Discovering your innovation project idea


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Part of the Festival Design DNA project from the Edinburgh Festivals Innovation Lab. See for full context & details

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Discovering your innovation project idea

  2. 2. WHERE HAS THIS COME FROMFestival Design DNA is a project produced by Snook for festivalslab. It is both a set of practical tools and an exciting new conversation about what happens when cultural professionals and organisationsstart to think like designers and work to make the experiences they create better from a person-centred point of view. festivalslab or the Edinburgh Festivals Innovation Lab works with and for the twelve Edinburgh Festivals on how to use new thinkingand new tools to the experience of the world’s festival city even better for audiences, creative talent and festival organisations. Snook is a Glasgow-based service design and social innovation agency focusing on transforming the way services are delivered in Scotland, ensuring people come first.
  3. 3. STAGE ONE: DISCOVERDiscovering Festival Customers: Opening Up Gaps In Your Festival:This stage is about finding out who your customers This stage is about understanding where there areare and developing new customer segments. significant gaps in your provision or problematic areas. Tackle them head on rather than ignoreBig Challenges/Festival Experiences: them.Use this stage to tackle those big challenges you Scanning The Festival Horizon:face and look at the total experience of yourfestival. Is there a wicked problem you should be Use this stage to develop your understandingsolving or an experience you’ve always wanted to of what is happening outside of your festivaldeliver? experience. You might want to look at what others are doing both within and outwith a festivals context.
  4. 4. DISCOVERTHE INTERVIEW LITEThis tool is a great way to meetpeople associated with your idea USE ME TO:and talk to them in an informal • Gain a far more holistic setting. It’s best to carefully understanding of the people consider who you should interview you are designing for and what you want to find outfrom them. For example if you aretrying to improve the process of YOU WILL NEED:applying to be an act in the FringeFestival, interview an act who • Someone willing to be found the experience brilliant and interviewed.another who found it frustrating. • Equipment for recording your interviewInterviews can be conducted • Prepared open questionwith customers, staff and otherrelevant stakeholders. Ideally,you should visit the person youwould like to interview in theirown environment and use acombination of questions andobservations to generate the “I TALKED TO SOMEONE ABOUTinsights you want and need.You can document your WHY THEY DIDN’T COME TO OURinterview via audio recordingsand photographs - this meansyou have rich visual information FESTIVAL”to present back to the projectteam. A lite interview usually lastsbetween fifteen and thirty minutes.
  5. 5. INTERVIEW (LITE)This tool is a great way to meet people associated with your idea and talk to them in an informalsetting. It’s best to carefully consider who you should interview and what you want to find outfrom them. For example if you are trying to improve the process of applying to be an act in theFringe festival, interview an act who found the experience brilliant and another who found itfrustrating. What 5 questions do you want to cover with your interviewee? What did you find out? r you hat re and ut w a P ull o ndings your n fi nto mai these i ase. take ition ph n defi FESTIVAL DESIGN DNA
  6. 6. DISCOVER50 THINGS “50 THINGS REALLY SHOWS HOW HARD IT CAN BE FOR A CUSTOMERThis tool is a great way to putyourself in someone else’s USE ME TO: TO ACCESS OUR FESTIVAL”shoes. • Gain a new perspective on experiences related to your Pick one activity that is relevant idea to your project and taskeveryone in the project withcompleting this activity. YOU WILL NEED:They then have to write down a • An activitylist of 50 things related to their • Pen and papertask. What happened? How didthey feel? What did they hear?For example if you are tryingto improve the way finding ofa particular festival, task theteam with finding their way tothe toilet with vision restrictedglasses. (You can do this usingtape, buying a cheap pair ofsunglasses and colouringthem in etc) Then ask themto write 50 things about thatexperience.
