Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

The road to revolution

354 views

Published on

A PowerPoint presentation that introduces the events that led to the American Revolution.

Published in: Education, News & Politics
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

The road to revolution

  1. 1. Chapter 4 Separating from Britain 1700-1775
  2. 2. The Colonists Consider New Ideas <ul><li>The Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First developed in the Scientific Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Looking beyond religious authority to explain the world around us. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use Reason to explain phenomenon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copernicus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Galileo </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isaac Newton </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Enlightenment <ul><li>Examining laws about human nature </li></ul><ul><li>John Locke </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Rights make human world run smoothly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liberty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Property </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Social Contract <ul><li>Idea of John Locke </li></ul><ul><li>People obey government if Government promises to protect their natural rights. </li></ul><ul><li>If government becomes tyrannical, the people no longer needed to obey it. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Benjamin Franklin <ul><li>Printer, scientist, inventor, writer, statesman, and diplomat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Renaissance Man </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Invented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bifocals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metal stove </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting rod </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Europe vs. America <ul><li>Peasants in Europe were locked into traditional ways of thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Couldn’t’ read or write </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little opportunity to improve their lives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>American farmers were educated and received new ideas with enthusiasm </li></ul>
  7. 7. Religious Feelings Revive <ul><li>Early 18 th century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Puritan church was weakening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of worship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prosperity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Material comfort </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Jonathan Edwards <ul><li>From Northampton, Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>Declared people needed to do more than just go to church. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needed profound emotional experiences rather than intellectual ones. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gave Rousing Sermons across the colonies. </li></ul>
  9. 9. George Whitefield <ul><li>Preacher who was a great actor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Played the role of God and the Devil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drew very large crowds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revival meetings held outdoors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Great Awakening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revival of religion in the colonies during the 1740’s. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Quaker Revival <ul><li>During the 1750’s many Quakers concluded that slavery was wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>John Woolman </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urged other Quakers to free their slaves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By the 1770’s most Quakers had freed their slaves. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Witchcraft comes to an end. <ul><li>500,000 people were killed in Europe accused of witchcraft </li></ul><ul><li>The Enlightenment reduced superstition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salem Witch Trials in 1692 also reduced superstition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase Mather said accusations were “unbelievable”. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>19 persons were killed during the Trials </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Education System Grows <ul><li>American Public is more literate than any in Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Puritans insisted people learn to read the Bible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent settlements allowed school system to develop. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All towns with 50 families or more had to hire a schoolmaster </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Northern colonies had better literacy rates. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Early Colleges <ul><li>Harvard was first American College </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trained ministers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most college students were from wealthy families and did not go on to church work. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Power of the Printing Press <ul><li>Poor Richard’s Almanack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Printed by Ben Franklin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offered advice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very popular </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Newspapers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped spread news throughout the colonies </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Freedom of Press <ul><li>John Peter Zenger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German immigrant who ran a newspaper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accused governor of rigging elections and taking bribes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common law states anyone critizing the government is guilty of criminal libel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Libel-written statement that harms one’s reputation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Freedom of Press <ul><li>Andrew Hamilton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zenger’s lawyer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The issue is whether or not the articles were true. If they are…no libel charges can be made. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People have the right to air grievances against the government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hamilton wins the case and basis for Freedom of Press is created. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The French and Indian War <ul><li>France and Britain do not get along </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four Major Conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>War of the League of Augsburg (1689-1697) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>War to stop France’s Invasion of Italian City-States </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Balance of Power- </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spain’s king dies and France tries to take the throne </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>War of Austrian Succession (1744-1748) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>War of the Hapsburgs in Spain and Austria. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seven Years War (French and Indian) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. French and Indian War <ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French build series of Forts along St. Lawrence River, and Lake Erie. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also Build Fort Duquesne at the confluence of the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land claimed by Pennsylvania and Virginia. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 20. French and Indian War <ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ohio Company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formed by wealthy Virginia farmers to obtain lands beyond the Appalachian Mountains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hoping to make money by selling lands </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Governor Dinwiddie </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joins the Ohio company </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sends group of militiamen under command of George Washington to spy on French movements. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 22. French and Indian War <ul><li>Battle at Fort Necessity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Washington builds a stockade. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outnumber Washington 700/400 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Washington surrenders and returns to Virginia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>French and Indian War Begins </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 24. French and Indian War <ul><li>Albany Congress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British Government wanted an alliance with the Iroquois against the French </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Iroquois said no. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They thought the French were stronger. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Franklin proposes a plan. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Colonial council to set up defense </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Needed colonies approval…most said no. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 25. French and Indian War <ul><li>Battle at Fort Duquesne </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dinwiddie asks Britain to send regular troops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>London sends 1400 men under command of Gen. Braddock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major attack planned to drive French out of Ohio Country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British Troops were slow and arrogant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Washington warned of possible ambush. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 27. French and Indian War <ul><li>Ambush 8 miles away from Fort Duquesne </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British troops not used to frontier tactics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British lose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Braddock is killed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1000 British casualties </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 28. French and Indian War <ul><li>William Pitt arrives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes able junior officers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>George Washington leads new attack on Fort Duquesne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Renames it Fort Pitt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>French defeat at Quebec and Montreal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French are defeated in the war. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 30. Treaty of Paris 1763 <ul><li>Britain gets Florida from Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Britain gets Canada and all land east of the Mississippi from France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Except New Orleans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spain gets Louisiana </li></ul>
  26. 31. Royal Proclamation of 1763 <ul><li>Made to try and stop colonists westward expansion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forbade colonials from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonists already west of line had to move back east. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This would make colonists easier to govern </li></ul></ul>
  27. 33. Colonists are Upset <ul><li>Proclamation Line means two things: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British Government was insensitive to colonists interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Persuaded the colonists that British government could not enforce laws. </li></ul></ul>

×