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R speech ppt

  1. 1. Quoted speech is EXACTLY what theperson said.If we report what another person hassaid, we usually do not use the speaker’sexact words (direct speech), butreported (indirect) speech.
  2. 2. QuotespeechverbsReportedspeechverbsPresentPresent continuosPresent perfectSimple pastFutureCanMightMustPast simplePast continuosPast perfectPast perfectConditionalCouldMightHad to
  3. 3. QuotespeechReporterspeechIWeMyUsTomorrowYesterdayHe or sheTheyHis or herTheirThe next dayThe day before
  4. 4. Direct Speach Reported Speech´I always buy organic food.’ He said he always bought organicfoof.´I´m going to see my mothertommorrow.’She told me she was going to seeher mother the next day.´I´ve passed my exams.’ He said he had passed his exams.´We saw her at the station.’ They said they had seen her at thestation.´I´ll meet you here.’ He said he would meet me there.‘I can´t hear you.’ She said she couldn´t hear me.‘We might be late.’ They said they might be late.‘I must leave at midday.’ He said he had to leave at midday.
  5. 5. • If we report what another person has said, we usually do not use the speaker’s exact words (direct speech)• Quoted Speech: Is exactly what the personsaid.
  6. 6. • Examples of Reported Speech and QuotedSpeech:• Video
  7. 7. • When we change the statement, we checkwhat we have to change:• pronouns• present tense verbs (3rd person singular)• place and time expressions• tenses (backshift)
  8. 8. • Sometimes we need to change the pronoun. – Direct speech: Jane: "I dont like living here." (Jane is referring to herself)Reported speech: Jane said (that) she didnt like living here. (The pronoun she refers to Jane.• We may also need to change other words about place and time. – Direct speech: "I like this car." Reported speech: He said (that) he liked that car.– Direct speech: "I went to Tokyo last week." Reported speech: She said (that) shed been to Tokyo the week before.
  9. 9. •Example:Peter: "I cleaned the black shoes yesterday."Peter told me that ________________________________________Answer:Peter told me that he had cleaned the black shoes the day before.•Toggle example1) Emily: "Our teacher will go to Leipzig tomorrow."Emily said that .2) Helen: "I was writing a letter yesterday."Helen told me that .3) Robert: "My father flew to Dallas last year."Robert told me that .4) Lisa: "Tim went to the stadium an hour ago."Lisa said that .ReportedReporteden708
  10. 10. • 5) Patricia: "My mother will celebrate her birthday next weekend."Patricia said that .6) Michael: "I am going to read a book this week."Michael said to me that .7) Jason and Victoria: "We will do our best in the exams tomorrow."Jason and Victoria told me that .8) Andrew: "We didnt eat fish two days ago."Andrew remarked that .9) Alice: "I spent all my pocket money on Monday."Alice complained that .10) David: "John had already gone at six."David said that .
