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Aula 11 - Ácidos nucleicos - DNA e RNA

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Ilustrações da aula sobre a morfologia e fisiologia do DNA e RNA. Como os processos de Duplicação (replicação) do DNA, transcrição gênica e tradução gênica (síntese de proteínas).

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Aula 11 - Ácidos nucleicos - DNA e RNA

  1. 1. Biologia 1Aula 11Apostila 2Página 22
  2. 2. Ácidos nucleicosDuplicação do DNA, codificação dainformação genética e sínteseproteica
  3. 3. Ácido Nucleicos• DNA– ácido desoxirribonucleico• RNA– ácido ribonucleicoAp. 2Pag. 16
  4. 4. Ácido Nucleicos• DNA– ácido desoxirribonucleicoAp. 2Pag. 16
  5. 5. DNAAp. 2Pag. 16[[Imagem:Gene.png|thumb|180px|Legenda]]
  6. 6. DNAAp. 2Pag. 16Pontes dehidrogênio
  7. 7. DNANucleotídio• Fosfato• Desoxirribose• Base NitrogenadaAp. 2Pag. 16
  8. 8. DNANucleotídio• Fosfato • DesoxirriboseAp. 2Pag. 16
  9. 9. Bases nitrogenadasNucleotídio• Base NitrogenadaPúricas PirimídicasAdenina GuaninaCitosina Uracila*RNATimina*DNAAp. 2Pag. 17
  10. 10. NucleotídiosAp. 2Pag. 17
  11. 11. Pareamento de bases no DNARegra deChargaff:A=T e G=CA+G=T+CAp. 2Pag. 18
  12. 12. Duplicação do DNA• A duplicação do DNA é catalisada pela enzima DNAhelicase e DNA polimerase.
  13. 13. Duplicação do DNA•Semi conservativa
  14. 14. Transcrição do RNA• O RNA é produzidoatravés do DNA. Apenasuma das cadeias serviráde molde.• Região promotora:sequencia de bases doDNA, para iniciar atranscrição.• Sequência de términoda transcrição: fim datranscrição
  15. 15. Transcrição do RNA• O síntese de RNA é catalisada pela enzima RNApolimerase.
  16. 16. RNA transportadorAp. 2Pag. 18
  17. 17. • ConservativoTranscrição do RNA
  18. 18. • RNAm – cada trinca de bases (códon) correspondea um aminoácido.• RNAt – faz a correspondência do códon com oaminoácido, através do anticódon.Anticódon
  19. 19. Tabela do código genético
  20. 20. (VUNESP 2012) Em um laboratório, um pesquisador aqueceu umsegmento de dupla fita de DNA de modo que obteve duas fitas simplescomplementares.Ao sequenciar uma dessas fitas, encontrou a relação (A + G)/(T + C) =0,5, ou seja, o número de adeninas somado ao número de guaninas,quando dividido pelo número de timinas somado ao número decitosinas, resultou em 0,5.Em função dessas informações, pode-se afirmar que o aquecimento foinecessário para romper as ______________________ e que a relação(A + G)/(T + C) na fita complementar foi de _________ .As lacunas são preenchidas correta e respectivamente por:(A) pontes de hidrogênio e 0,5.(B) pontes de hidrogênio e 1,0.(C) pontes de hidrogênio e 2,0.(D) ligações fosfodiéster e 1,0.(E) ligações fosfodiéster e 2,0.
  21. 21. (FUVEST 2010) Há uma impressionante continuidade entre os seres vivos (...).Talvez o exemplo mais marcante seja o da conservação do código genético(...) em praticamente todos os seres vivos. Um código genético de talmaneira “universal” é evidência de que todos os seres vivos são aparentadose herdaram os mecanismos de leitura do RNA de um ancestral comum.Morgante & Meyer, Darwin e a Biologia, O Biólogo 10:12–20, 2009.O termo “código genético” refere-sea) ao conjunto de trincas de bases nitrogenadas, cada trinca correspondendo aum determinado aminoácido.b) ao conjunto de todos os genes dos cromossomos de uma célula, capazes desintetizar diferentes proteínas.c) ao conjunto de proteínas sintetizadas a partir de uma sequência específica deRNA.d) a todo o genoma de um organismo, formado pelo DNA de suas célulassomáticas e reprodutivas.e) à síntese de RNA a partir de uma das cadeias do DNA, que serve de modelo.
  22. 22. Uma mutação, responsável por uma doença sanguínea, foi identificada numa família.Abaixo estão representadas sequências de bases nitrogenadas,normal e mutante; nelas estão destacados o sítio de início da tradução e a base alterada.O ácido nucleico representado acima e o número de aminoácidos codificados pelasequência de bases, entre o sítio de início da tradução e a mutação, estãocorretamente indicados em:a) DNA; 8.b) DNA; 24.c) DNA; 12.d) RNA; 8.e) RNA; 24.

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