Testador paramétrico de transistores - Implementing a Parametric Transitor tester

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Detalhes de implementação de um sistema de teste de transitores om controlo de temperatura.
Peltier control and transistor testing

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Testador paramétrico de transistores - Implementing a Parametric Transitor tester

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  81. 81. ',,, " ** % 1!$' 1 &"** %'(* ' 1 "** 1& - '' - ''" # # -*"! # '" #"1 !; B; &566-7/ " > %% & A M * "! 1"1$ ''" # / A 1" #"!# ) 1 1"1$ "B* ''" # / A d 1" #"!# ) 1 1"1$ "B* .$ !; / A d 1" #"!# ) 1 1"1$ ,% 1 ! .$ !; / A d # 1%C%-"1% .$ !; / A ( !"1% '(* 1 ''" # / A d ( !"1% '(* 1 .$ !; / A 1 ''" # / A !)%- 7$ 1 "B* ''" # / A d !)%- 7$ 1 "B* .$ !; / A Vd "# 1"1$ V;1 .$ !; / A d *C 1 .$ !; / Ae e"%1 1 1% $ ''" # / 1 # 02 3( / & / D &% $B ; 1 ' &" 1& C$ -1% C ( !C !'% , ; 1 ' -"*%B!"1% / 1!$' 1 M%B!"1% - ''" # 1 # 1 B ) !; -*" ( -%C%-/ $-& - ''" # (! ( !*; B * , % 6 *$' f 1!$' 1 *" g/ & ! C ! 2 (" # # - ''" # C ! - 1! **% , % 1!$' 1 -"*%B!"1% '"; 1 B C $ # % 6 *$' f ''" # C ! - g/ E,FG8 3 3",<, !8 " >8<,& M%B!"1% _ W= MMX W ) 1Q 7$ !;X W= MMXd W ) 1Q 7$ !;X / H@3((I B 5 J BB _ & M%B!"1 = MM - ''" # ( !C !' 1& "' C$ -1% " 1& M%B!"1 = MMd - (1 1& ! % ! ( / % 1!$' 1 &"** ! ( !1 -"*%B!"1% !! ! 1&! $,& 1& 1"1$ ! ( !1% , ' -&" % '/ _ C 1&% - ''" # % %'(* ' 1 # " ) !*"(( # %1 &"** B % -*$# # % 1& ( !"1% #% , C*", ? / -&"(1 ! >/ _ e&%* 1&% - ''" # % -$1% , 1& M%B!"1% , B%1 C 1& ( !"1% 1"1$ #%1% ! ,% 1 ! &"** B 1 ? / C ; 1" h 1;* >/ !" 5 66 7 B 5 J BBK & MMd 7$ !; ( !C !' " C$** -"*%B!"1% C 1& % 1!$' 1 " # ! ( # F%1& " i $' !%-)"*$ j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e !2 6 M ", 2 .$ -;2 " # % 1" - - 1"% ) !"* 1 C - ''" # F&%-& &") - '(* - $(*% , / &% % -*$# 1& F ( - ''" # 12 2 !2 " # " 12 " # M%1$# 2 12 E 4E2 " # M e " " 1& !/ #% , " ; C " 1 % ,*; F%** "CC -1 1F 1& ! C 1& 1/ E F ) !2 %C 1F "! 1 % " % ,* ' ", $ %12 1& 1& 1F & $*# B 1 1 1& )"*$ ( -%C% # " # 1& 1& ! 1F -&" , #/ &% % % "-- !