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Why Read if You Can Skim: Towards Enabling Faster Screen ReadingFaisal Ahmed, Yevgen Borodin, Yury Puzis, I.V. Ramakrishna...
Motivation           Sighted people:           Skimming             Sift quickly             Basic meaning• Screen Reader ...
Contribution• Identifying the types of skimming• Proposing a usable interface• Identifying Use scenarios• Providing Insigh...
Skimming in Accessibility• JAWS  – 1st sentence/line of each paragraph  – Rules (regular expressions) for skimming• VoiceO...
Summarization• Existing summarization tools  – Provide summaries, Preview Original  – No option for    • Skim/switch – Sum...
Approach• Generated gold-standard summaries  – Experiment – 12 sighted, 6 articles• Developed Screen-reading interface  – ...
Generating Gold Standard            SummariesLoose Guidelines• Summarize each sentence separately• Include words and phras...
Analysis: Gold Standard Summaries                                                             noun• Prominent POS         ...
Example: SummariesD: Original paragraph (Comp. Ratio 100%)Twitter, which was created by a 10 person startup in San Francis...
Example: SummariesC: A Gold-standard summary (Comp. Ratio 25%)Twitter, 10 person startup San Francisco, called Obvious. mi...
Example: SummariesB: Gold Summary with nouns and prep only (Comp. Ratio 17%)Twitter, 10 person startup San Francisco, obvi...
Scenario: Listening & Comprehension• Within subjects• Sample task to Practice• Set of 10 questions (i.e., General, POS,  N...
Scenario: Ad-Hoc Searching• Within subjects• Sample task to Practice• Questions contain different wordingFind answer using...
Interface• Standard Screen Reader• Paragraph/Sentence/Word/Character navigation• Shortcut for toggling Skimming  – Switch ...
Primary Hypotheses• A:“skimming is significantly faster than regular  screen reading”• B: “user’s comprehension does not f...
Results• Statistical significance (t-test and ANOVA)  tests provided strong support of our two  primary hypotheses        ...
After reading each of the summaries A, B,C, and D subjects can answer increasingly        more questions correctly.       ...
Finding information using gold summaries    is faster than in ad hoc searching.                        Skimming        Ad-...
Questionnaires                5 point Likert Scale Values (St. Dev)              [1=strongly disagree, 5=strongly agree]  ...
Summarization For Skimming                    Main Characteristics:                    •Nouns, Prepositions, Verbs, Adj/Ad...
TestimonialsGood• “If I dont know what I am looking for, this is definitely  very handy. I can decide whether to read furt...
Future Research • Design of an appropriate summarization • Skim other types of content   (i.e., Images, Buttons, lists) • ...
Questions ?      Comments?            Suggestions?                                                 faiahmed@cs.stonybrook....
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Faisal ahmed talk w4a2012

