FibrestoFabrics Design Technology Textiles Ms Fowler
Fabric Construction Most fabrics are made by weaving or knitting yarns, although non-woven fabrics are made by bonding or felting fibres together. A fabrics appearance, properties and end use can be affected by the way it was constructed.
Woven Fabric ConstructionWoven fabrics are made up of a weft - the yarngoing across the width of the fabric - and a warp -the yarn going down the length of the loom. Theyarns are inter-locked together. The side of the fabric where the wefts are double-backed to form a non-fraying edge is called the selvedge.
Plain Weave Fabric In plain-weave fabric the warp and weft are aligned so that they form a simple criss- cross pattern. Plain-weave is strong and hardwearing, so its used for fashion and furnishing fabrics.
Twill Weave Fabric In twill-weave fabric the crossings of weft and warp are offset to give a diagonal pattern on the fabric surface. Its strong, drapes well and is used for jeans, jackets and curtains.
Satin Weave Fabric In satin-weave fabric there is a complex arrangement of warp and weft threads, which allows longer float threads either across the warp or the weft. The long floats mean the light falling on the yarn doesnt scatter and break up, like on a plain-weave. The reflected light creates a smooth, lustrous (shiny) surface commonly called satin. The reverse side is invariably dull and non-shiny. Weave variations include jacquard and damask.
Knitted Fabric Construction Knitted fabrics are made up of single or multiple lengths of continuous yarn on a knitting machine or with knitting needles. The yarns are inter- looped together. There are two types of knitted fabrics: weft- knitted and warp-knitted.
Weft Knitted Fabric Weft-knitted fabric is made by looping together long lengths of yarn. It can be made by hand or machine. The yarn runs in rows across the fabric. If a stitch is dropped it will ladder down the length of the fabric. The fabric is stretchy and comfortable and is used for socks, T-shirts and jumpers.
Warp Knitted Fabric In warp-knitted fabric the loops interlock vertically along the length of the fabric. Warp knits are slightly stretchy and do not ladder. Warp-knitted fabric is made by machine. It is used for swimwear, underwear and geotextiles.
Non-Woven FabricsFelted Fabrics Wool felt is a non-woven fabric made from animal hair or wool fibres matted together using moisture, heat and pressure. Felt has no strength, drape or elasticity but it is warm and does not fray. Wool felt is expensive. It is used for hats and slippers and in handcrafts.
Non-Woven FabricsBonded Fabrics Bonded-fibre fabrics are made from webs of synthetic fibres bonded together with heat or adhesives. They are cheap to produce but not as strong as woven or knitted fabrics. Bonded-fibre fabrics are mainly used for interlining. They are easy to sew, crease resistant, do not fray and are stable when washing and dry cleaning.
Combination (Smart) Fabrics Modern and smart fabrics are designed to maximise characteristics such as lightness, breathability, waterproofing etc, or to react to heat or light. They are usually manufactured using microfibres. Combination Fabrics List and Properties
Technology in TextilesTextiles manufacturers use new technological developments toimprove fabrics by giving them new properties. These might bedeveloped for a special reason, but then adapted to be used ineveryday products. For example: Memory foam moulds to the users shape and can return to its original state. It was originally developed for NASA astronauts and is now used in memory-foam mattresses and seats. Smart-shape-memory alloy returns to its original shape when heated. Smart memory fibres are woven with nylon to make smart-memory shirts that dont need ironing. Fastskin is used in swimsuits to simulate the texture of sharkskin. It increases a swimmers speed by reducing drag through water.