#" - F%1& 1& 1;* ,$%# *% " # &566-7/ 12 2 !2 " # '$ 1 B %'(* ' 1 # " " 1/ &"1 % 2 %C " ; % %'(* ' 1 #2 1& "** '$ 1 B %'(* ' 1 #/ C 1& ! 7$ 1 # 11% , % $ "-&% )"B* ,%) 1& 1& ! % 1!$' 1 11% , 2 1& " !! ! '$ 1 B , !"1 # ? f 11% , - C*%-1g>/ & # )%- '"; ! *) 1& - C*%-1 % " # )%- # ( # 1 '" ! ?C ! "'(* 2 -&" , 12 2 !2 " #K ! > 1 ! *) 1& !! !/ 1 1&"1 F& ' ! 1&" C 1& C $! F ( 11% , "! ! - %) # % 1& "' (! ,!"' ' ", $ %12 1& F ( F%** B # 1 !'% # B; 1& *" 1 1F ! - %) #/ & - $(* # - ''" # '"; # C% - ''" # " $B # F&%-& "*1 ! 1& - $(*% , / & - ''" # # -!%(1% F%** # C% & F 1& - $(*% , "! "*1 ! #/ E F ) !2 " ; - ''" # F&%-& "*1 ! - $(*% , '$ 1 # C"$*1 1 1& - $(*% , # -!%B # % 1&% -1% " 1& A - $(*% , / e& ! ! % -&" , # 1& C ** F% , - $(*% , "((*;= 5 ! 5 !9 " ! ( 9 &8# E DJ W= L - X = * !"1% L = L E = V% = -1% L 78 = L 1 L = = = .$ -; = L = L 1% =M = _ ! L = E L = = e ! L = LM = LM = % 1" - L
  83. 83. = %**"1 ! = # L = e ( L = !"1$! M =6 M ", L 9 1888 & ' 9 920 NO$ J # & / D NO$ J O$$ &% $B -1% - 1! * 1& %, "* "'(*%1$# -&"!"-1 !% 1%- C 1& $!- / & ! % *; $B ; 1 ' C ! "-& C 1& '"% "'(*%1$# -&"!"-1 !% 1%- C 1& %, "*/ &$ 2 ) *1", " # ) *1", "! B 1& (*"- # $ # ! 1& 6 M ", $B ; 1 '/ # )%- F&%-& %'(* ' 1 # B 1& %'$*1" $ *; F $*# %'(* ' 1 1& ' " 1F ("!"1 $!- 2 " # / E,FG8 3 3",<, !8 " 8"",><& = L 1 W=M 6 *X W= #%"1 X W= M%1$# X i $' !%-)"*$ j = L iV * " jk L 0 = 1 i $' !%-)"*$ j =E 4E i $' !%-)"*$ j =M e i $' !%-)"*$ j = 4, ! # W= M%1$# X i $' !%-)"*$ j = 1 i $' !%-)"*$ j =E 4E i $' !%-)"*$ j =M e i $' !%-)"*$ j L 77 =M %1 W= M%1$# X i $' !%-)"*$ j = 1 i $' !%-)"*$ j =E 4E i $' !%-)"*$ j =M e i $' !%-)"*$ j = iV * " j = $"* i $' !%-)"*$ j = 0 #k e (kM = -1% W=M 6 *X i $' !%-)"*$ j = = ( #d W7$ !; *;X "7 1888 & ' 9 NO$ J O$$ 92 8 9! !0 56 NO$ J O$$ JBI& &% $B ; 1 ' % $ # 1 - 1! * 1& %, "* "'(*%1$# F& 1& $!- % ( !"1% , % " - 1% $ $ ! 0 # / H@'"" I NO$ J O$$ JBI& J#33 #%-"1 1&"1 1& $B 7$ 1 ( -%C%-"1% C " F %, "* "'(*%1$# % 1 B (! - # B; 1& # )%- F%1& $1 F"%1% , C ! C$!1& ! - ''" # / "7 1888 & ' 9 NO$ J O$$ 92 9 <," & / D :&&* NO$ J I3 &% $B ; 1 ' - 1! * 1& 1 '( !"1$! C " )%! ' 1"* -&"'B !/
