laws of technological invention. Each solves a contradiction between physical quantities. To innovate, one identifies contradictions, then applies these laws, which provide avenues to explore. “Lateral thinking" escapes from the linear thinking for example by introducing a random component in reasoning. The "six hats" are a means to materialize the most common reasoning attitudes. Means to visually represent ideas, facts ... Mindmaps are used to summarize existing knowledge, gather ideas (brainstorming), or organize tasks or information (meeting management…). Image : www.tonybuzan.com/gallery/photos/ Image: commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Genrikh_Saulovich_Altshuller_commemorative_plaque_in_Petrozavodsk.JPG
  35. 35. Gaming techniques Constructions: LEGOs, blocks… Innovation games Frame games 35, Take5, envelope… Thiagi Luke Hohmann Fun activities to collect, organize, prioritize ideas with clients to establish for instance a product roadmap... « Cheaper, faster, better » Games or generic interactive activities suitable for all kinds of training situations or brainstorming. Using "lego" cubes, magic slates, or other materials to "see & feel" real situations and generate insights and ideas more easily. Gamestorming 83 Fun Activities to brainstorm, including "innovations games" Thiagi games, other games ... Image : www.thiagi.com/pictures/ Image : innovationgames.com/about/
  36. 36. « Non rational » Techniques Ideation phaseDistanciation phase 1/ Blanks fuzzy, ambiguous ideas, 2/ Scanning / crossover: one follows the track to push the idea as far as possible until it becomes useful. Principle : turn ideas into positive. To make it work, it would have to … Principle : distort and transform the problem into an evocation that stimulates the imagination Approaches : Deformation, forced encounters, dreamlike techniques, projective graphics … Detour techniques : one distances himself from the problem and then then returns to it to converge. The distance stimulates imagination. Idea production follows. "Making the familiar strange, making the strange familiar." 3 types of analogies: ‒ Direct: natural (animal, plant), or graphic ‒ Symbolic parable, metaphor ‒ Fantasy: dream, daydream Personal approach: personal identification with the situation Analog techniques shift the problem with analogies, and explores them. William Gordon
  37. 37. 4 Methods useful for Marketing & Sales Innovation games BrainstormingLateral thinking, 6 hats Mindmaps Represent information (ideas or facts) in the form of a diagram called "mental map" Usage: synthesis of information / collaborative brainstorming ... Fun activities rather than games rather, they aim to collect, organize and prioritize ideas Usage : product roadmap, identifying growth drivers ... Approach to overcome the limitations of the "linear, logic thinking" while remaining rational Usage : problem solving, product ideas ... Collection of ideas to produce a maximum of ideas which are then analyzed and sorted Usage : product ideas, solutions to a problem, names, slogans ... Tony Buzan Luke Hohmann Edward de Bono Alex Osborne (BBDO)
  38. 38. 4 Methods useful for Marketing & Sales Innovation games BrainstormingLateral thinking, 6 hats Mindmaps Represent information (ideas or facts) in the form of a diagram called "mental map" Usage: synthesis of information / collaborative brainstorming ... Fun activities rather than games rather, they aim to collect, organize and prioritize ideas Usage : product roadmap, identifying growth drivers ... Approach to overcome the limitations of the "linear, logic thinking" while remaining rational Usage : problem solving, product ideas ... Collection of ideas to produce a maximum of ideas which are then analyzed and sorted Usage : product ideas, solutions to a problem, names, slogans ... Tony Buzan Luke Hohmann Edward de Bono Alex Osborne (BBDO)
  39. 39. Principle of Mind Maps • Representation of facts, ideas, knowledge ... – Visual – Compact – Tree (hierarchical) – Main concept at the center – Sub-concepts radiating from the center
  40. 40. How to Mind Map Put key words, parts of sentences – Compact: on one "sheet" – Gives an overview of a problem – Helps to remember details Use colors, images, symbols – Facilitates memorisation Add associations – Link concepts from different branches An element can appear multiple times – It can be highlighted for example by emphasizing Use mapping software – Many software exist, several free ones – Flexible – Distribution of map is easier – Can be further modified Progressive construction without pre-determined order – With mind mapping software – Enables to complete a mind map anytime Multiple tree levels – More compact diagram – Ability to zoom / navigate
  41. 41. Mind Mapping Software • Proprietary tools interfaced with MS Office – Mindjet MindManager – MatchWare MindView – MindGenius – MindMapper • Free tools – CAM Editor – Freeplane* – FreeMind – Xmind* – yED
  42. 42. Avantages of Mind Mapping Software • Word / PPT / Excel export • Sharing is easier • Content is reusable
  43. 43. Mind Maps & Documents DOCUMENT Generally underlying tree structure – Title – Chapters • Sub chapters – Paragraphs – Bibliography – Index … & linear appearance Linear reading is not the most efficient reading approach! MIND MAP Any document can be summarized by a mind map – Very efficient to review important points Mind Mapping tools enable to – Export to WORD / PPT /… – Import from WORD Mind maps are a way to create documents A Mind Map is a non linear document.