  7. 7. 50 THINGSPick one activity that is relevant to your project and task everyone in the project with complet-ing this activity. They then have to write down a list of 50 things related to their task - What hap-pened? How did they feel? What did they hear? For example, if you are trying to improve the wayfinding of a particular festival, task the team with finding their way to the toilet blindfolded in avenue. They then have to write 50 things about that experience. 1 26 2 27 3 28 4 29 5 30 6 31 7 32 8 33 9 34 10 35 11 36 12 37 13 38 14 39 15 40 16 41 17 42 18 43 19 44 20 45 21 46 22 47 23 48 24 49 25 50 FESTIVAL DESIGN DNA
  8. 8. DISCOVERCONTEXTUAL INTERVIEWThis tool is an extension of the USE ME TO:interview lite tool. A contextualinterview is spending time • Uncover the unknown with a person in their own and asking them loosely • Gain a deep understanding structured questions. of behaviour, needs problems, desire and This technique comes from motivations. The output ethnography methods where of an interview is rich and ethnographers could spend meaningful observations & months or years living and insights that build a story on observing different people from the participant. The stories a variety of cultures. can be supported and emphasised by images & You should consider carrying video clips.out a range of interviews with arange of people for a particularproject in order to achieve a YOU WILL NEED:broad array of insights. Findingthe right people in a short • • Someone to interview A place to interview them “SPENDING TIME WITHspace of time can be difficult.Try and think of an incentive to • • Prepared questions Recording equipment SOMEONE IN THEIR HOME TOLD US SO MUCH ABOUT THEM”secure the right participants.
  9. 9. CONTEXTUAL INTERVIEWSThis tool is an extension of the interview lite tool. A contextual interview is spending time with aperson in their own space and asking them loosely structured questions. You should considercarrying out a range of interviews with several different types of people for a particular project inorder to achieve a broad array of insights. Who are you interviewing? Name, age and the first thing you find out about them: Use this space to lay down questions before meeting your interviewee, or to captue notes and sketches during the interview. ke to ta Ask s of to e pho you ar e o n ak pers &m re the viewing captu r u e inte that yo ir hom e u sure ils of th that yo . m deta e place ing the h or t tervie w in are FESTIVAL DESIGN DNA
  10. 10. DISCOVER “WE SPENT TIME ON THE HIGHOBSERVATION “BIHIYVLJJFLIUAOYGLNUHAPITU STREET OBSERVING PEOPLE GVPAJBV;BBIBZIYOYOCUYVHZCV DURING THE FRINGE” USE ME TO: HBJHBZLFYH”Observation is a cheap andeasy way of conducting newresearch. • Create user personas • Find out more about Using our eyes, stepping customersback and watching customers • Understand how a physical engage with a service can space worksreveal key information and • Spot problems and enrich quantitative research. opportunitiesUnderstanding how usersmove in a physical space, their YOU WILL NEED:habits, the clothes they wear, • Your eyesthe bag they carry all build up • Pen and papera picture of who our customersare.All it requires, is for you to takea step back and observe.
  11. 11. OBSERVATIONObservation is a cheap and easy way of conducting new research. Using our eyes, stepping backand watching customers engage with a service can reveal key information and enrich quantitativeresearch. All it takes, is taking a step back and observing. Look at how users move in a physical space, their habits, the clothes they wear, the bag they carry. All of this builds up a picture of who your customers are. re interesting: that we gs I saw 10 thin tos pho , but Take u go s o as y to be a le. er sib emb as pos act em te r re in to disc le beg they p Peo ently if ey are r diffe that th ed. w kno watch be ing FESTIVAL DESIGN DNA
  12. 12. DISCOVERSHADOWINGShadowing is the action USE ME TO:of following someone tounderstand what it is like to live • Gain insights from a their life. This can be done over different point of viewthe course of a day, week, orlonger. • Understand customers and “SHADOWING A BOX OFFICE MANAGER staff’sShadowing can be done in • Motivations/needs • Understanding what needs TOLD ME SO MUCH ABOUT THEa subtle way by followinga member of staff as they to change • Influence new ideas for PROBLEMS THEY FACE AT PEAK TIMES”undertake their job, or you may improvementwant to try asking questionswhile you shadow. YOU WILL NEED:The point of shadowing is to • Notepad and penunderstand first hand what it is • Audio/visual capturing like to deliver or use a service. device. (Camera, The outcome is an in-depth dictaphone, mobile phone understanding of the good and app)bad points of a service.Take notes, capture audioand visual and when you havereturned to the studio there isplenty of material to analyseand use in communicatingsome of the sticking points ofthe service.