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Faisal ahmed talk w4a2012

  1. 1. Why Read if You Can Skim: Towards Enabling Faster Screen ReadingFaisal Ahmed, Yevgen Borodin, Yury Puzis, I.V. Ramakrishnan Stony Brook University, USA. 2012 1
  2. 2. Motivation Sighted people: Skimming Sift quickly Basic meaning• Screen Reader – No Support• Ad hoc techniques – Inefficient 2
  3. 3. Contribution• Identifying the types of skimming• Proposing a usable interface• Identifying Use scenarios• Providing Insight: automated skimming 3
  4. 4. Skimming in Accessibility• JAWS – 1st sentence/line of each paragraph – Rules (regular expressions) for skimming• VoiceOver – Drag a finger & listen• Ad hoc – HighSpeechRate/NavigationShortcuts/FastKeyPress – Often read entire content 4
  5. 5. Summarization• Existing summarization tools – Provide summaries, Preview Original – No option for • Skim/switch – Summary <=> Original 5
  6. 6. Approach• Generated gold-standard summaries – Experiment – 12 sighted, 6 articles• Developed Screen-reading interface – Switch seamlessly article <=> summary.• Conducted User Study - 20 blind subjects – – Listening-and-comprehension – Search scenario 6
  7. 7. Generating Gold Standard SummariesLoose Guidelines• Summarize each sentence separately• Include words and phrases from original only• Preserve original word order• Keep it no more than 1/3 of the original article• Make it as informative as possible 8
  8. 8. Analysis: Gold Standard Summaries noun• Prominent POS verb adj• Punctuation preserved adv preposition other Description Gold Summaries (Combined 4 versions using voting) All nouns along with prepositions of C All nouns of C 9
  9. 9. Example: SummariesD: Original paragraph (Comp. Ratio 100%)Twitter, which was created by a 10 person startup in San Franciscowas called Obvious. It is a heady mixture of messaging, socialnetworking, ’microblogging’ and something called ’presence.’ Itsshorthand for the idea that people should enjoy an ’always on’virtual omnipresence. Twitters rapid growth made it the object ofintense interest. The object of fair amount of ridicule, as it wasderided as high tech trivia or the latest in time-wasting devices. Butits use in Iran in the wake of the disputed presidential election ofJune 2009 brought it new respect. It was used to organize protestsand disseminate information in the face of a news media crackdown.C: A Gold-standard summary (Comp. Ratio 25%)Twitter, 10 person startup San Francisco, called Obvious. mixture ofsocial networking microblogging. virtual omnipresence. rapidgrowth. time-wasting devices. use in Iran disputed election. used to 10organize protests.
  10. 10. Example: SummariesC: A Gold-standard summary (Comp. Ratio 25%)Twitter, 10 person startup San Francisco, called Obvious. mixture ofsocial networking microblogging. virtual omnipresence. rapidgrowth. time-wasting devices. use in Iran disputed election. used toorganize protests.B: Gold Summary with nouns and prep only (Comp. Ratio 17%)Twitter, 10 person startup San Francisco, obvious. mixture ofnetworking microblogging. omnipresence. growth. devices. in Iranelection. to protests. 11
  11. 11. Example: SummariesB: Gold Summary with nouns and prep only (Comp. Ratio 17%)Twitter, 10 person startup San Francisco, obvious. mixture ofnetworking microblogging. omnipresence. growth. devices. in Iranelection. to protests.A: Gold summary with nouns only (Comp. Ratio 14%)Twitter, 10 person startup San Francisco, obvious. mixturenetworking microblogging. omnipresence. growth. devices. iranelection. protests. 12
  12. 12. Scenario: Listening & Comprehension• Within subjects• Sample task to Practice• Set of 10 questions (i.e., General, POS, Numerals)• Pilot - 1st sentence summary (JAWS) – unusefulMeasure:• # of correct answers 14
  13. 13. Scenario: Ad-Hoc Searching• Within subjects• Sample task to Practice• Questions contain different wordingFind answer using• “Accessible Skimming” VS “ad-hoc techniques”Measures:• Time (reach/perceive), #Key Presses 15
  14. 14. Interface• Standard Screen Reader• Paragraph/Sentence/Word/Character navigation• Shortcut for toggling Skimming – Switch between summary and original – Preserve current reading position 16
  15. 15. Primary Hypotheses• A:“skimming is significantly faster than regular screen reading”• B: “user’s comprehension does not fall off with skimming compared to regular screen reading.” 17
  16. 16. Results• Statistical significance (t-test and ANOVA) tests provided strong support of our two primary hypotheses 18
  17. 17. After reading each of the summaries A, B,C, and D subjects can answer increasingly more questions correctly. Average Correctness Compression Ratio 100 100 % Average Correctness % Compression Ratio (11.64) (14.31) 80 80 (13.86) (16.73) 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 A B C D Skimming using Different types of contents 19
  18. 18. Finding information using gold summaries is faster than in ad hoc searching. Skimming Ad-hoc Techniques 180 (49.54) 160 (45.16) 140 Time(secs) 120 (37.3) 100 (24.89) 80 60 40 20 0 time for TTS time for subject 21
  19. 19. Questionnaires 5 point Likert Scale Values (St. Dev) [1=strongly disagree, 5=strongly agree] General Statements Avg (St Dev)I wish I could look through articles faster, 3.80 (1.15)than I can with a screen readerI often experience difficulties looking for desired 3.40 (0.99)information within an articleSkimming made reading through articles faster 4.20 (1.00)I was able to understand articles equally well 2.70 (1.34)when skimming and when reading full articleI want to use the skimming feature in the future 4.30 (1.03) 22
  20. 20. Summarization For Skimming Main Characteristics: •Nouns, Prepositions, Verbs, Adj/AdvLiterature review •Extractive Summarization •Extract words and word combinations examination of •Summarize each sentence visual speed- separatelyreading technique •Preserve original order •Preserve punctuationsexperiments withthe gold-standard Ideal Technique: summaries Semantic and/or Syntactic analysis Extract salient parts 23
  21. 21. TestimonialsGood• “If I dont know what I am looking for, this is definitely very handy. I can decide whether to read further or not.”• “I think skimming would be really helpful for long articles, books. In the skimming mode, it was like I was going over my class notes!”Bad• “Skimming is faster, but important info is sometimes missing.”• “Skimming breaks up information… Introduces disorganization... There were no reference points… I dont know where I am...” 24
  22. 22. Future Research • Design of an appropriate summarization • Skim other types of content (i.e., Images, Buttons, lists) • Variable-speed skimmingThis material is based upon work supported by the National ScienceFoundation - Awards: IIS-0808678 and CNS-0751083 25
  23. 23. Questions ? Comments? Suggestions? faiahmed@cs.stonybrook.eduThis material is based upon work supported by the NationalScience Foundation - Awards: IIS-0808678 and CNS-0751083 26

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