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  1. 1. CHILDREN´SLITERATURE
  2. 2. DEFINITIONChildren’s literature includes all theartistic and creative production that uses the word and it is aimed at children. (Juan Cervera, 1992)
  3. 3. CHARACTERISTICSChildren’s literature must be entertaining andalso it must give pleasure.Children’s literature must be comprehensive.Literature is a form to acquire experience.It put in order the experience and thechronological sequences.Literature shows the fragmentation of thelife, like: family, love, values, friendship…Literature also shows social institutions, forexample: family, school, the Church…
  4. 4. FUNCTIONSThrough literature child knows popular pictures,symbols and myths that help him/her tounderstand the environment and humanrelationship.Literature allows create a lot of fantasticworlds.Literature creation also allows incorporatehuman knowledge, popular knowledge and brings itto children.Children’s literature helps child to resolvehis/her problems.The story provides values like: Goodness, evil,courage and innocence.Through literature child can learn to read andvalue different tales.
  5. 5. CLASSIFICATIONTraditional Literature This group includes all the production that wasn’t created to children, it was a literaturefor adults but later it was destined to children.For example the adaptation of “One thousand and one nights”.
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATION Literature created to children: This is the literature that was created for children. It includes: novels, poems, tales and plays. Examples: Alice in Wonderland, Harry Potter…
  7. 7. CLASSIFICATION Instrumented literatureThis group includes books that are created for Infant Education and Primary Education. In these stories there is a main character who visits some familiar places for children like the beach, the zoo, the market, the circus… For example: Teo, Caillou…
  8. 8. GENRESPOETRY: Oral texts with cultural tradition. It is in the children’s life since their birth. It is transmitted orally by several generations. Normally, these texts tell daily moments, plays, free time moments…
  9. 9. Oral texts includes: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_7P2I804nw8• Lullabies• First songs• Strings• Tongue twisters• Riddles• Nonsense• Songs.
  10. 10.  Poetry with oral tradition and by the author.Poetry is a form to play with the language. Infant Education teachers have to use rhymes and poems as a fun activity for children.
  11. 11. The main characteristics of infant poetry are:• The strophic form• Dialogued poems• Undefined series• Enumeration, Parallelism and OnomatopoeiaPoems are divided in:• Narrative poems: They tell facts.• Descriptive poems: They describe places, people, landscapes, animals, objects…• Plastic poems: After the reading of one of them children draw a picture.
  12. 12. NARRATIVE: THE TALE.The tale is a short story of imaginary facts. The tale has a moral or ludic purpose, which stimulates the imagination of children.It is classified in:• Formula Stories• Animal Stories• Realistic Stories and Fantastic Stories• Marvelous Stories
  13. 13. THEATRE The difference between theatre and other genres is that theatre adds some resources like corporal expression, plastic expression and rhythm expression.
  14. 14. OTHER GENRESRealism Social Realism literature focuses in a possible real situation. The main character has a problem. This problem is caused by the society or another person. So the story is based in how the main character resolves his/her problem. Example: Heidi.
  15. 15. Realism• Animal Realism literature focuses in the life of an animal. These tales tell some things about their appearance, place where they live, and their life cycle. Example: The lion king.• Historic Realism literature focuses in the past. It describes some things about the past like: clothes, vehicles, work... Stories about Vikings and Romans, for example: Asterix and Obelix.
  16. 16. OTHER GENRESFantastic Literature: For example: The tales of• The author creates other Hans Christian Andersen. world, so his/her intention is that the reader believes that this world would be real. The characters of these tales are usually dragons, trolls, fairies, princesses, goblins…
  17. 17. OTHER GENRESTraditional • For example: Cinderella. Literature: These tales have many characteristics, some of them are good and others are bad. The author makes clear descriptions, and the characters are usually fairy ,godmothers, stepmothers
  18. 18. OTHER GENRESPicture books: • These tales focuse in show to children some pictures so they understand the tale with these pictures. For example: The illustrations of “The adventures of Pinocchio”.
  19. 19. OTHER GENRESClassics: For example: Tom These tales are stories Sawyer by Mark that are told from one Twain. generation to another. They could belong to any genre.
  20. 20. Work realized by: María Iniesta Simón Lorena Ortega García-MuñozMaría Sánchez-Hermosilla Morales. Paula Serrano Oviedo
  21. 21. Carmen Fdez Marchante Javier De Esteban Glez.
