Some background issues: ELT has been influenced by a vast array of THEORIES. Theoretical debate continues up to this day. The Grammar Translation Method. The Direct Method. The Audio-Lingual Method.
And some more… The Silent Way. Desuggestopeadia.NLP. TPR.The Natural Approach. CLT./The Lexical approach. Content-based,Task-based and Participatory approaches.CLIL. SBI, MI, Cooperative Learning. Different Learning Styles.
A. Pulling Habits out of Rats. Behaviourism.Conditioning. Two psychologists: Watson and Raynor(1920). A linguist, Bernard Skinner (1957), Verbal Behaviour.Experiment with Albert. 3-stage procedure: STIMULUS,RESPONSE, REINFORCEMENT. AUDIO LINGUAL METHOD.Controlled practice.
Noam Chomsky (1959) PhD Thesis against Skinner. If all language is learnt behaviour, how come children produce language they have never heard before? “Blueprints for grammatical rules”, Pinker (1994).The language instinct. Chomsky “Black Box”,LAD,Principles and Parameters,Binding, Minimalism. Impact on ELT: Carrol, Cognitive Code Method.(1970).
METHOD: I. APPROACH: -An account of the A. A theory of the conditions that nature of allow for language. successful use of these processes. B.A theory about the nature of language learning: -An account of the psycholinguistic and cognitive processes involved in language learning.
II. Design. a. The general and specific objectives of the method. b. A syllabus model. c.Types of learning and teaching activities. d. Learner roles. e. Teacher roles. f. The role of instructional materials.
III. Procedure: Classroom techniques, practices and behaviour observ ed when the method is used. Resources in terms of time, space , and equipment used by the teacher. Interactional patterns used in the lesson. Tactics and strategies used by teacher and learners when the method is being used.
LANGUAGE LEARNING willtake care of itself. Drills, repetition, controlled practice. Does it work at all? Does Teaching actually work? EXPOSURE, MOTIVATION, OPPORTUNITIES FOR USE. Dick Allright (1970). University of Essex.Real tasks, communication games.”If the language teacher’s management activities are directed exclusively at involving the learners into solving communication problems in the target language, then language learning will take care of itself” (Allright, 1979:170)
Other views: Stephen Krashen (1980). Acquisition and Learning.Roughly- tuned, finely-tuned input.The affective filter. Dave Willis (1996). Fallacy: the idea that controlled practice leads to a mastery of grammar. But, we should consider the context in which our students learn!
Debate cannot be divorcedfrom learners: Students’age. Level of English. Motivation. Places in which learning takes place. Exposure. Small children: avoid grammar teaching. CLT/ Task-based. The post-methods era.
NOTICING CONSCIOUSNESS-RAISING helps language acquisition:accuracy and fluency. It goes from OUTPUT to INPUT, a different view from Krashen’s. Teacher’s draw attention to language use/ brain processing. Structuring and restructuring language will preceed fluent language production. Hypothesis testing: Batstone (1994) Creative language use will proceed in due course.
THE AFFECTIVE VARIABLE Personal response to learning is central to success. Self-esteem is needed to help cognitive processes. Earl Stevick(1996): alienations. Krashen(1985): Affective Filter Hypothesis. Teaching the whole person: humanistic teaching.
Learning a language: Personal identity. Self-knowledge. Feelings, emotions. Mario Rinvolucri: “Activities to exteriorize their own internal text”. Be careful not to do anything that may damage their self- esteem.
Discovery learning Discover things by themselves rather than impose rules, as in traditional grammar teaching. It is culture bound.