  11. 11. DIRECT SPEECH ‐REPORTED SPEECHJoaquín Sánchez 
  12. 12. • If we report what another person has said, weusually do not use the speaker’s exact words(direct speech), but reported (indirect)speech. Therefore, you need to learn how totransform direct speech into reported speech.The structure is a little different depending onwhether you want to transform a statement,question or request.• We use a reporting verb like say or tell .DIRECT SPEECH ‐ REPORTED SPEECH 
  13. 13. Present simple – Past simple"Hes American," she said.  She said he wasAmerican.Present Continuous – Past Continuos“Dan is living in San Francisco”, she said  She said Dan was living in San Francisco.Past Simple ‐ Past Perfect Simple"We went to the movies last night," he said  He told me they had gone to the movies last night.DIRECT SPEECH ‐ REPORTED SPEECH 
  14. 14. • Present Perfect Simple Past Perfect Simple"Have you worked here before?“  I asked her whether shed worked there before. • Present Perfect Continuous Past PerfectContinuous.Steve said, "weve been dating for over a year now”.  Steve told me that theyd been dating for over a year.DIRECT SPEECH ‐ REPORTED SPEECH 
  15. 15. • Past Perfect Simple ‐ Past Perfect Simple (No Change)Id been to Chicago before for work, he said.  He said that hed been to Chicago before for work.Past Perfect Continuous ‐ Past Perfect continuous (No change)She said, "Id been dancing for years before the accident.“  She said shed been dancing for years before the accident.DIRECT SPEECH ‐ REPORTED SPEECH 
  16. 16. Will – would“Ill see you later” She said she would see me later.Would – Would (No Change)I would help, but She said she would help but...Can – CouldI can speak perfect English She said she could speak perfect English.DIRECT SPEECH ‐ REPORTED SPEECH 
  17. 17. • Could ‐ Could (No Change)“I could swim when I was four”  She said she could swim when she was four. • Shall  ‐ Shall (No Change)“I shall come later”  She said she would come later. • Should‐ Should (No Change)“I should call my mother”  She said she should call her mother • Might ‐ might (No Change)"I might be late" She said she might be late must “• Must – Must / Had toI must study at the weekend" She said she must study at the weekend OR She said she had to study at the weekend.DIRECT SPEECH ‐ REPORTED SPEECH 
  18. 18. • Occasionally, we dont need to change thepresent tense into the past if the information indirect speech is still true (but this is only forthings which are general facts, and even thenusually we like to change the tense):• Direct speech: “The sky is blue”• Reported speech: She said that the sky is/wasblueDIRECT SPEECH ‐ REPORTED SPEECH 
  19. 19. Reported Questions• Its not so different from reported statements. The tense changes are the same, and we keep the question word. The very important thing though is that, once we tell the question to someone else, it isnt a question any more. So we need to change the grammar to a normal positive sentence.
  20. 20. REPORTED QUESTIONS• Direct speech: "Where do you live?"• Reported speech: She asked me where I lived.• Direct speech: "where is Julie?"• Reported speech: She asked me where Julie was.
  21. 21. TIME EXPRESSIONS WITH REPORTED SPEECHSometimes when we change direct speech into reported speech we have to change time expressions too. We dont always have to do this, however. It depends on when we heard the direct speech and when we say the reported speech.Now  then / at that time Today  yesterday / that day / Tuesday / the 27th of June Yesterday  the day before yesterday / the day before / Wednesday / the 5th of December Last night  the night before, Thursday night Last week   the week before / the previous week Tomorrow  today / the next day / the following day / Friday 
  22. 22. Reported Speech (Indirect Speech)David & Judá
  23. 23. Why we use reported speech?• If we report what another person has said, we usually DO NOT USE the speaker’s EXACTwords (direct speech), but reported (indirect) speech. • Verbal changes
  24. 24. Differences between them(examples)Type Exampledirect speech “I speak English.” reported speech(no backshift) He says that he speaks English. reported speech(backshift)He said that he spoke English. 
  25. 25. Questions• When transforming questions, check whether you have to change…• Also note that you have to:– transform the question into an indirect question– use the interrogative or if / whetherType Example with interrogative direct speech “Why don’t you speak English?” reported speech He asked me why I didn’t speak Englishwithout interrogative direct speech “Do you speak English?” reported speech He asked me whether / if I spoke English.