  84. 84. E,FG8 3 3",<, !8 " 8"",><& = !"1$! 1888 & ' 9 92 NO$ J I3 ?8(< & / D NO$ J&NB P &% $B -1% - 1! * 1& %, "* "'(*%1$# -&"!"-1 !% 1%- C 1& $!- / & ! % *; $B ; 1 ' C ! "-& C 1& '"% "'(*%1$# -&"!"-1 !% 1%- C 1& %, "*/ &$ 2 ) *1", " # ) *1", "! B 1& (*"- # $ # ! 1& 6 M ", $B ; 1 '/ # )%- F&%-& %'(* ' 1 # B 1& %'$*1" $ *; F $*# %'(* ' 1 1& ' " 1F ("!"1 $!- 2 " # / E,FG8 3 3",<, !8 " 8"",><& =6 M ", = -1% W=M 6 *X i $' !%-)"*$ j "7 1888 & ' 9 NO$ J&NB P 929 % @, & / D Q JI$$ &% $B ; 1 ' - ** -1 - ''" # " # 7$ !% ! *"1% , 1 1& ! "#% , " # - 1! * C 1& !! !K ) 1 7$ $ / & !! !K ) 1 7$ $ - 1"% %1 ' 1&"1 % -*$# " $' !%-"* " # 1 1$"* # -!%(1% C 1& !! ! ! ) 1/ .$ !;% , C ! 1& C$** 7$ $ %1 ' ?C ! "'(* 2 F%1& [ '= !W= 0 Xd> F%** ! 1$! " ! ( F%1& 1& C ** F% , ; 1" = & i !! !K ) 1 $'B !j % " $ %7$ % 1 , ! % 1& !" , W 2 X/ ** ( %1%) $'B ! "! % 1!$' 1 # ( # 1/ ** ,"1%) $'B ! "! ! !) # B; 1& 1" #"!# F%1& - !1"% 1" #"!# !! !K ) 1 - # # -!%B # % 1&% # -$' 1/ & )"*$ 2 @ ! 2 % "* ! !) # 1 % #%-"1 1&"1 !! ! ! ) 1 &" --$!! #/ & - # ("!"' 1 ! C 1& C$** ! ( % " 7$ 1 # 1!% , - 1"% % , " i !! !K ) 1# -!%(1% j C ** F # B; (1% "* i )%- # ( # 1 % C j 1 1/ "-& i !! !K ) 1 $'B !j &" " $ %7$ " # C% # i !! !K ) 1# -!%(1% j " -%"1 # F%1& %1/ & '" %'$' 1!% , * ,1& C i !! !K ) 1# -!%(1% j (*$ i )%- # ( # 1% C j % -&"!"-1 ! / ! 1" #"!# # C% # !! !K ) 1 - # 2 1& i !! !K ) 1# -!%(1% j &"** B 1 "-1*; " % #%-"1 # % 1&% # -$' 1 % -*$#% , -" / & i )%- # ( # 1% C j 1 1 % (1% "* B$1 '"; B $ C$* % ' % 1!$' 1 1 (! )%# "##%1% "* % C !'"1% "** F% , 1& $ ! 1 # 1 !'% 1& "-1 !! ! ! ) 1 " # %1 - 1 1/ C $ #2 %1 % 1 CC C! ' 1& i !! !K ) 1# -!%(1% j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f.$ $ ) !C* Fg ' ", / "#% , " !! !K ) 1 C! ' 1& & "# C 1& 7$ $ ! ' ) 1&"1 !! !K ) 1 C! ' 1& 7$ $ 2 " # ( " ( %1% "1 1& 1"%* C 1& 7$ $ C ! " F !! !K ) 12 %C % $B 7$ 1*; # 1 -1 #/ > " e& "** !! ! K ) 1 &") B ! "# C! ' 1& 7$ $ 2 C$!1& ! !! !K ) 1 7$ !% &"** ! 1$! ( % &&%&)