  44. 44. Avantages of Mind Mapping Software • No limitation in page size Example : Edward de Bono, Penser vite et bien – méthode « BESCA »
  45. 45. Avantages of Mind Mapping Software • Mask / Develop portions of the tree Example : Edward de Bono, Penser vite et bien – méthode « BESCA »
  46. 46. Avantages of Mind Mapping Software • Add / suppress anytime : living maps • Reorganize easily to structure your ideas differently
  47. 47. Avantages of Mind Mapping Software • Map Style Management
  48. 48. Some uses of Mind Maps Brainstorming, creativity, problem solving – Present problems, causes, possible solutions – Possibility to associate concepts Communication tool – Expose information in a concise & interactive way Checklists – List of points to check – Checkboxes Document summary – Important notions & ideas Prepare a job interview – Answers to common questions – Information on the company – Information on the contact Write an essay – Outline – Main points Learning languages – Domain vocabulary Project management – WBS / OBS are trees – Project phases & progress – Participants – Ressources
  49. 49. 4 Methods useful for Marketing & Sales Innovation games BrainstormingLateral thinking, 6 hats Mindmaps Represent information (ideas or facts) in the form of a diagram called "mental map" Usage: synthesis of information / collaborative brainstorming ... Fun activities rather than games rather, they aim to collect, organize and prioritize ideas Usage : product roadmap, identifying growth drivers ... Approach to overcome the limitations of the "linear, logic thinking" while remaining rational Usage : problem solving, product ideas ... Collection of ideas to produce a maximum of ideas which are then analyzed and sorted Usage : product ideas, solutions to a problem, names, slogans ... Tony Buzan Luke Hohmann Edward de Bono Alex Osborne (BBDO)
  50. 50. Brainstorming • 1938 : Technique invented by Alex Osborn, co-founder of BBDO to: – Find many ideas for commercials – Withour censorship of participants
  51. 51. Define the problem Generate ideas (ideation) • Suspend judgment • Playful thought • As many ideas as possible • Combine & improve Look for solutions • Prioritize with color dots • Analyze most promising ideas 3 Phases of Brainstorming
  52. 52. 4 rules of ideation Do not criticize, approve, judge, discourage, evaluate Unconstrained thought: impossible, absurd, crazy ideas are welcome… Quick generation of many ideas Adapt, modify, magnify, minify, substitute, swap, combine
  53. 53. Practical Aspects With a facilitator Note each idea – With the author’s words • Do not interpret or reformulate – Telegraphic style – Write in very large letters – Large post-it notes • To re-position / regroup similar ideas Large flipboard
  54. 54. « Brainwriting » • Often done in companies – Easy to do • Everybody – Notes his/her ideas beforehand – Sticks his/her ideas on the board – Reads them to the others Few associations Pratical Participative but not very creative
  55. 55. Scientific studies refute classic brainstorming Scientific research shows that brainstorming groups produce fewer ideas than the sum of individual participants – Mullen, Johnson, Salas 1991 • Productivity loss in brainstorming groups: a meta-analysis integration. Basic & applied social psychology, 12, 3-123 – Larey & Paulus, 1999 • Group preference and convergent tendencies in small groups: a content analysis of group brainstorming performance, Creativity research journal 12, 175-184
  56. 56. When to use Brainstorming Good for • Advertising, marketing, daily life • Problems with many possible solutions • First step to other approaches to creativity Critics of Brainstorming • Too many useless ideas • Participants not necessarily involved in the implementation • Takes time • Too many ideas already known
  57. 57. How to generate more ideas, more creative ?
