Fibre Facts Design Technology Textiles Ms Fowler
Fibres Fibres are the base unit of all textile materials and products. They are slender thread-like structures that can be spun into yarns and thread, and woven, knitted or felted into materials. Magnified Merino Wool Fibres What is an example of a fibre on your body?
Fibre Classifications There are two types of fibres used in making textile products – those that come from the natural environment and those that are manufactured by humans, called man-made fibres. VS
Natural FibresNatural fibres come from plants, animals andminerals. They usually have short fibres, calledstaple fibres. The exception to this rule is silk, anatural fibre whose continuous filaments are up toone kilometre in length!Sources of natural fibres Cotton from the cotton plant Linen from the flax plant Wool from sheep Silk from silkworms
Man-made FibresSynthetic fibres are man-made, usually fromchemical sources. They are continuous filamentfibres, which means the fibres are long and do notalways have to be spun into yarn.Sources of synthetic fibres Viscose comes from pine trees or petrochemicals. Acrylic, nylon and polyester come from oil and coal.
Man-made – Regenerated Fibres Rayon Acetate These fibres primarily come from wood pulp.
Modern FibresMicrofibres Polyester or nylon microfibres are 60 to 100 times finer than a human hair. They can be blended with synthetic or natural fibres and are used for clothing for outdoor pursuits and active sportswear. Thermoplastic polyester or nylon microfibres can be heat-treated to give them coils, crimps and loops, which makes these textured yarns stretchy and warm. They are used for underwear, sportswear, knitwear and carpets.
Modern Microfibres Elastane (Lycra) is always used in a blend with other fibres. It is used to make sportswear, body- hugging clothes and bandages. It has good handle and drape, is durable, crease resistant, stretchy (more comfortable) and is easy care. Tencel is a natural microfibre made from cellulose derived from wood-pulp. It is used for shirts and jeans. It has soft handle, good drape, is breathable, durable, crease-resistant(now), easy- care and biodegradable. It is absorbent and has low warmth.
Blended Fibres When two or more fibres are mixed together to create a yarn they are called blended fibres. Example Fibres are blended to Polycotton is usually provide the best qualities 65% polyester and of each of the fibres 35% cotton included and to diversify What are you wearing the usefulness of the that is made in this fabric produced. fabric? The fibres are not always blended in equal parts.
Cotton Fabrics Cotton is used for making jeans, t-shirts and towels. It is cool to wear, has a soft handle, a good drape, and is durable. It can be washed and ironed, but it creases easily. It is very absorbent and dries slowly.
Linen/Flax Linen is used for summer clothing, tea towels and tablecloths. It is fresh and cool to wear, has a stiffer handle, and a good drape. It is durable, but can be washed and ironed. It creases badly and is very absorbent, but is also fast drying.
Wool Wool is used for jumpers, suits and blankets. It is warm to wear, absorbent, dries slowly, is breathable, repels rain and can be soft or coarse to handle. It does not have good drape, and is not durable; however, creases tend to drop out. If it is not dry-cleaned it may shrink.
Silk Silk is used for evening wear and ties. It is warm to wear, absorbent, has a soft handle and a good lustre and drape. It is durable and creases drop out. It needs to be dry cleaned.
Rayon/Viscose Rayon/Viscose is used for shirts, dresses and linings. It has a soft handle, a good drape and can be washed and ironed. However it has low warmth, and is absorbent and slow-drying. Viscose is not durable and creases easily.
Polyester Polyester is used for raincoats, fleece jackets, childrens nightwear, medical textiles and working clothes. It has a soft handle, a good drape, is very durable, crease-resistant, easy- care, non-absorbent, and fast drying. It can be recycled, but has low warmth.
Nylon Nylon (Tactel) is used for active sportswear, fleece jackets, socks and seat belts. It has a soft handle, a good drape, is non-absorbent, fast drying, very durable, crease-resistant and easy- care. However it has low warmth.
Acrylic Acrylic is used for jumpers, fleece jackets and blankets. It is warm to wear, non-absorbent, and fast-drying, with a soft handle like wool, and a good drape. It is easy to care for, durable and crease-resistant.
Lycra (Elastomeric) Lycra is used for swimwear, exercise gear and stockings. It is known for its exceptional elasticity. It is light weight, non-absorbent, and fast-drying, with a soft, smooth finish and a good drape. It is easy to care for, resistant to bacteria, durable and crease resistant.
What do you wear? Now, go home and investigate the labels in the garments in your wardrobe. How many items are made of natural fibres? How many items are made of man-made fibres? How many items are made from a blend of natural and man-made fibres? What is the most common fibre you wear?Complete this home learning task in your Textilesjournal.