  13. 13. SHADOWINGShadowing is the action of following someone to observe and understand what it is like to livetheir life. This can be done over the course of a day, a week, or longer. Shadowing can be donein a subtle way by following a member of staff as they undertake their job, or you may want to tryasking questions while you shadow. The point of shadowing is to understand first hand what it islike to deliver or use a service. Take notes, capture audio and take photographs. When you have returned to the studio there is plenty of material to analyse and use in communicating some of the sticking points of the service. Where are you? Who are you shadowing? Do they know that you are there? Where do they go? What do they see? Do they talk to anyone? What do they touch? What else is happening around them (sights, sounds, smells)? How long do you shadow for? FESTIVAL DESIGN DNA
  14. 14. DISCOVER “WE SENT OUT CULTURAL PROBES TO FESTIVAL CUSTOMERS TOCULTURAL PROBE UNDERSTAND MORE ABOUT THEIRA cultural probe is a small describe how they feel along a EXPERIENCES”kit that is sent to a targeted timeline. They could be sent auser. The results help you text throughout intervals in theunderstand their life or day to capture photographs ofexperience of a service without where they are, or what theya member of the project team are doing.or designer being involved.Kits often include a camera or USE ME TO:audio device and a set of tasksor images a user must capture. • Gather user insightsIt builds up a visual picture • Create a visual picture of that creates a more in-depth people’s livesunderstanding of a user’s lifeor experience. Cultural probesare about scratching the YOU WILL NEED:surface of peoples thoughtsand behaviours and really • To design a toolkit and a understanding their life. bag to package this • Disposable camera or The kit should be designed digital capture deviceto be engaging and capture • Relationship // Stakeholder nuances that traditional map.engagement methods overlook.For example a user couldbe set a diary to documenttheir day and use stickers to
  15. 15. CULTURAL PROBESCultural probes are about getting underneath peoples skin and really understanding their life. Thekit should be designed to be engaging and capture nuances that traditional engagement methodsoverlook. For example, a user could be sent a diary to document their day and use stickers todescribe how they feel along a timeline. They could be sent a text throughout intervals in the dayto capture photographs of where they are, or what they are doing. Think about making this visually engaging. Brand it as your project, package it, think about how it arrives with your user, and how they unpack it. Some points to consider when making your kit: Who is going to be doing it? Where would be best for them to complete it? How long should it take? Does it need to be documented across days? Think about whether a lot of writing is necessary. Can your user upload their own photos? Do you need to develop films? Are you collecting video or audio content? How long do you need to consider for posting items back? Should you provide an incentive e.g. coffee vouchers? FESTIVAL DESIGN DNA
  16. 16. DISCOVERRELATIONSHIP / STAKEHOLDER MAP “WE MAPPED OUR CUSTOMERS RELATIONSHIPS TO UNDERSTANDA stakeholder map canbe used to look at who is USE ME TO: WHAT INFLUENCES THEM”involved around your theme • Plan project relationships or project. If consider it as a and see the big picturerelationship map we can alsolook at individuals and therelationships they have with YOU WILL NEED:organisations, friends, families. • Post itsA map of stakeholders or • Pensrelationships can be visualised • An open mindusing concentric circles withclose relationships beingmapped in the centre andfurther away relationshipstowards the outer circles.This is a great way to stepback and look holistically at anindividual or group’s influencingfactors.
  17. 17. RELATIONSHIP / STAKEHOLDER MAPA stakeholder map is useful at the start of the project to understand what other festivalorganisations and other cultural orgs who will be part of your idea. Furthermore, it forces you toconsider other influential stakeholders such as Trip Advisor and Stage Coach Travel. This is agreat way to step back and look at who you want to pull closer into the project and question howyou will do this. A map of stakeholders can be visualised using concentric circles with close relationships being mapped in the centre and further away relationships towards the outer circles. at k th u thin If yo will e ther t of lo ertain ea be quit nt of c our eme ss y mov le acro work - p peo as you res, or ent u map ego fig repres el to us bies jel lyba . them FESTIVAL DESIGN DNA
  18. 18. DISCOVER “WE USED GENERATIVEGENERATIVE TOOLS TOOLS TO STOP PEOPLE IN THE STREET ANDSometimes talking to people USE ME TO: GATHER THEIR OPINION”isn’t easy, and sometimes theydon’t want to talk. • Inspire and inform new ideasGenerative tools are more of • Synthesise user a method than a tool. This personalities into categoriesis about creating physical • Maintain a customer objects that act as prompts to centred processencourage people to engage • Test ideaswith you. Engagement tools aresometimes not about speaking,and you learn a great deal from YOU WILL NEED:watching someone complete • Customer insight an exercise. information. (To get this information, conduct interviews, Think of them as conversation talk to customers/staff, use starters. For example, make quantitative information to create a sign asking people what customer segments.)they would change about theirfestival experience if they couldwave a magic wand!