  26. 26. Requests• Before you begin, check:• pronouns• place and time expressionsType Exampledirect speech Carol, speak Englishreported speech He told Carol to speak English
  27. 27. A reported Speech situation
  28. 28. Activities• Which is the correct ending of the sentence in Reported speech? Choose from the dropdown menu and mind the tenses of the reporting verbs.1) Benjamin: "I often have a big hamburger."Benjamin says (that) …2) Hannah: "They live in Boston."Hannah said (that)…3) Tyler: "Ian doesnt invite girls to his parties."Tyler told me (that) …4) Dominic: "She understands Japanese."Dominic remarks (that) …5) Sophia: "Bella doesnt collect stickers."Sophia explains (that) …
  29. 29. Quoted Speech• Quoted speech is EXACTLY what the person said.Examples:Quoted Speech (EXACT)  Reported Speech (NOT EXACT) Joshua said, "I love eating chocolate ice cream after dinner." Joshua said that he loved eating chocolate ice cream after dinner
  30. 30. ActivitiesThe following sentences use quoted speech.  Change the followingsentences from quoted speech to reported speech.  Then see below toget the answers and the explanations.• 1.) James said, “I am watching TV.” ___________________________________________________ • 2.) Professor Jones said, “I worked all day!” ___________________________________________________ • 3.) The president said, “I will be visiting Italy in December.” ___________________________________________________ • 4.) The weatherman announced, “It may rain today.” ___________________________________________________ • 5.) My father screamed, “I have to go to the airport, now!” ___________________________________________________ 
  31. 31. Rules to Remember! 1 There are no quotation marks (“”) in reported speech.2 In reported speech, you may use the word that after the word said, but it is optional. 3 The grammar learned here for reported speech is for statements but NOT FOR QUESTIONS.  The grammar for questions in reported speech is different and will be learned in a future MyEnglishTeacher.net English lesson. 4 Quoted speech is exactly what the person said, so be careful not to misquote the person.  Reported speech is NOT exactly what the person said, so you can change some words to make the sentence appropriate and logically correct.  Be careful NOT to change the meaning. 
  32. 32. Quoted speech vs. Reported speechBy Juan Antonio and Jesus
  33. 33. Definition and Comparasion• Quoted speech is exactly what the person say.Example: John said: “I need to take a taxi”.• Reported speech: We use the Reported Speech to report what someone siadearlier.Example: John said that he needed to take a taxi.COMPARATIONIf we report what another person has said, we usually do not use the speaker’s exact words.
  34. 34. VERB TENSES, PRONOUNS and OTHER CHANGESVerb tenses.• Present Simple → Past SimpleI play tennis every weeks → He said that he played tennis every weeks.• Present Continuous → Past ContinuosI´m working with Jesus in class → He said that he was working with Jesus…• Present Perfect → Past PerfectWe have been on the beach → They said that they had been on the beach.• Past Simple → Past PerfectI saw them at the park → He said he had seen them at the park.
  35. 35. • Pronouns and other changesThere may be other chnages to pronouns, possessive adjectives, andreferences of time or place.i´ll go → She said she would go.It´s my car → He said it was his car.We´ll see you tomorrow → They said they would see us the next day.I´ll be there → They said she would be there.
  36. 36. Quoted speech or direct speech withexamplesExamples• Present Simple → Past SimpleHe likes go out at night → He told that he liked go out at night• Present Continuous → Past ContinuosWe are talking about the football match → They said that theywere talking about the football match.• Present Perfect → Past PerfectWe have visited Paris → They said that they had visited Paris.• Past Simple → Past PerfectI bought some bread yesterday → He said he had boughtsome bread yesterday.
  37. 37. Sara Castellanos Cantos
  38. 38. What it is? If we report what another person has said, we usuallydo not use the speaker’s exact words (direct speech), but reported(indirect) speech.CHANGES:When transforming questions, you have to change: pronouns,verbs, places and expression and tenses-For example: Direct speech: -“Why don’t you speak English?”Reported speech: - He asked me why I didn’t speakEnglishWe change request:-For example: “Play it again, Sam," she said→ She asked Samto play it again.
  39. 39. Statements◦ If the introductory sentence starts in the present, there isno backshift of tenses in Reported speech.Example: Direct speech: Susan: "I work in an office."Reported speech: Susan says (that) she works inan office.◦ If the introductory sentence starts in the past ,there is oftenbackshift of tenses in Reported speech.Example: "I work in an office."Susan said (that) she worked in an office.◦ If the sentence contains an expression of time, you mustchange it as wellExample: Peter: "I worked in the garden yesterday."Peter said that he had worked in the garden theday before.
