The importance of new psychoactive

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NPS in Silk Road

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The importance of new psychoactive

  1. 1. THE IMPORTANCE OF NEW PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES (NPS) IN ONLINE DRUG MARKETS: DATA FROM SILK ROAD 2.0 DR. FERNANDO CAUDEVILLA ENERGY CONTROL (ABD)
  2. 2. • The original Silk Road Marketplace operated between January 2011 and October 2013 • Original site was shut down by FBI in October 2013 • According to FBI, the site generated revenue sales over 9.5 million BTC (3.000 million EUR) (1) • Actually, there are 21 active operative on-line drug markets using SR system (2) • Silk Road re-opened in 21 November 2013 and it is still the most popular market (1) https://www.cs.columbia.edu/~smb/UlbrichtCriminalComplaint.pdf (2) Busted but not broken. The state of Silk Road and the Darknet Marketplaces. Digital Citizens Alliance. https://media.gractions.com/314A5A5A9ABBBBC5E3BD824CF47C46EF4B9D3A76/5f8d4168-c36a-4f78-b048-f5d48b18dc0a.pdf
  3. 3. WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF NPS IN SILK ROAD?
  4. 4. OBJECTIVE • To obtain data about NPS in Silk Road Marketplace • Type of substances offered • Country of origin (sources of the merchandise) • Estimated volume of sales and demand • Comparision with traditional drugs
  5. 5. MATERIAL AND METHODS • Data from all the products offered and sales in Silk Road Marketplace 2.0 were collected from Nov.13 to May 13 (1) • Kind of product • Name of the vendor • Country of delivery • Number of sales • Price • Feedback from user • Analysis was limited to data from psychoactive, illegal drugs • Legal drugs (alcohol, tobacco), prescription drugs, and other products (art, jewels…) and services (money laundering, fake credit cards…) were excluded from analysis (1) “Silk Road statistics” On-line document. Available in: twam2dcppennla6s.onion (Access 10/5/14)
  6. 6. “Classical drugs” • Cannabis (hashish, marijuana, oils, wax, extractions…) • Classical psychedelics (LSD, Psilocybes, DMT, 2C-B, mescaline…) • Classical stimulants ( cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine…) • Opioids (heroin, opium, kratom) • Ecstasy (MDMA, MDA) • GHB • Ketamine NPS • Synthetic cannabinoids • JWH, UR, CP, URB,THJ,AKB families • NPS dissociatives • Methoxetamine • PCP derivatives • NPS-ecstasy related: • Bk-MDMA (methylone), bk-MBDB (butylone), bk-MDEA (ethylone) • 5,6-Methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane (MDAI) • Methiopropamine (MPA) • NPS psychedelics: • 2C- phenethylamine family (except 2C-B) • Synthetic tryptamines: 4-ACO, 5-MEO families… • Hallucinogenic amphetamines: DOB, DOI, DOC… • 25-x-NBOMe family MATERIAL AND METHODS • NPS stimulants: • Synthetic cathinones: Mephedrone (4-MMC), 4-MEC… • Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) • Fluoro amphetamines: 4-FA, 2-FMA, 4-FMA… • Benzofurans: 5-APB, 6-APB • A-PVP (α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone) • Synthetic opioids: • AH-7921 • MT-45
  7. 7. RESULTS • We obtained data from 15.836 products offered in Silk Road from Nov 13 to May 14 • We analyzed data from 6653 illegal psychoactive drugs
  8. 8. 5197 (78,11%) 1456 (21,8%) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 CLASSICAL NPS Number of products offered NPS PSYCHEDELICS; 654; 44,9% NPS STIMULANTS; 314; 22% SYNTHETIC CANNABINOIDS; 235; 16% NPS ECSTASY RELATED; 173; 12% NPS DISSOCIATIVES; 60; 4% SYNTHETIC OPIOIDS; 20; 1% NPS offered in Silk Road (n:1456) RESULTS
  9. 9. SYNTHETIC CANNABINOIDS n NPS PSYCHEDELICS n NPS STIMULANTS n NPS ECSTASY n NPS DISSOCIATIVES n SYNTHETIC OPIOIDS n JWH family 42 Tryptamine derivatives 39 Cathinone derivatives 6 Beta- ketones 3 PCP derivatives 4 MT family 1 AM family 11 2C- family 17 Amphetamine derivatives 5 Other 4 Ketamine derivatives 2 AH family 1 HU family 8 DOx family 5 Pyrovalerones 3 Other 1 CP family 5 NBOMe family 2 Benzofurans 3 URB family 4 Other 11 Other 7 PB family 3 AKB family 6 MT family 2 Other 12 TOTAL 81 TOTAL 74 TOTAL 24 TOTAL 7 TOTAL 7 TOTAL 2 • A total of 195 different NPS compounds (1456 items) are offered
  10. 10. 2) How many and what kind of drugs are purchased in Silk Road?