  19. 19. GENERATIVE TOOLSSometimes talking to people isn’t easy, and sometimes they don’t want to talk. Generative toolsare more of a method than a tool. This is about creating physical objects that act as prompts toencourage people to engage with you. Think of them as conversation starters. For example, think about making a sign asking people what they would change about their festival experience if they could wave a magic wand! Talk t o abou me t ... re n g su i akin meone g M so din that is recor t ha rs team ns t e y our teractio g & oth in in u the re hav you. Yo is on a you ions to o put th own t t reac t want write d ost- gh og, or mi bl p d on yo ur u foun P.O.P.I t yo se wha then u its & FESTIVAL DESIGN DNA
  20. 20. DISCOVERVOX POPPINGThis technique is a way to USE ME TO:generate “man on the street”interviews in response to a • Find out what the public particular question such as think about a particular “What is the one reason you topicwould go to a festival?” Usually • Gain feedback on your ideathe interviewees are in publicplaces, and give spontaneousopinions in a chance encounter YOU WILL NEED:— unrehearsed and not • Confidenceselected in any way. • Recording EquipmentThe results of vox poppingare unpredictable and usuallythe material needs edited.Although the two can bequite often confused, a vox “IN JUST 60 SECONDS WE HAD GOTpop is not a form of a survey.Each person is asked thesame question; the aim is toget a variety of answers andopinions on any given subject. A SNAPSHOT OF WHO WAS VISITINGThe interviewees should be ofvarious ages, genders, classes OUR FESTIVAL AND WHY”and communities so that thediverse views and reactionsof the genera public will beknown.
  21. 21. VOX POPPINGThis technique is a way to generate “man on the street” interviews in response to a particularquestions such as “What is the one reason you would go to a festival?” Usually the interviewesare in public places, and give spontaneous opinions in a chance encounter — unrehearsed andnot selected in any way. Consider your questions and how to approach people beforehand. Have questions ready but don’t be too prescribed, let the stories emerge. : I sp oke to Who edit can very You film r you ovie or yer n iM ia Pla ily o ed t eas ows M pload i d Win free), u log. h ps b arge (bot ur grou o ch yo t e to ber hon . mem cam/p storage Re flip r tr a you take ex and FESTIVAL DESIGN DNA
  22. 22. DISCOVERA DAY IN THE LIFEThis tool is great way toexperience someone else’s USE ME TO:lifestyle out with the service/festival. This helps you designfestival experiences that meet • Gain user insights • Discover latent user needs “SPENDING A DAY IN THE LIFE WITHthe latent needs of your targetaudience. You could spend a • Gain contextual understanding PEOPLE WITH NO AGENDA ALLOWED USday in the life with customers orstaff or members of the public. YOU WILL NEED: TO SPOT OPPORTUNITIES FOR OURAlthough always ask permissionfirst! • Visual/audio recording FESTIVALS””This can be done as an isolated devicetask to gain new ideas for • Notepad & pen to an organisation by spotting customers/staff, use opportunities in people’s lives quantitative information to or to inform a project team how create customer segmentsomeone lives and the design of anew product or service. It’s a greatstarting exercise to get the projectteam out the office and witnessingreal life in a focused way.It is ideal to document thisprocess with photographs andchronologically lay this out backin the office. The team can laterannotate the events of the day.Alternatively it can be filmed andedited into a short movie.