  40. 40. What it is? Saying what someone has said is called directspeech (sometimes called quoted speech).Here what a person says appears within quotation marks("...") and should be word for word.For example: She said, "Todays lesson is on presentations."
  41. 41. Direct speech Indirect speechPresent simple:She said, "Its cold."Past simple:She said it was coldPresent continuous:She said, "Im teaching Englishonline."Past continuous:She said she was teaching Englishonline.Present perfect simple:She said, "Ive been on the websince 1999."Past perfect simpleShe said she had been on the websince 1999.Present perfect continuous:She said, "Ive been teachingEnglish for seven years”Past perfect continuous:She said she had been teachingEnglish for seven years.Past simple :She said, "I taught onlineyesterday."Past perfect :She said she had taught onlineyesterday.
  42. 42. In reported speech, the pronoun often changes.For example:ME YOU"I teach English online."Direct speech: She said,"I teach English online."Reported SpeechShe said she teachesEnglish online.
  43. 43. There are five different:◦ Quoted speech has quotation marks; reported speech doesnot use quotation marks.◦ In reported speech, the pronoun often changes.◦ In reported speech, the word that is often used after said,but that is optional.◦ Quoted speech is exactly what the person said.◦ The verb in reported speech is changed to the past
  44. 44. Reported Speech definition: If we report what another person has said, we usually do not use the speaker’s exact words (direct speech), but reported (indirect) speech.Quoted speech definition: Quoted speech is EXACTLY what the person said.
  45. 45. Different changes in verbal tenses, pronouns and othersQUOTED SPEECH • Present Simple• Present Continuos• Past simple• Past Continuos• Present Perfect• Past Perfect• Will• Can• MayREPORTED SPEECH• Past Simple /• Past Continuos• Past Perfect• Past Continuos• Past Perfect• Past Perfect• Would• Could• Might
  46. 46. Quoted speech or direct speech with examples QUOTED SPEECH• "I cook rice every day.". • "I am cooking rice.• "I cooked rice.”• "I have cooked rice.“• "I had cooked rice." • "I will cook rice”• "I am going to cook rice." • "I can cook rice." • "I may cook rice." • "I must cook rice." • "I have to cook rice." • "I should cook rice." • "I ought to cook rice." • "I might cook rice." REPORTED SPEECH• Jordan said that she cooked rice every day. • Jordan said that she was cooking rice. • Jordan said that she had cooked rice. • Jordan said that she had cooked rice. • Jordan said that she had cooked rice. • Jordan said that she would cook rice. • Jordan said that she was going to cook rice. • Jordan said that she could cook rice. • Jordan said that she might cook rice. • Jordan said that she had to cook rice. • Jordan said that she had to cook rice. • Jordan said that she should cook rice. • Jordan said that she ought to cook rice. • Jordan said that she might cook rice.
  47. 47. Question into an indirect questionQUOTED SPEECH • “Why don’t you speak English?” • “Do you speak English?”REPORTED SPEECH• He asked me why I didn’t speak English• He asked me whether / if I spoke English
  48. 48. Definition and Comparasion
  49. 49. DefinitionQuoted Speech.‐ It isused to express what a person have exactlysaid in a moment withexactly the same words.Eg.‐ “I alwaysbuy organicfood”Reported Speech.‐ It isused to report whatsomeone said earlier. Eg.‐ He said he always boughtorganic food.
  50. 50. Comparison• Eg.‐ She said (that) she would meet there.• Eg.‐ She said she would meet there.• Eg‐ “I’ll meet you here”‐ She said that she would meet there.• Eg‐ “I’ll meet you here”Quoted speech has quotation marks; reported speech does notuse quotation marks.In reported speech, the pronoun often changes.In reported speech, the word that is often used after said, but thatis optional. The verb in reported speech is changed to the past; some modal verbs do not change.