  22. 22.  Literature is all the creative and artistic things that you can create using words and there are created for children. ( Juan cervera) Includes poetry, narrative, theatre, riddles, jingles, short stories… Educator must delve into education´s magnitude.
  23. 23.  It should provide pleasure, entertainment and escape Be comprehensive Adquires experience To divide the life´s stages, like friendship, family, love, values… It can be showed in socials institutions ( family, school, churches..) It shows how the nature acts over each one of us
  24. 24.  Allow culture´s evolution through simbols Allow create his own unreal world Children know images, myths, simbols that help them to interpret the environment Allow add human and popular knowledge Through stories, children can overcome difficulties situations in their lives The stories transmit values knowledges like kindness, courage, innocence Stories prevents the child goes astray Make an analysis about the evolution of social issues Children learns to read and appreciate literary works.
  25. 25.  Acquired literature This readings goes from generation to generation, like songs, traditional stories and romances. Example. 1001 nights Literature created for children Made for children. Stories, novels, poems…Example. Gloria Fuertes, J.K Rowling Harry Potter Instrumental literature Relates all the differents situations that a character passes. Example Teo Books with images, toybooks surprises books.. Quality and language are the most importants attribute
  26. 26.  Poetry : Oral texts from cultural tradition ; Lullabies, first songs, riddles…children songs too Oral tradition poetry. -Oral texts from cultural tradition -Present from the beginning Characteristics. -Pass from generation to generation -Interpret and transmit -Present in real situations
  27. 27.  Lullabies These are the first songs the child listens to. They have binary relaxing effect and movement. First songs. Songs with the purpose of knowing the childs body and developing his motor possibilities. They are rhymed and repeated. It highlights tickle and finger songs. Jingles. They are written in verse to describe different daily situations as having lunch or going to bed. They quite funny Tongue-twisters Little poems without too much sense but quite difficult to pronounce, which is very funny
  28. 28.  Riddles Oral games that stimulate mental exercise and language learning, creating a connection between the child and poetry. Theres a huge number of topics, which supposes a challenge for the child. Nonsenses Poems close to the jokes, whose best characteristic is bringing laughs to the child. It stimulates the development of the brain. Songs Poems with melody (o tune) and rhythm, employed for playing. They are used as: -symmetric series with just one variant: repeating the same structure -symmetric series with correlative variant: the introduction of one variant leads the appearance of another one. -Symmetric series formed by increasing or decreasing enumeration. They are used to learn how to count. -Echoes. Repetition of one syllable in each verse. -Chorus: Probably the most important and clear element.
  29. 29.  b) Oral and author tradition’s poetry Poetry allows the child playing with language and words. Teachers must approach poetry to children so they can learn a lot. Characteristics: - Verse form: Short verses composed of less than eight syllables in length, with musicality and easy to pronounce. Children enjoy creating their own rhyming couplet. - Dialogued poems: Texts to be dramatized. - Undefined sequences: Chained forms. - Enumeration of elements by juxtaposition as if making an inventory. - Parallelism: Structures’ repetitions in order to call the attention. - Onomatopoeias.
  30. 30.  The importance of the content: Narrative, descriptive and plastic poems. - Narrative poems: they tell what happens to the characters. The graphic complement is very important. - Descriptive poems: Description of human beings, animals, landscapes… with pictures to motivate the children. - Plastic poems: they fix the guidelines to do a drawing.
  31. 31.  The story is a short narrative of imaginary events with a simple argument. The purpose of the story can be moral or to entertain and stimulates the child´s imagination. There are four groups of stories: - Formula stories - Animal stories - Realistic and fantasy stories - Fairy tales
  32. 32.  They are stories in which, rather than the content, is most important how to tell it and the effect on the child. They have many literary devices.There are three types: Minimum stories: They are short narratives which appear rhyme. In a sentence appears a character and the action. And in another sentence appears the conclusion. Never ending stories: They are jokes to develop the sense of humor. Its usually quite annoying. Cumulative tales: In the cumulative tale the action and dialogue repeats but also accumulates. It is a memory exercise.
  33. 33.  ANIMAL STORIES >REALISTIC AND The protagonists of FANTASTIC STORIES these stories are  The characters are animals that act like developed quite people naturally in the They are like fables and they are usually middle of the magic short stories ending and fantasy with a saying. They have a very simple structure.
