COMMUNICATIVELANGUAGE TEACHING Jack C. Richards &Theodore S. Rodgers(2001)CUP
CLT or the PARADIGM shift. 1980’s:since then it has been the model for many teaching practices: The Natural Approach. Cooperative Language Learning. Content-Based Teaching (CBT) Task-Based Learning.
CLT origins: 1960’s: Audio- “Structural theories lingualism in the of language were USA./Situational incapable of Language Teaching accounting for the in Great Britain. creativity and Noam Chomsky uniqueness of (1957)Syntactic language. Structures.
British Applied Linguists: They started to address the functional and communicative potential of language. ELT should focus on a Communicative Approach where the goal of language learning is to develop COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE.
COMMUNICATIVECOMPETENCE IS : “ The ability not only to apply the grammatical rules of a language to form grammatically correct sentences, but also to know when and where to use these sentences and to whom”. (Jack C. Richards) Communicative Competence includes: KOL of the vocabulary and grammar of the language. Kol of the rules of conversation (turn taking, speech events,address forms). KOL about how to use and respond to SPEECH ACTS (REQUESTS,apologies, thanks, invitations) Knowing when to use language appropriately. (Coulhard, 1985,Hymes, 1977).
SCHOLARS BRITISH APPLIEDLINGUISTS who advocated CLT: Cristopher Candlin and Henry Widdowson. John Firth, M.A.K Halliday. American sociolinguists: Dell Hymes, John Gumperz, William Labov). Language philosophers John Austin &John Searle.
European Common Market The Council of Europe. International Association of Applied Linguistics. Goal: to develop alternative methods of language teaching. British linguist D.A. Wilkins (1972): proposed a functional or communicative defiition of language to build up a functional.notional syllabus. His analysis was semantic/communicative, based on learners’needs.
Common European Framework ofReference for Languages Threshold level specifications for language programmes, examinations and textbook design in Europe . Rapid application of these ideas by textbook writers, curriculum development centers. By mid 1970’s CLT had expanded from Great Britain to the world. Howatt (1984) distinguishes between a strong and weak form of CLT.
CLT APPROACH: Hymes’definition of communicative competence (1972)” a person who acquires communicative competence acquires both knowledge and ability for language use”. Brumfit (1979)seven basic functions that language performs for children in L1: 1. The instrumental function: using language to get things. 2.The regulatory function: using language to control the behaviour of others.
More basic functions: 3. The interactional function: using language to create interaction with others. 4.The personal function: using language to express personal feelings and meanings. 5.The heuristic function: using language to learn and discover. 6. The imaginative function: using language to create a world of imagination. 7.The representational function: using language to communicate information.
Henry Widdowson (1978) “Teaching Language as Communication”.Relationships between linguistic systems and their communicative values in text and discourse. Canale and Swain (1980): identified four dimensions of communicative competence.
COMMUNI CATIVECOMPETENCE: Grammatical competence: Chomsky “linguistic competence”or Hymes “what is formally possible”. Sociolinguistic competence: understanding of the social context where communication takes place:role relationships, shared information of participants, purpose of the interaction. Discourse competence: interpretation of individual message in relation to the entire discourse or text. Strategic competence :strategies to initiate, terminate,maintain, repair and redirect communication.
Theory of Learning Principles: (Littlewood, 1981)Communication Principle: activities that involve real communication promote learning. Task Principle: activities in which language is used to solve a task. Meaningfulness Principle: language that is meaningful to the learner supports the lerning process. Learning activities are selected to promote meaningful and authentic language use.
TASK: Read design, objectives, the syllabus, activites, learner roles and teacher roles, instructional materials. Be ready to comment on them. Practice: examples of Information Gap Activities.