  51. 51. The different changes in verbal tenses Quoted Speech Reported Speech“I always buy organic food” He said he always bought organicfood“ I’m going to see my mothertomorrow”She told me she was going to see hermother the next day“ I’ve passed my exam” He said he had passed his exam“We saw her at the station” They said they had seen her at thestation“ I’ll meet you here” He said he would meet me there“I can’t hear you” She said she couldn’t hear me“We might be late” They said they might be late“ I must be at midday” He said he had to leave at midday
  52. 52. QUOTED SPEECH ‐ REPORTED SPEECH DefinitionComparisonVerb tenses, pronouns and changesExamples
  53. 53. QUOTED SPEECH ‐ REPORTED SPEECHQuoted Speech (Direct): A report of the exact wordsused by a speaker or writer.It writes between quotationReported Speech (Indirect): is used to communicatewhat someone else said, but without using the exactwords.
  54. 54. TENSESDirect ReportedPresent simple Past simplePresent continuous Past continuousPresent perfect Past perfectSimple past PastperfectPast perfect Past perfectWill WouldCan, may, would, could could,might,would could
  55. 55. Times and Places ReferencesDirect Reportedtoday, tonight that day, that nightnow thenyesterday the day before…days ago …days beforelast week the week beforenext year the following yeartomorrow the next day / the following dayhere therethis, these that, those
  56. 56. QUOTED SPEECH ‐ REPORTED SPEECHExamples quoted speech/reported speech:Fernando said, "I cook rice every day.“Fernando said that she cooked rice every day.Juan said, "I am cooking rice” nowJuan said that she was cooking rice then.Jorge said, "I will cook rice” tomorrowJorge said that she would cook rice the next day
  57. 57. QUOTED SPEECH ‐ REPORTED SPEECHExamples reported Speech:
  58. 58. QUOTED SPEECH VS REPORTED SPEECHJavier VictoriaJesús Pérez
  59. 59. QUOTED SPEECH VS REPORTED SPEECHDifferentsQuoted speech has quotation marks; reported speech doesnot use quotation marks.In reported speech, the pronoun often changes. Forexample, in the above sentence with quoted speech thepronoun I is used, whereas the sentence with reportedspeech uses the pronoun he.In reported speech, the word that is often used after said,but that is optional.Quoted speech is exactly what the person said.The verb in reported speech is changed to the past; somemodal verbs do not change. There are rules to follow whenchanging the verb. Please see the chart below.
  60. 60. REPORTED SPEECH(NOT EXACT)Joshua said, "Ilove eatingchocolate icecream afterdinner."Quoted Speech(Exact)Joshua said that heloved eatingchocolate ice creamafter dinner.
  61. 61. QUOTED SPEECH VS REPORTED SPEECHThe verbal tenses changePresent PastJordan said, "Icook rice everyday."Every day." Jordansaid that she cookedrice every day.Present Continuous Past ContinuousJordan said, "Iam cooking rice."Jordan said thatshe was cookingrice.
  62. 62. QUOTED SPEECH VS REPORTED SPEECHPast SimpleJordan said, "Icooked rice.“Present perfectJordan said, "I havecooked rice.“Past perfectJordan said, "I hadcooked rice."Jordan said thatshe had cookedrice.The past tenses alluse had + pastparticiple. To see alist of irregular pastparticiples
  63. 63. QUOTED SPEECH VS REPORTED SPEECHJordan said, "Iwill cookrice.“Jordan said, "Iam going tocook rice."Jordan saidthat shewould cookrice.Jordan saidthat shewas goingto cook rice.
  64. 64. QUOTED SPEECH VS REPORTED SPEECHJordan said, "I cancook rice.“Jordan said, "I maycook rice.“Jordan said, "I mustcook rice.”Jordan said, "I haveto cook rice."Jordan said thatshe could cookrice.Jordan said, "I maycook rice.“Jordan said, "Imust cook rice.Jordan said thatshe had to cookrice.
  65. 65. QUOTED SPEECH VS REPORTED SPEECHShould, ought to and might do not changewhen used in reported speech.
