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Listening process


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Listening process

  1. 1. ListeningProcess
  2. 2. ListeningVSHearing
  3. 3. Hearing• act of receiving sound
  4. 4. Listening• the active process of receiving,constructing meaning from, andresponding to spoken or non-verbal messages
  5. 5. Listening• involves the ability to retaininformation, react emphatically,and appreciate to spoken or non-verbal messages
  6. 6. Listening• primary way that we understandothers, enrich our own lives, andlearn important and vitalinformation
  7. 7. Listening Process
  8. 8. “Upon hearing your favorite song, thevoice of your favorite artist, or the soundof a police siren, you immediately knowwhat they mean. Your interpretedmessage is then stored in short-termmemory for immediate use or in long-term memory for future recall.”(Janusik, 2005)
  9. 9. Natural Barriers in theListening ProcessA. AttentionSelective Attentionfocus we give to the stimuli we deemimportant
  10. 10. A. AttentionAutomatic Attentionfocus we give tot the stimuli signaling inour surroundings, stimuli that we deemimportant, stimuli that we perceive tosignal changesNatural Barriers in theListening Process
  11. 11. B. Working Memory-part of our consciousness that interprets andassigns meaning to stimuli we pay attention toNatural Barriers in theListening Process
  12. 12. B. Working Memory-recognizing patterns and immediately assignsmeaningNatural Barriers in theListening Process
  13. 13. C. Short-term Memory-temporary storage place for information-retain thoughts that we want to useimmediately but do not necessarily want tokeep for future referenceNatural Barriers in theListening Process
  14. 14. C. Short-term Memory-limitations in quantity or duration of storedinformation*POST ITNatural Barriers in theListening Process
  15. 15. D. Long-Term Memory-permanent storage place for information: pastexperiences, language, values, knowledge,images of people, memories of sights, sounds,and smells and even fantasiesNatural Barriers in theListening Process
  16. 16. D. Long-Term Memory-no limitation in the quantity and duration ofstored informationNatural Barriers in theListening Process
  17. 17. D. Long-Term Memory“Schema” : organizational ‘filing systems’ for ourthoughts held in long-term memoryNatural Barriers in theListening Process
  18. 18. • How come we forget thingseven if it is in the long-termmemory already?
  19. 19. Barriers to ListeningNOISEPhysical DistractionsAll the stimuli in the environment that keepyou from focusing on the message.example: loud music playing
  20. 20. Barriers to ListeningNOISEMental DistractionsThe wandering of the mind when it issupposed to be focusing on something.example: thinking about a lunch date whilelistening to a teacher
  21. 21. Barriers to ListeningNOISEFactual DistractionsFocusing so intently on the details that youmiss the main point.example: listening to all the details of aconversation but forgetting the main idea
  22. 22. Barriers to ListeningNOISESemantic DisordersOverresponding to an emotion-laden word orconcept.example: not listening to a teacher when he/she mentions “Marxist Theory”
  23. 23. Barriers to ListeningPerception of OthersStatusDevoting attention based on the socialstanding, rank or perceived value of another.example: not listening to a freshmen groupactivity
  24. 24. Barriers to ListeningPerception of OthersStereotypesTreating individuals as if they are the same asothers in a given category.example: assuming all older people have similaropinions
  25. 25. Barriers to ListeningPerception of OthersSights and soundsLetting appearances or voice qualities affectyour listeningexample: not listening to a person with ascreechy voice
  26. 26. Barriers to ListeningYourselfEgocentrismExcessive self-focus, or seeing yourself as thecentral concern in every conversationexample: assuming all older people have similaropinions
  27. 27. Barriers to ListeningYourselfDefensivenessActing threatened and feeling like you mustdefend what you have said and done.example: assuming others’ comments are veiledcriticisms of you
  28. 28. Barriers to ListeningYourselfExperiential SuperiorityLooking down on others as if their experiencewith life is not as good as yoursexample: not listening to those with lessexperience
  29. 29. Barriers to ListeningYourselfPersonal BiasLetting your own predispositions, or strongly heldbeliefs, interfere with your ability to interpretinformation correctlyexample: assuming that people are generallytruthful or deceitful
  30. 30. Barriers to ListeningYourselfPseudolisteningPretending to listen but letting your mind orattention wander to something else.example: daydreaming while your professor islecturing
  31. 31. Importance of Listening• Listening helps us build andmaintain relationships and caneven help us determine whetherthe person we are to talking to isbeing deceitful. (diBatista, 1997)
  32. 32. • Listening is also recognized asan essential skill for businesssuccess. (Haigh, 2006)Importance of Listening
  33. 33. • Because of effective listening, weare able to improve workplacerelationships and be moreproductive. (Nichols, 2006)Importance of Listening
  34. 34. References• Lucas, Stephen E. (2009). The Art of PublicSpeaking. 10th ed. New York: McGraw-HillCompanies, Inc.• Pearson, J. et. al. (2008). HumanCommunication. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.