  58. 58. Brainstorming according to Tom Kelley • "The idea engine” of IDEO's culture ' • Define the problem to be solved • Prepare – Documentation, visits, benchmarking – Existing solutions – Material to implement ideas • Write rules of the game – No critic – One at a time – Look for quantity – Be visual – Encourage crazy ideas • Number ideas • Look for – Fluidity – Improvement of ideas – Totally different ideas • Post-it + Paperboard
  59. 59. Transgressive Methods • We are more creative in situations of transgression • Create a fun / challenging situation • What shocks us stimulates us –Crazy ideas –Stupid ideas –Strange Ideas … et facilitates associations of ideas
  60. 60. Random Methods • Escape linear thinking • Random words – Draw a word randomly – See what idea it inspires you • Random inages – Visualise images dranw randomly – See what they evoque, which solution to the problem they suggest
  61. 61. Random Methods • Google storming – Start with a word – Search it on Google – Click on a link in the top 5 (that seems interesting) – Seeing what you can find inspires you in relation to the problem to be solved – Bounce on other research – Do not start looking too much into the content of the pages – Stay focused on the original goal
  62. 62. Analogical Methods • Principle – Shifts the problem by making analogies – See what ideas each analogy brings – Return to the initial problem • Synectics (Gordon - 1961), analogies : – Direct : natural (animal, plant), or graphic – Symbolic : parable, metaphor – Fantasy: dream, daydream – Personal approach: identify with the situation
  63. 63. Follow the rules of improvisation • Keep space for yes – Say « YES » – Do not criticize – Say what you find good – Create trust • Bring your own stone – Say « AND » – Contribute, in a small or large way – Or ask a question …To study an idea thouroughly YES, AND… Constructive brainstorm
  64. 64. 6 Thinking Hats Facts driven Feelings, intuition Careful examination of negative aspects Process driven Optimism : examine benefits, feasibility New ideas, creative attitude Edward de Bono
  65. 65. 6 mental attitudes
  66. 66. Personal confusion Facts Positive
  67. 67. Directed thought, mastered • Focus on the most suitable hat • Change hats when needed
  68. 68. Direct your thought Example : you want to progress in tennis Express your enthusiasm (stay motivated) Study facts to learn how to improve
  69. 69. Intra-personal confusion Facts Positive
  70. 70. Example dissatisfied customer Sales person that is process minded lack of understanding
  71. 71. Resonate – to establish communication Facts Positive
  72. 72. Une on same wavelength, I can change the hat As long as we are not on the same wavelength won’t change my point of view I listen to the mindset of the other so he feels really understood
  73. 73. Example Unhappy customer Sales person who recognizes his frustration Let’s get to the facts Let’s get to the process If I were you I would have the same reaction Let's see what exactly happened How to make it not happen again
  74. 74. Confused ineffective group Everyone thinks he hold the truth Process Feelings Imaginati on Critical Positive controversies endless discussions
  75. 75. Parallel, cooperative thinking • Focus everyone on a hat • Change hat together
  76. 76. Benefits Accelerates meetings Prevents ego One thing at a time avoids confusion More diverse thinking Better focus Avoid individual trends
  77. 77. 4 Methods useful for Marketing & Sales Innovation games BrainstormingLateral thinking, 6 hats Mindmaps Represent information (ideas or facts) in the form of a diagram called "mental map" Usage: synthesis of information / collaborative brainstorming ... Fun activities rather than games rather, they aim to collect, organize and prioritize ideas Usage : product roadmap, identifying growth drivers ... Approach to overcome the limitations of the "linear, logic thinking" while remaining rational Usage : problem solving, product ideas ... Collection of ideas to produce a maximum of ideas which are then analyzed and sorted Usage : product ideas, solutions to a problem, names, slogans ... Tony Buzan Luke Hohmann Edward de Bono Alex Osborne (BBDO)
  78. 78. Innovation Games Fun activities for product strategy & marketing: With clients / internal One or more games at a time Many companies use them Characterized by: Relaxation, Collaboration Encourages teamwork Increase information sharing Fun Verbal and visual communication
  79. 79. What for ? Remember the future Spider web Start your day Vision of the future PrioritisationBrainstorming on features Knowledge of customer Me and my shadow The apprentice Identify problems Speed boat Product Box Product Tree Give them a hot tube Buy a feature 20/20 Vision game activity

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