  23. 23. DAY IN THE LIFESpending a day with someone else is a great way to experience their lifestyle. This helps youdesign festival experiences that meet the latent needs of your target audience. You could spend aday in the life with customers or staff or members of the public. Although always ask permissionfirst! It is ideal to document this process with photographs and chronologically layout back in the office. You might want to invite them back after developing photos to ask them a series of questions about their day. Draw on top of them to show opportunities for service improvement and alterations. what did they say? how are they feeling? overall experience? Who is this? Notes: FESTIVAL DESIGN DNA
  24. 24. DISCOVEREMPATHY TOOLSEmpathy tools are ways of USE ME TO:understanding what it is like tobe in someone else’s shoes. • Understand the user’s experience firsthandEmpathy tools can be • Empathise with the usersimply made and used • Gain deeper user insightswhen undertaking differentethnographic techniques withinthe discovery period of the YOU WILL NEED:development process. • To make an empathy toolFor example, wearing a heavy • Props/dress up box/bag, or carrying extra weight to materials/costumes etcsimulate being pregnant helps • Use your imagination to the project team empathise and make the experience as understand what life is like from realistic as possibleanother person’s perspective.Try undertaking the serviceexperience using an empathytool and document how youfeel at every stage. “I HAD NEVER CONSIDERED WHAT IT WAS LIKE TO BE PREGNANT AND VISIT A SHOW”
  25. 25. EMPATHY TOOLSEmpathy tools are ways of understanding what it is like to be in someone else’s shoes. Empathytools can be simply made and used when undertaking different ethnographic techniques withinthe discovery period of the development process. For example, wearing a heavy bag, or carryingextra weight to simulate being pregnant helps the project team empathise and understand whatlife is like from another person’s perspective. Try undertaking the service experience using an empathy tool and document how you feel at every stage. What journey/ experience will you be testing? bout: T hink a asy? is e What difficult? to you ? W hat is thers react different? oo as How d you wish w do What FESTIVAL DESIGN DNA
  26. 26. DISCOVERSERVICE WALKTHROUGH “WE SPENT TIME PICKING UP TICKETS WITH OUR CUSTOMERS USE ME TO: AT THE BOX OFFICE”Walking through an experiencewith someone is great wayof capturing how they feel • Gather visual evidence of during it and where you can how a festival worksmake improvements or spot • Ideas on how to improve opportunities for innovation. particular service interaction • Empathise with the people Try attend a festival show with you are designing forsomeone, organise spendingtime with them from bookingthe ticket to taking the bus to YOU WILL NEED:picking up their ticket to seeingthe show. • A customer who is willing to work with youTry and take photographs along • Recording equipment the route from beginning to (camera/audio)end, this will give you visualdocumentation of how theexperience feels as a whole.Remember to capture the detailas well.How does your customerinteract with the touchpoints ofthe festival? Is it easy for themto find the box office usingsignage? Does the website workwell? How do they respond tothe printed ticket?
  27. 27. SERVICE WALKTHROUGHSWalking through an experience with someone is great way of capturing how they feel during itand where you can make improvements or spot opportunities for innovation. Try attend a festivalshow with someone, organise spending time with them from booking the ticket to taking thebus to picking up their ticket to seeing the show. Try take photographs along the route frombeginning to end, this will give you visual documentation of how the experience feels as a whole. Either walkthrough with someone or as someone. Try walking through with/as a single parent, an elderly gentleman, a family with 3 kids, a French exchange student, one of the service providers ... how many can you do? Print out your images and place them in chonological order. Circling all of the touchpoints you encounter will help to draw out the elements of the service. what did they say? how are they feeling? overall experience? s rd a are R eco . if youWho are yo go try u? you ideos, raor who are v e ing cam you with? ptur e your us ca ak cuo to m conspi so that t n , i as i ssible ct as if o a as p le will p peo t there. o is n FESTIVAL DESIGN DNA
  28. 28. DISCOVER EVENTS/PLATFORMS/TOOLCUSTOMER DAYThis tool is about choosing a USE ME TO:day in your calendar when yourorganisation will open up its • Meet your customersdoors and invite customers in! • Gain the trust of the stakeholders you are They will be given the chance designing forto meet colleagues and better • Gain real feedback on your understand how festivals work. ideas and current service Transparency builds trust. offeringsTrust is at an all-time premiumgiven today’s economy. This YOU WILL NEED:initiative demonstrates therespect your organisation has • An agenda for the customer for your customers. day • A range of customers to It offers customers the inviteopportunity to get to know your • Recording equipmentorganisation better. It makesyour festival more human, andyour colleagues more involved. “ALL WE DID WAS INVITE OUR CUSTOMERS IN AND HAVE LUNCH WITH THEM AND TALK TO THEM ABOUT GOING TO FESTIVALS”
  29. 29. DISCOVER EVENTS/PLATFORMS/TOOL “MY EYES WERE OPENED TO ALLTECH DAY THIS AMAZING TECHNICAL STUFF WEA Tech Day is about bringingin people who are experts in USE ME TO: COULD BRING IN TO OUR FESTIVAL”the field of technology and • Develop new ideasinnovation. • Be inspired by disciplines that differ from your ownBring in people to talk about • Understand the impact technology, give short technology can have on presentations, discuss projects your ideas and servicesand even do some hands ondemonstrations. YOU WILL NEED:By seeing the possibility ofwhat technology can do, it • A space to hold the eventcan open a whole realm of • A mix of people to invitepossibilities and give you ideas • Food and drinkfor improvement.