  34. 34.  Is characterized by a breakdown of order, the intervention of fabulous characters and the appearance of magical items. In them appear supernatural characters like: fairies, genies, trolls and giants, witches, wizards...Their structure is :1. An initial action that creates intrigue.2. The hero´s actions.3. The happy ending
  35. 35.  The theatre is characterized by the linguistic expression like the other genres but also add other resources, such a body expression, artistic expression and the expression rhythmic music
  36. 36.  Realistic literature assumes that the story told is possible, though not necessarily probable. Without magical intervention and the results are reasonable and possible. The story seems real.There are several types: Social realism: The protagonist is affected by a type of problem whose origin is in society such as discrimination because of race, gender or social status. Realism in stories with animals: stories about animals, speaking of details concerning their appearance, habitat and life cycles. Historical realism: It is located in the past. Describe in detail aspects of the past, dresses, used vehicles, work, showing the features and events of that time and place.
  37. 37.  The author creates another world inviting readers to believe that this world could exist. This requires the author´s ability to imagine the universe so close that the reader wants it to be true. You get to make credible for pleasure. A noted author of fantasy stories is H. C. Andersen.
  38. 38.  The term traditional or popular literature refers to a type of literature that has come to the reader or the listener the story by others, a traditional storyteller, which existed at some time orally before they were collected the written in form
  39. 39.  A picture book is a book in which the illustrations are as important as (or even more important than) the words in telling the story. In picture books, there are illustrations on every page or on one of every pair of facing pages. They are very important because children learn and enjoy while they are reading the book.
  40. 40.  The classics children´s literature are those books that pass from one generation to another. They can be of different genres: history, fiction, popular, fantasy… They pass from one generation to another by the significance of the issue, the credibility of the characters, the reality of the conflict or style.
  41. 41. THE STORY AS AN EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY
  42. 42. EDUCATIONAL VALUE OF STORIES• The story has a huge emotional and educational value, it serves to reinforce the bond between child and parents, to open a world of fantasy and imagination and to help resolve personal conflicts.• The story has a great educational value.
  43. 43. CREATIVITY DEVELOPMENT• Tale give the child the opportunity to imagine what you would like to be, do and experiment.• Activities around the stories can be: dramatizations, illustrations, stories, music, etc.
  44. 44. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT• Stories help to structure the language, sort and make sense of sentences, to increase vocabulary, and above all, affect the communicative function of language.
  45. 45. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT• The story is a simple and effective way to establish a relationship of affection and trust between storyteller and listener.• When adults remember the tales of our childhood we remember good times.
  46. 46. PSICHOLOGYCAL DEVELOPMENT• The stories are a sample of human behavior: lies, kindness, fear, desire, sadness ... the child identifies with the characters and shows their fears, their needs and fantasies.• The happy ending is a very important element because it maintains the hope that the problems can be solved. Stories are able to stimulate the memory and the childs mind.
  47. 47. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT• Listening to a narrative with the other partners allows them to share emotions.
  48. 48. CRITERIA FOR SELECTING, USING AND TELLING STORIES.• To select stories we must consider a number of criteria:a) Aesthetic criteriab) Age of children 1 to 3 years 3 to 5 years 5 to 7 yearsC) Extension
  49. 49. • d) Language: simple• e) Structure• f) Topic• g) Illustrations
  50. 50. CRITERIA FOR THE USE• How to use the stories in classroom can vary depending on the objectives: we can read it, count it, represent it...• The story can’t be considered a filler activity: we should give the importance what it deserves.• There are two types of stories: the tale told (spontaneous and free) and the read story (with a better language).
  51. 51. CRITERIA FOR THE STORYTell stories is transmit feelings, enjoy what you do andget the kids have fun. To achieve this, we must:- Choose stories that we like- Learn the story, practice it…- Display the characters- Establish a relaxed clime.- Use a soft voice- Use gestures- Getting kids involved- Receive comments from the children.
  52. 52. The time to tell a story should be calm andrelaxed. This requires 2 aspects:- Do it after a strong activity- Tell it when we have enough time for this.
  53. 53. The space to tell a story has to have theseconditions:- Be well defined.- Have an adequate size- Be well lit.