  66. 66. QUOTED SPEECH VS REPORTED SPEECHFor commands, use the word told instead ofsaid, and use an infinitive for the main verb.Jordan said, "Cook rice.“Jordan told me to cook rice
  67. 67. QUOTED SPEECH VS REPORTED SPEECHIn reported speech, the pronoun oftenchanges. For example, in the abovesentence with quoted speech the pronoun Iis used, whereas the sentence with reportedspeech uses the pronoun he.Joshua said,“I need totake a taxi.”Joshua said thathe needed to takea taxi.
  69. 69. Quoted speech vs reported speech definition and comparison • Use reported speech to report what someone saidearlier. After a past tense reporting verb. e.g. said, told, etc., the original verb often moves one tense back (this is sometimes called “backshifting”).‐ Direct or quoted speech is a sentence (or several sentences) that reports speech or thought in its original form, as phrased by the original speaker. It is usually enclosed in quotation marks. 
  70. 70. Quoted speech or direct speech with examples • “ I always buy organic food”• “ I am going to see my mothertomorrow” • “I’ ve passed my exams”
  71. 71. Reported speech or indirect speech with examples • He said (that) he always bought organicfood• She told me she was going to see hermother the next day.• She said she had passed her exams
  72. 72. Verb tenses, pronouns and other changes in reported speech • Ther may be other changes to pronouns, possessive adjectives, and to references of time or place. ‐ I’ll go = She said she would go‐ It’s my car = He said it was his car.‐ We’ll see you tomorrow= They said thewould see us the next day
  73. 73. • Must changes to had to, but musn’t doesn’t change.‐ “We mustn’t be late” = They said they mustn’t be late.• Could, would and might also don’t change in reportedspeech.‐ “We might see you later” = They said (that) they mightsee us later.• Say and tell are the most commun reporting verbs. Note the different verb patterns.‐ He told me that he’ d be late. She said (to me) that shewanted to stay.
  74. 74. • Sometimes there is no need to change thetenses (no backshift). This is the case when thereporting verb is in the present tense.‐ “I ‘ ll meet you at the airport” = He says he’ ll meet us at the airport.• If the information we are reporting is still true in the present, we do not need to change thetenses but if the reportin verb is in the past, wecan.‐ “ It’ s a great film” = She said that it’s a greatfilm. (This is still true now) or she said that it wasa great film.
  75. 75. QUOTED SPEECH AND REPORTED SPEECH• Reported speech: definition.• Reported speech: explanations.• Quoted Speech: definition.• Quoted Speech vs. Reported Speech: comparison.• Verb tenses. • Shifting/Conversion of Expressions of time, places and demonstratives. • Quoted speech or direct speech with examples.• Quoted speech or direct speech with examples.Pili y Laura
  76. 76. Reported speech: definitionReported Speech (also called Indirect Speech) is used to communicate what someone else said, but without using the exact words. A few changes are necessary; often a pronoun has to be changed and the verb is usually moved back a tense, where possible. Read more at http://www.usingenglish.com/
  77. 77. Reported speech: explanations.1) If the introductory sentence starts in the present (Susan says), there is no backshift of tenses in Reported speech.Example: Direct speech: Susan: "I work in an office." Reported speech: Susan says (that) she works in an office.2) If the introductory sentence starts in the past (Susan said), there is often backshift of tenses in Reported speech. (see: Note)Example: Susan: "I work in an office." Susan said (that) she worked in an office.
  78. 78. Quoted Speech: definition.Quoted speech is EXACTLY what the person said.Example: Joshua said, “I need to take a taxi.”
  79. 79. Quoted Speech Reported SpeechQuoted speech is EXACTLY what the person said.Reported speech is NOT EXACTLY what the person said.  It is like a summary or paraphrase of what the speaker said.Quoted Speech vs. Reported Speech: comparison.
