Communicative language teaching


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Communicative language teaching

  1. 1. COMMUNICATIVELANGUAGE TEACHING Jack C. Richards &Theodore S. Rodgers(2001)CUP
  2. 2. CLT or the PARADIGM shift. 1980’s:since then it has been the model for many teaching practices: The Natural Approach. Cooperative Language Learning. Content-Based Teaching (CBT) Task-Based Learning.
  3. 3. CLT origins: 1960’s: Audio-  “Structural theories lingualism in the of language were USA./Situational incapable of Language Teaching accounting for the in Great Britain. creativity and Noam Chomsky uniqueness of (1957)Syntactic language. Structures.
  4. 4. British Applied Linguists: They started to address the functional and communicative potential of language. ELT should focus on a Communicative Approach where the goal of language learning is to develop COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE.
  5. 5. COMMUNICATIVECOMPETENCE IS : “ The ability not only to apply the grammatical rules of a language to form grammatically correct sentences, but also to know when and where to use these sentences and to whom”. (Jack C. Richards) Communicative Competence includes: KOL of the vocabulary and grammar of the language. Kol of the rules of conversation (turn taking, speech events,address forms). KOL about how to use and respond to SPEECH ACTS (REQUESTS,apologies, thanks, invitations) Knowing when to use language appropriately. (Coulhard, 1985,Hymes, 1977).
  6. 6. SCHOLARS BRITISH APPLIEDLINGUISTS who advocated CLT: Cristopher Candlin and Henry Widdowson. John Firth, M.A.K Halliday. American sociolinguists: Dell Hymes, John Gumperz, William Labov). Language philosophers John Austin &John Searle.
  7. 7. European Common Market The Council of Europe. International Association of Applied Linguistics. Goal: to develop alternative methods of language teaching. British linguist D.A. Wilkins (1972): proposed a functional or communicative defiition of language to build up a functional.notional syllabus. His analysis was semantic/communicative, based on learners’needs.
  8. 8. Common European Framework ofReference for Languages Threshold level specifications for language programmes, examinations and textbook design in Europe . Rapid application of these ideas by textbook writers, curriculum development centers. By mid 1970’s CLT had expanded from Great Britain to the world. Howatt (1984) distinguishes between a strong and weak form of CLT.
  9. 9. CLT APPROACH: Hymes’definition of communicative competence (1972)” a person who acquires communicative competence acquires both knowledge and ability for language use”. Brumfit (1979)seven basic functions that language performs for children in L1: 1. The instrumental function: using language to get things. 2.The regulatory function: using language to control the behaviour of others.
  10. 10. More basic functions: 3. The interactional function: using language to create interaction with others. 4.The personal function: using language to express personal feelings and meanings. 5.The heuristic function: using language to learn and discover. 6. The imaginative function: using language to create a world of imagination. 7.The representational function: using language to communicate information.
  11. 11. Henry Widdowson (1978) “Teaching Language as Communication”.Relationships between linguistic systems and their communicative values in text and discourse. Canale and Swain (1980): identified four dimensions of communicative competence.
  12. 12. COMMUNI CATIVECOMPETENCE: Grammatical competence: Chomsky “linguistic competence”or Hymes “what is formally possible”. Sociolinguistic competence: understanding of the social context where communication takes place:role relationships, shared information of participants, purpose of the interaction. Discourse competence: interpretation of individual message in relation to the entire discourse or text. Strategic competence :strategies to initiate, terminate,maintain, repair and redirect communication.
  13. 13. Theory of Learning Principles: (Littlewood, 1981)Communication Principle: activities that involve real communication promote learning. Task Principle: activities in which language is used to solve a task. Meaningfulness Principle: language that is meaningful to the learner supports the lerning process. Learning activities are selected to promote meaningful and authentic language use.
  14. 14. TASK: Read design, objectives, the syllabus, activites, learner roles and teacher roles, instructional materials. Be ready to comment on them. Practice: examples of Information Gap Activities.