Chapter 3 brewster


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Chapter 3 brewster

  1. 1. Chapter 3: “How Children learn English”
  2. 2. Learning-centred EFL: not simply putting fun into learning. (Nunan&Lamb, 1996; Cameron, 2001) Need to maximize learning. Provide both: support and challenge.
  3. 3. How children think andlearn Physical Emotional Conceptual Educational characteristics of YLE.
  4. 4. What is different about teachingchildren? YLE are different from older learners because: They have a lot of physical energy. Are emotionally excitable. Are developing conceptually/ early stages of schooling. Are still developing literacy akills in L1. Learn more slowly and forget things quickly.
  5. 5. And more… Tend to be self-oriented/worried with their own world. Get bored easily. Are excellent mimics. Can be easily distracted but also very enthusiastic. Can concentrate for a longer tiem if they are interested.
  6. 6. Learner differences Chronological age is not the same as developmental age. Age bands: 3-6, 7-9, 10-12 year olds. Degree of parental support.
  7. 7. PHYSICAL AND EMOTIONALDIFFERENCES At Primary school level learners are: Developing self-esteem and confidence in learning. Very egocentric: 6-7, unable to cooperate with others. Developing motor skills. Physically restless: short , varied activities. Unstable emotionally: tantrums, need to learn how to overcome frustration.
  8. 8. Teachers need to provide: A supportive  Routines that environment. provide a sense of security. Activities to share and play with other  Praise. learners.  A warm and A variety of encouraging activitities. classroom atmosphere.
  9. 9. Conceptual, educational andlinguistic differences 3-6 year olds: symbolic thought, a picture can be substituted by ther eal thing. 7+: capable of realistic and rational thought.
  10. 10. How children think andlearn Behaviourism: transmission model of learning. Piaget: Constructivism. Clearly defined stages of intellectual development: 4 to 8: concrete-operational stage. 11+: formal thinking. His research: study how children think and learn through their behaviour in relation to given tasks.
  11. 11. Bruner (1983) Why is school difficult for learners? It is too different from their real lives. CONSTRUCTIVIST VIEW:o Child as active agent in constructing KOL: selecting, learning, retaining and transforming information.
  12. 12. SCAFFOLDING Comparison between children learning and building a house: Broken up into stages: foundations, walls and ceiling: BUILDING BLOCKS. Plumbing and electrics: how everything is put together and connected. LINKS AND NETWORKS. SCAFFOLDING is removed when the hosue can support itself.
  13. 13. Child’s learning as aprocess: 3 Modes of Representation: 1. Knowing something through doing it. 2. Working with a picture or image of it. 3. Working with a symbolic representation: language.
  14. 14. VYGOTSKY (1978) Mental development at two levels: Present. Future or potential. ZPD. Differences between Piaget /Vygotsky: 1. Role of adults/ teachers. 2. Role of language. Social-constructivist model.
  15. 15. Ellis (1999) The role of Metacognition. Helping children to think, plan and remember aids them to develop confidence in similar tasks.
  16. 16. Discuss: Learning and sequential stages. Learning, egocentrism and the role of play: social competence. Play as cognitive challenge. The role of the L1. short-story telling, rhymes, songs, oral activities/traditions.
  17. 17. The uniqueness of learners NLP (1970´s) LEARNING STYLES.(Berman, 1998).Visual, Auditor y, Kinesthetic.
  18. 18. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES. Howard Gardner (1993) : 1. Linguistic Intelligence. 2. Logical-mathematical Intelligence. 3. Spatial Intelligence. 4. Kinesthetic Intelligence. 5. Musical Intelligence. 6. Interpersonal Intelligence. 7. Intrapersonal Intelligence. 8. Naturalistic Intelligence. (See activities to be promoted, pp36)
  19. 19. Methods that work well withYLE TPR Total Physical Response (Asher, 1960) TBL. Project Work.
  20. 20. How teachers generate theirown learning theories: Memories of childhood learning. Teacher training. Reading. Reflection upon classroom practice. Professional development activities. CRITICAL PROCESS.
  21. 21. Bruner’s videos: wMUlOg J7SrMVg&feature=related