  54. 54. ACTIVITIES FROM THE STORY• After reading the story we can offer many activities, but these activities should not be too complicated.• To verify that the story has been understood, there should be a dialogue with children through a series of questions.
  55. 55. SOME ACTIVITIES OF CREATION, RECREATION AND INTERPRETATION OF LITERARY TEXTS Some examples of possible activities:• If this happen?• What happened next?• Children Tell a story with the collaboration of all.• To represent a little theatre.
  56. 56. SOME ACTIVITIES RELATED TO OTHER MODELS OF EXPRESSION• Illustrate the story. The story is illustrated with cards, so that each is accompanied by referenced.• Dramatization. The story will be represented by children from freely using their body and language.• Musical tales. Use instruments to tell the tale.• Activities out of the class, for example to visit a museum, to visit a zoo, to visit a farm…
  57. 57. THE END• CRISTINA CAMUÑAS ESTRADA• ALEJANDRO CLAROS BELLÓN• CARLOS ALAÑON MOYA.
  58. 58. THE GAME FROM THE GAME FROMDIFFERENT POINTS OFVIEW DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW
  59. 59. 1. PSYCHOLOGICAL STANDPOINT. EVOLUTION OF THE GAME AND AGEPiaget says that the game can be used to measure the process of maturation of the child and his mental and emotional development, based on the assumption that developmental stages are presented with a determined succession and order for all individuals. Psychological activities are different for different stages ofdevelopment and activities of a higher stage make up the activities ofprevious stages. There are different types of games depending on age of children:
  60. 60. a) THE GAME IN THE FIRST CYCLE OF CHILDHOOD EDUCATION (0-3 YEARS): The games of this cycle can be considered the first pre-games and pre-toys. Function: separating the child from his enviroment and give him the notion of self and the parts of his body. • In the early months the game is reduced to rocking, pacifier and rattle. • After appear the games to “show / hide” which introducing guidelines for action that will last a lifetime.
  61. 61. • Then come the functional games and sensorimotorgames, where the pleasure lies in the movement of bodyparts. The physical learning is inherent in the childs play,which develops self-confidence and self esteem through thiscontrol of the body.• Finally appears the game ofprojected his image in the mirror. All of them, lead to the discovery of self, the “I”.
  62. 62. b) THE GAME IN THE SECOND STAGE OF CHILDHOOD EDUCATION (3-6 YEARS): Function: With these games is passed from the discovery of self to the discovery of another. • In these games the child assumes roles, imitate animals, adult or representing yourself in fictional situations.
  63. 63. • At first, the games are usually single, but after 5 years are usually group activities.• The learning through play should be continuous and evolutionary, and covering intellectual, physical, emotional, social, aesthetic and moral facts.• Moreover, the game should allow the emergence of the ability to solve problems. In the learning (to be done through interaction with others) should include all types of games that lead to independence, creativity and discovery.
  64. 64. 2. SOCIOLOGICAL STANDPOINT:The game is influenced by society and the environment in whichit occurs.The game introduces the children to the ideology of society andlearning the values ​of their culture through their rules, materialsand toys. There should be a fun environment, physical and cultural, that the game appears. This environment can have large open spaces or not, these spaces can be organized or not, empty or full of toys, full of useful objects for the child or not; all influence the game.
  65. 65.  During the first year of life is very important the environment because it is a part of the total socio-cultural space and therefore, for this specificity in cultures, the social environment will provide a unique character to the games, which vary according to the culture in which the child grows.• In some societies the games have transit functions from one age to another. In other cases, the game serves to relieve tension created by society, or by life. It also serves to transmit rules among equals• There are societies where children are surrounded of toys, artificial and far from their recreational needs that limit their capacity of creativity and imagination.
  66. 66. Finally, the observation of games makes possible observe how girls and boys are separated into different groups at the time of play and that their activities are different. The activities of the girls are generally more sedentary and intimate, with complex rules and games usually have a happy ending. The activities of the boys have more movement, more tendency to be outdoors and taking up more space.
  67. 67. 3. GAME AND PEDAGOGY: Although the game is one of the best means of expression forchildren, has not always been seen as a technique to use in school. The school is faced with a new dichotomy between play directed byteacher and free game, leaving the second as a "let do" that dont isuniversally accepted in the school . Today there are many parents who understand the educationalvalue of game in the early years and the need to include it inchildrens activities.