  11. 11. CLASSICAL DRUGS 13.474.353 EUR NPS 1.030.920 EUR
  12. 12. CLASSICAL DRUGS N < 200 EUR >200 EUR STIMULANTS 922 61,4% 38,6% CANNABIS 1864 79,8% 20,2% PSYCHEDELICS 836 81,7% 18,3% ECSTASY 1234 69,5% 30,5% OPIOIDS 159 85,7% 14,3% NPS N <200 EUR >200 EUR STIMULANTS 313 34,6% 65,4% CANNABINOIDS 235 14,6% 85,4% PSYCHEDELICS 654 21,1% 78,9% ECSTASY RELATED 173 57,1% 42,9% OPIOIDS 20 5% 95% Proportion of drugs with cost above and below than 200 EUR
  13. 13. NUMBER OF DRUGS CLASSIFIED BY GEOGRAPHICAL ORIGIN (AS REPORTED BY VENDORS) Etiquetas de fila EUROPE NORTH AMERICA ASIA AUSTRALIA AND NZ AFRICA SOUTH AMERICA UNDECLARED CLASSICAL STIMULANTS 488 211 5 122 5 2 88 ECSTASY 823 242 14 91 0 0 63 CANNABIS 978 730 32 44 13 0 66 OPIATES 83 51 2 2 0 0 20 CLASSICAL PSYCHEDELICS 450 246 10 45 0 0 84 KETAMINE 66 20 17 5 0 0 2 GHB 43 7 0 3 0 0 24 TOTAL CLASSICAL 2931 1507 80 312 18 2 347 SYNTHETIC CANNABINOIDS 63 20 152 0 0 0 0 NPS DISSOCIATIVES 12 23 22 0 0 0 3 NPS ECSTASY RELATED 39 24 108 0 0 0 2 NPS PSYCHEDELICS 167 155 167 29 0 0 136 NPS STIMULANTS 91 52 147 7 2 0 16 SYNTHETIC OPIOIDS 0 3 17 0 0 0 TOTAL NPS 372 277 613 36 2 0 157
  14. 14. • There were 523 vendors registered in Silk Road during the period studied. • 120 vendors (22,9% ) offered some NPS for sale • 5 vendors (1%) offered a total of 561 different products (35% of the whole NPS), made a total of 1559 sales (23,41% total NPS sales). 4 of these vendors operated from China
  15. 15. TOTAL PRODUCTS OFFERED PRODUCTS WITH MORE THAN 50 SALES % CLASSICAL 5197 590 11,35% NPS 1456 28 1,92% TOTAL PRODUCTS OFFERED PRODUCTS WITH ZERO SALES % CLASSICAL 5197 647 12,44% NPS 1456 753 51,17%
  16. 16. 1 WEED SHROOMS COCAINE KETAMINE MDMA OPIUM 2 WEED LSD COCAINE METHOXETHAMINE MDMA HEROIN 3 HASH DMT SPEED KETAMINE MDMA OPIUM 4 WEED DMT COCAINE KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 5 WEED NBOME SPEED KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 6 WEED LSD COCAINE KETAMINE MDMA OPIUM 7 WEED NBOME COCAINE KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 8 WEED LSD SPEED KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 9 WEED LSD COCAINE METHOXETHAMINE MDMA HEROIN 10 CONCENTRATE LSD SPEED KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 11 HASH LSD COCAINE KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 12 WEED LSD SPEED KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 13 WEED NBOME SPEED METHOXETHAMINE MDMA HEROIN 14 WEED LSD SPEED KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 15 HASH Mescaline SPEED KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 16 WEED LSD METH KETAMINE MDMA OPIUM 17 HASH LSD COCAINE METHOXETHAMINE MDMA HEROIN 18 SEEDS LSD SPEED KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 19 OIL LSD SPEED KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 20 CONCENTRATE LSD SPEED KETAMINE MDMA OPIUM 21 WEED NBOME METH METHOXETHAMINE MDMA HEROIN 22 WEED 2C-B COCAINE METHOXETHAMINE MDMA HEROIN 23 WEED LSD SPEED KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 24 WEED LSD COCAINE KETAMINE MDMA OPIUM 25 WEED LSD METH KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 26 WEED LSD COCAINE KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 