  30. 30. DISCOVER EVENTS/PLATFORMS/TOOLASSET MAP CLASSAsset mapping is based on the USE ME TO:idea that you don’t know whatyou need until you know what • Understand what you you have. currently have • Understand where the gaps It is an approach you can use areto bring all the positive assets • Discover untapped of your organisation to the resources that you have surface. access tooBy holding a session onasset mapping you can work YOU WILL NEED:corroboratively with the peopleyou invite to really explore the • A spacedepth of the assets in your • An agendafestival. • A map or visualisation of your organisation or location (this can be sketched or mocked up professionally on publishing software) • A wide range of people from your organisation “LOOKING POSITIVELY AT WHAT ALREADY EXISTS HIGHLIGHTED NUMEROUS POSSIBILITIES”
  31. 31. 4 1 DELIVER DISCOVER 3 2 DEVELOP DEFINE EXITWRITE A BRIEF (DISCOVER)At this stage, after getting afeel for your festival experience, USE ME TO:some user needs and what else • Succinctly communicate your is happening out there you may projectwant to write a brief to bring other • Reflect on your work and professionals in to help you work processup the themes and define some of • Extend the networks who are the research into tangibles. interested in your workWriting a brief can be a difficultchallenge, it’s important you call YOU WILL NEED:on expertise when necessary. Agood brief should outline what • Any publishing softwareyou have found out, a summary ofyour research and what steps youwould like to take forward. Keepthe brief fairly open at this stage.You may want to include yourSlidedeck of findings to askcompanies to develop responsesto the brief before hiring a team togo into the definition stage. “WE WROTE A SIMPLE BRIEF TOThis brief is more about refiningthe research you found and GET HELP ON WHAT OURdigging deeper on what it means. RESEARCH MEANT”
  32. 32. 4 1 DELIVER DISCOVER 3 2 DEVELOP DEFINE EXITSLIDEDECK OF FINDINGSA Slidedeck of findings is ideal USE ME TO:to present back what you foundduring the discovery phase. • Share your findings. • Get buy in for the definition Try to not use Powerpoint, and stageavoid lots of words. What youwant to do is show a visually YOU WILL NEED:compelling story, bringingtogether what you found out • Slideshare if you want to and the faces behind this publish the findings onlineresearch. • A projector & suitable roomUse the visual material yougenerated, people will be ableto relate with it much morethan bullet points or a standardreport. “OUR SLIDE DECK WAS IDEAL TO COMMUNICATE THE RESEARCH WE HAD DONE WITH PARTNERS”
  33. 33. A process to explore more about your festival, what people need and what else is going on outside of your organisation. Includes; The Interview (Lite) 50 Things Contextual Interviews Observation Shadowing Cultural Probe Relationship Map Generative Tools Vox Popping Day In The Life Empathy Tools Service Walkthrough Customer Day Tech Day Asset Map Class Brief Slidedeck find out more at FESTIVAL DESIGN DNA An initiative of Edinburgh’s Festivals