  68. 68.  School can find various problems - The game to respond to educational purposes and not a job.- The teacher must know what they can extract the game in their educational practice and how.
  69. 69. - The educational use of the game must be present, not be imposed, it is spontaneous, it can not be forced, can have objectives, but not necessary always.- the game has a function educate themselves. The game should complement the school happens in other places
  70. 70. Motivation to explore and More fragmented Game experiment freely in the house, park ...Long and continuous periods. No free time activities less short. there are times for different types of activities.Activities of the child alone. Many sujects of the same age. Individual material. The material in building rapport with colleagues.
  71. 71. 4.GAME AND MOTIVATION: ATTENTION It is an important factor for learning The teacher should know:- When performing an activity.- Provide, or facilitate search activities that keep the childs concentration.
  72. 72. • The game provides a natural means of maintaining attention.• The child plays and loses track of time.• The game provides longer learning times. The school divides time into shorter periods to avoid boredom appears.
  73. 73.  The game, motivates the child to the exploration and experimentation. The school must provide opportunities that the child can not in other place.
  74. 74. 5. PLAY AND EXPLORATION. The exploration is related to the acquisition of knowledge and information.• When a child approachesa new situation or materialpresents two types of conductA new experience, if cheerfulwill attract attention and thenexploration Exploration is an essential prerequisite for the play experience.
  75. 75.  First exploration can be visual. After a period of active exploration and manipulation. The exploration dependson the material or object thatis seen and manipulated that. Sometimes afterthe exploration appears a kind of repetitive play.
  76. 76.  Innovation prevents boredom and monotony. The play conduct is optional, the exploration is obligatory. The exploratory conduct directly promote learning, playful but they do indirectly.
  77. 77.  Free play is important if one considers this aspect of material introduce or exploring situations that lead to the child, and then to play with the known. It is important to act as the teacher. The adult must be conscious of their ways.
  78. 78. Elena Martín Ávila.Alicia Martín de MadridMerchán.
  79. 79. RHYMES AND CHANTS.USING THEM IN CLASS. Marta Irles Martín-Abad Marina Rodríguez Díaz Mª José Serrano Donate Ana Mª Tajuelo García-
  80. 80. 1. Song, rhymes and chants• Children love songs, rhymes and chants and their repetitive nature and rhythm make them an ideal vehicle for language learning.• Carefully selected them can offer a rich source for our
  81. 81. Why use songs, rhymes and chants?• There are four resource to use them in our class: 1. A linguistic resource. 2. A psychological/affective resource. 3. A cognitive resource. 4. A cultural resource.
  82. 82. A LINGUISTIC RESOURCE• Allow introduce a new language with new structures and vocabulary to be learnt.• Present familiar language in new and imaginative context.• Develop all skills in an integrated way.
  83. 83. APSYCHOLOGICAL/AFFE CTIVE RESOURCE• Help develop positive attitudes towards the target language.• Non-threatening and the more inhibited child will feel secure when singing and chanting as a class.• Encourage a feeling of achievement and build confident
  84. 84. A COGNITIVE RESOURCE• Develop concentration, memory and coordination• Repetition enables children to predict what comes next and to consolidate language items.• Accompanying actions or gestures help to reinforce
  85. 85. A CULTURAL RESOURCE• The songs can contribute to the cultural components of a language programme. Children can compare their mother tongue with the target language through the
  86. 86. A SOCIAL RESOURCE• Singing together is a good social experience and helps to develop a class and group identity• They can be used as the basis for a performance or show.• They offer a flexible resource to the teacher.• They can be used with a variety of
  87. 87. 2. Pronunciationbenefits of using songs, rhymes and chants• This includes: 1. Individual songs and sounds in connected speech. 2. Stress and rhythm. 3. Intonation. 4. Ear training
  88. 88. INDIVIDUAL SOUNDS AND SOUNDS IN CONNECTED SPEECH• Songs and rhymes are useful for showing what happens to sounds in connected speech. For example: - That certain sounds run on together: “You are not it” - And complicated consonant
  89. 89. STRESS AND RHYTHM:• Using songs and rhymes, children can clap according to the rhythm or say rhymes. So, they can develop a sense of rhythm in English.• The words that are weakly
  90. 90. INTONATIO TRAINING:N: • You can ask the pupils to• Intonation can listen and also be count how practiced in rhymes. many times an individual sound or word occurs
  91. 91. 3.Types of songs, rhymes and chants• There are many different kinds of songs, rhymes and chants which contain different features and are used for different purposes. -Suggest that rhymes can be divided in two categories: 1. those which are essential to the regulation of games and childrens relationships.