  85. 85. C1 ! " $ = 12 1& '" :% , &"** B -&" , # 1&"1 *; !! ! "! ! ( !1 #/ V * F % " ) !)% F C & F 1& ! ; 1 ' F !: / > " & !! !K ) 1 7$ $ &"** B -* "! # F& " ; C 1& C ** F% , --$! ? &566-72 -1% / / / >= L( ! - %(1 C " A M - ''" #/ L( ! "#% , 1& *" 1 %1 ' C! ' 1& 7$ $ / % , =,9 / & ; 1 ' # C% # !! !K ) 1 $'B ! "! -& " $' !"1 # ?f C g> B" % / & # C% # !! !K ) 1 $'B ! " # 1& i !! !K ) 1# -!%(1% j ( !1% C 1& C$** 7$ $ %1 ' "! *% 1 # & ! / & C%! 1 !! !K ) 1 # -!%B # % "-& -*" ?C ! "'(* 2 2 2 2 > % " f, !%-g !! !/ * -1% , 1& (! ( ! !! !K ) 1 $'B ! 1 ! ( !12 ' ! ( -%C%- !! !K ) 1 - # "! (! C !! #2 " # 1& , !%- !! !K ) 1 % $ # *; %C 1& 1& ! "! % "((! (!%"1 / > " 1 1& !," %@"1% C 1& C ** F% , 1"B* / f %'(* '% # #g ("! ! '%,&1 %'(* ' 1 *; 1& 00 !! ! 2 " # " '"!1 ! '%,&1 %'(* ' 1 "** C 1& '/ f '"!1 " # C!% #*;g ("! ! '%,&1 $ 1& % 1!$' 1 # ( # 1 ("!1 C 1& !! !K ) 1 ' ", 1!% , 1 ( % 1 $1 1& CC #% , ("!1 C 1& - ''" #/ % > , &% ' ", % #%-"1 1&"1 1& # )%- &" !! ! ! ) 1 1 ! ( !1/ > " , > / , H = 2 = 2 I !! ! W & 7$ $ % - '( 1 *; '(1;/ ) !; !! !K ) 1 % 1& 7$ $ &" B ! "# ! 1& 7$ $ F" ($!( *; -* "! # B; ( F ! 2 A M 2 1-/X % % H>,:<IL Q JI$$ CJ*IM D [ '= !W= 0 Xd 7$ !% 1& !! !K ) 1 7$ $ C ! 1& 1 %1 ' " # ! ' ) %1 C! ' 1& 7$ $ / & ! ( ! 1$! 1& C$** 7$ $ %1 ' - % 1% , C " % 1 , ! " # " 1!% , " # -!%B # % 1& % 1! #$-1% 1 1& [ '= ! $B ; 1 '/ &% - ''" # % ! 7$%! # C "** %'(* ' 1"1% ? ; 1" " # 1;* 2 / / / % , i !! !K ) 1 $'B !j % 1& !" , W 2 X % #%-"1 1&"1 " &566-7& ; 1"
  86. 86. !! ! &" B # 1 -1 # B; 1& % 1!$' 1l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d 7$ !% 1& !! !K ) 1 7$ $ C ! 1& 1 %1 ' " # ! ' ) %1 C! ' 1& 7$ $ / & ! ( ! 1$! 1& C$** 7$ $ %1 ' - % 1% , C " % 1 , ! " # " 1!% , " # -!%B # % 1& % 1! #$-1% 1 1& [ '= ! $B ; 1 '/ &% - ''" # % ! 7$%! # C "** %'(* ' 1"1% ? ; 1" " # 1;* 2 / / / , i !! !K ) 1 $'B !j % 1& !" , W 2 X % #%-"1 1&"1 " &566-7& ; 1" !! ! &" B # 1 -1 # B; 1& % 1!$' 1l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i j C !'"11 # $' !%- )"*$ - !! ( #% , 1 1& ) ! % $'B ! C ! F&%-& 1& % 1!$' 1 - '(*% / & ! ( &"** &") 1& C !' 4444- &F& ! 1& [ ! (! 1 1& ; "! ) ! % ?%/ / > " # 1& 6 ! (! 1 " "((! ) # ! )% % $'B ! C ! 1&"1 ; "!/ C "((! ) # ! )% % "! -*"%' #2 1& 1&% 1 % &"** B / ,1 2 / : 0 8
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