tecnologia 3º A fermin rodirugez jose luis astasio
● HOW TO BUILD A BUILDING
From ancient times to nowadays
builders have used a wide variety
of construction materials: stone,
cement, mortar, concrete, plaster,
Stone is an ancient natural material, that we
extract from quarries.Many differents types of
rocks are used, such us , slate, granite or
marble.Stone stil has several uses as a
contruction material.Stone can be shaped into
blocks or into panels.
Cement is a blinder. It is a
dry powder that blinds other
materials together.Cement is
a mixture of ground and
baked minerals, oxides, and
something other substances.
Depending on which mineral
and oxides we put in the mix
and in what percentage, the
properties of cement are
Portlan cement is considered to
be the standard mixture.
The first step in making cement
is to grind chalk and limestone.
Then the grind chalk and
limestone are calcinated at
1450ºC in an oven called kiln.
The calcinated ground is called
clinker.The clinker is the ground
with a bit of gypsum.Then all the
ingredients are mixed with the
clinker and the gypsum
Mortar is a mixture of cement, sand and water. it´s
best to mix the cement and the sand first because
they mix more easily without water. When we add
water it becomes a paste. When cement and
water come into contac they start a chemical
reaction called “setting”.
Concrete is mortar whith
added pebbles, so it is a
mixture of cement, water
and pebbles. The pebbles
make the concrete stronger
than the mortar.
Reinforced concrete is
concrete with steel bars
inside it. Concrete has
good resistance to
compression but not to
tension and steel has a
good resistance to both
Plaster is a soft solid that we normally use for
aesthetic purpose, to cover brick walls which have
a rough surface. Plaster foam is used as
Fire-resistance material. Plaster comes from
gypsum :gypsum is mixed with water, it becomes
a paste and we can spread it on interior walls.
1.1Ceramic is made from clay.
Clay is a mass of very small particles of
rock.We normally use the best clay we
can find in the same country of the
contruction to reduce costs.
1.2 The most common ceramic
product are bricks. Other ceramic
materials are tiles, such as roofing
tiles, walls tiles, and floor tiles. Walls
and floor tiles are coated with
porcelain. Porcelain is much
harder , it gives a soft surface, and it
is completely waterproof.
1º-Moulding: The first step in making ceramics is
to give the clay the required shape. We make a
mould with the negative shape of a brick, then we
fill the mould with clay. The mould goes through a
kiln on a conveyor belt .
2º-Drying: When the water evaporates, the clay
becomes hard, but if water is added, it becomes
soft again. Drying the clay can be done under the
sun or with fans.
3º-Firing: Firing is done in a kiln, at temperatures
between1000ºC and 1600ºC. After firing, the
material is ceramic: the tiny bits of rocks have
now bonded together.
The Stages of construction aThe Stages of construction a
Preliminary Work is BegunPreliminary Work is Begun
Plans are chosen, materials are ordered,
and our Superintendents secure has all
necessary permits required to begin the
building process. A schedule that will be
adjusted and revised many times is begun.
Foundations are pouredFoundations are poured
Each home site is graded and staked. Form
boards are meticulously measured and
placed, the plumbing lines are run, and
inspection officials are called. Once
approved, we pour the concrete foundation.
Frames are RaisedFrames are Raised
We start framing the exterior and interior
walls then raise the roof trusses and any
stairs. We attach wall sheathing to enclose
the home and roof sheathing over the
Exterior Finishes are AppliedExterior Finishes are Applied
Roofing materials and attic vents are
installed. Windows and exterior doors are
set into place and façade materials, such as
brick and siding, are applied. Finally, exterior
trim and accents are added.
Mechanical Systems are InstalleMechanical Systems are Installe
The plumbing, heating & air, and electrical
systems are “roughed-in” at this stage.
Bathtubs and shower units are installed.
Ends of pipes, wiring, and ductwork are left
exposed for completion later. At the end of
this stage, each home is inspected closely
by a SHB superintendent and the local
building inspection official.