27 HASH LSD COCAINE KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 28 HASH LSD COCAINE KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 29 WEED 2C-B MEPHEDRONE KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 30 WEED 2C-I METH KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 31 WEED DMT SPEED METHOXETHAMINE MDMA HEROIN 32 CONCENTRATE LSD MEPHEDRONE KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 33 EDIBLE LSD COCAINE KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 34 CONCENTRATE LSD SPEED KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 35 WEED 2C-B COCAINE KETAMINE MDMA OPIUM 36 WEED SHROOMS SPEED KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 37 WEED 2C.B COCAINE KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 38 WEED LSD METH METHOXETHAMINE MDMA HEROIN 39 EDIBLE DMT COCAINE KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 40 EDIBLE LSD COCAINE KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 41 HASH SHROOMS COCAINE KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 42 HASH DMT SPEED KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 43 WEED LSD METH KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 44 HASH LSD SPEED METHOXETHAMINE MDMA OPIUM 45 HASH LSD METH KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 46 WEED DMT COCAINE KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 47 EDIBLE NBOME COCAINE KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 48 CONCENTRATE LSD COCAINE KETAMINE MDMA HEROIN 49 HASH LSD COCAINE METHOXETHAMINE MDMA HEROIN 50 HASH SHROOMS COCAINE KETAMINE MDMA OPIUM CANNABIS PSYCHEDELICS STIMULANTS DISSOCIATIVES MDMA OPIOIDS
  17. 17. 1 SHROOMS 1 2 LSD 1 3 DMT 2 4 DMT 1 5 NBOME 10 6 LSD 5 7 NBOME 100 8 LSD 10 9 LSD 5 10 LSD 1 11 LSD 2 12 LSD 5 13 NBOME 50 14 LSD 1 15 Mescaline 5 16 LSD 1 17 LSD 10 18 LSD 1 19 LSD 1 20 LSD 1 21 NBOME 10 22 2C-B 10 23 LSD 5 24 LSD 10 25 LSD 1 26 LSD 1 27 LSD 1 28 LSD 3 29 2C-B 2 30 2C-I 5 31 DMT 2 32 LSD 5 33 LSD 3 34 LSD 5 35 2C-B 5 36 SHROOMS 3 37 2C.B 10 38 LSD 5 39 DMT 1 40 LSD 25 41 SHROOMS 5 42 DMT 1 43 LSD 10 44 LSD 5 45 LSD 1 46 DMT 10 47 NBOME 100 48 LSD 1 49 LSD 5 50 SHROOMS 5 PSYCHEDELICS DOSAGES
  18. 18. DISCUSSION • On-line drug markets are an emergent tendency that must be followed and monitored • Internet and on-line markets can provide valuable information about NPS • It is possible to detect very limited phenomena • In “free market conditions” drug users choose preferently “classic drugs” than NPS • Limitations: • Are data reliable? • Are data extrapolable to other on-line markets? • Do NPS users buy drugs in on-line markets? • Can NPS be used as adulterants to classical drugs?
  19. 19. CONCLUSIONS • NPS are present in Silk Road • There is a wide offer of NPS available to users, but, in general, they prefer classical drugs. • Methoxetamine and 25-x-NBOMe seem the most popular substances in their cathegories. Importance of synthetic cannabinoids seem limited. • Some NPS are being sold in great amounts, possibly indicating drug traffic instead of personal use • It is important to pay attention to online drug markets, as emergent tendencies.

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