  80. 80. Backshift of tensesfrom toSimple Present Simple PastSimple PastPast PerfectPresent PerfectPast Perfectwill wouldProgressive formsam/are/is was/werewas/werehad beenhas beenhad beenVerb tenses •If the sentence starts in the present, there is no backshift of tenses in Reportedspeech.•If the sentence starts in the past, there is often backshift of tenses in Reportedspeech.
  81. 81. Verb tenses Backshift of tensesfrom toPeter: "I work in the garden." Peter said (that) he worked in the garden.Peter: "I worked in the garden."Peter said (that) he had worked in the garden.Peter: "I have worked in the garden."Peter: "I had worked in the garden."Peter: "I will work in the garden." Peter said (that) he would work in the garden.Peter: "I can work in the garden." Peter said (that) he could work in the garden.Peter: "I may work in the garden." Peter said (that) he might work in the garden.Peter: "I would work in the garden." (could, might, should, ought to)Peter said (that) he would work in the garden.(could, might, should, ought to)Progressive formsPeter: "Im working in the garden." Peter said (that) he was working in the garden.Peter: "I was working in the garden."Peter said (that) he had been working in the garden.Peter: "I have been working in the garden."Peter: "I had been working in the garden."
  82. 82. Shifting/Conversion of Expressions of time, places and demonstratives.Direct Speech Reported SpeechTime Expressionstoday that daynow thenyesterday the day before… days ago … days beforelast week the week beforenext year the following yeartomorrowthe next day / the following dayPlacehere thereDemonstrativesthis thatthese thosePlace, demonstratives and time expressions change if the context of the reported statement (i.e. the location and/or the period of time) is different from that of the direct speech. 
  83. 83. Quoted speech or direct speech with examples. Quoted Speech (EXACT)Joshua said, "I love eating chocolate ice cream after dinner."Reported Speech (NOT EXACT)Joshua said that he loved eating chocolate ice cream after dinner.
  84. 84. Quoted speech or direct speech with examples. Direct speech Reported speech“I write poems.”He says that he writes poems.“I write poems.” He said that he wrote poems.
  85. 85. 1. Quoted speech vs reported speech definition and comparison 2. Verb tenses, pronouns and other changes in reported speech 
  86. 86. 1. Quoted speech vs reported speech definition and comparison If we report what another person has said, we can:a) use the speaker’s exact words → direct speech/quoted speechb) Report in other way → indirect speech/reported  speechExample:Peter: I’m going to he cinemaDirect speech Indirect speech"Im going to thecinema", he said.He said he was going tothe cinema.
  87. 87. 2. Verb tenses, pronouns and other changes in reported speech Direct speech Reported speechPresent simple Past simplePresent continuous Past continuosSimple PastPast PerfectPresent PerfectPast Perfectwill would2. 1 Verb tenses
  88. 88. Direct speech Reported speechPeter: "I work in the garden."Peter said (that) he worked in the garden.Peter: “I am working in the garden”Peter said (that) he wasworking in the garden.Peter: "I worked in the garden."Peter said (that) he had worked in the garden.Peter: "I have worked in the garden."Peter: "I had worked in the garden."Peter: "I will work in the garden."Peter said (that) he would work in the garden.Examples:
  89. 89. Direct speech Indirect speechcan She said, "I can teach English online." could She said she could teach English online. must She said, "I must have a computer to teach English online."had to She said she had to have a computer to teach English online. shall She said, "What shall we learn today?" should She asked what we should learn today. may She said, "May I open a new browser?"might She asked if she might open a new browser.More verb tenses
  90. 90. 2.2 Time references changes in reported speechIf the sentence contains an expression of time, you must change it as well.this (evening) that (evening)today/this day that daythese (days) those (days)now then(a week) ago (a week) beforelast weekendthe weekend before / the previous weekendhere therenext (week) the following (week)tomorrow the next/following day
  91. 91. Direct speech Reported speechPeter:"I teach English online." He said he taught English online.Peter: “It’s my car” He said it was his car2.3 Pronoun and possesive adjetives change