  92. 92. 4. When and how to use songs, rhymes and chants• When they are used: -As warmers -As a transition from one activity to the next -Closers -To introduce new language -To practice language -To revise language -To change the mood -To get everyones attention -To channel high levels of energy -To integrate story telling,topic-work or cross- curricular work
  93. 93. DEFINITIONThe tale is a brief and simple narrative. Itfocuses in the action, time and space.The tale is universal and it has the functionof help to the children to understand theown culture and to understand the world.To the children, the tales don`t only funthem also encourage them the imaginationincreasing positive feelings andpsychological development.The tales transmit knowledge, ways ofthinking about different villages.
  94. 94. FEATURESThe tale presents these features: 1. it`s invented doesn`t is a real story. 2. it`s clear, with a linear structure 3. concentration of the plot 4. short time
  95. 95. FOLK TALEAlso it be called traditional tale because they come from the oral tradition,therefore this tipe of tales preserved (more than other genres) the features ofthe oral narration. So folk tales have to be heard, more than to be read.About the structure, this tales present simple narrative forms: opening andclosing.Propp proposes 31 functions for that tales, but in Spain we can found only 9: - Initial problem. - The king decide something (about the problem). - Heros trip. - Hero does something. - Magic objetc. - Fight. - Tests. - Heros return. - Heros recognition.
  96. 96. FOLK TALEORIGINIt is anonymous. Initial author could be exist, but he desappears because the talebelongs to the community. Due to its oral nature, the tale changes (it adapts totime and space in which is narrated). Each tale has its own personality, and alsothe storytelling personality. So there is two versions about the origin of this tales: - Monogenetic: common origin. - Poligenetic: multiple origin.Both of them are difficult to demostrate, but it is clear the diffusion in space: wecan found many different versions of the same tale.Sociologically, the tale is a reflection of some values, sensibilities and knowledgeof a culture.
  97. 97. FOLK TALESome features like a simple form: - Mobility of the language, of the characters, of the situations and of the framework (time and space). Its opposite to the fixed. - Generic. Its opposite to the peculiarity. - It can be repeated in our own words.
  98. 98. FEATURES OF FOLK TALENo descriptions: the tales world is plane. Objects are not described, onlymentioned. Nicknames are simple, for example: the prince is brave.Repetitions: its very important, because with repetitions is easier toremember.Characters haven’t inner world. There is no environment. There is no time.There is only external stimulus. The oral tradition is focus in the action, morethan in the description.There is no narrator.The story is temporally and spatially indeterminate. The characters can goto the end of the world, to the bottom of the sea and so on. A trip is notnarrated, only appear fantastic stages that give meaning to the story. Thesupernatural is accepted.
  99. 99. OTHER TYPES OF TALESMYTH is a story in a old world with a heroic and religiousmeaning. In this type, appear natural phenomena andsupernatural forces.The things that happenin myths are uniqueand these can`t happenin other place.
  100. 100. EPIC presents actions and events about aimaginary hero. Through her, community isaware of their problems.It has a tragic and pessimistic tone.
  101. 101. LEGENDLegend is a storywhich happens in aspecific place,realistic, wonderfulor religious.It tells a historical event. When a legend is told,we understand the historical reality and heroesin this place.
  102. 102. FABULAFabula is a story about humanized animals.These are shorts stories in prose or verse.The goal is to teach through problems that theprotagonist has to solve in the story.
  103. 103. CLASSIFICATIONAARNE-THOMPSON: depend on the repetition of themes I: Animal tales II: fairy tales III: Funny Tales IV: Formula tales V: other tales
  104. 104. Other classification, divides tales in 3 groups: I: Typical Tales: Fairy tales Realistic tales religious tales and tales about II: Animal tales III: Costums Tales
  105. 105. PELEGRIN: depend on the age of children I: Formula tales (2-5 years) II: Animal tales (4-7 years) III: Fairy Tales (5-7 years)
  106. 106. GIANNI RODARII: Animal tales: wild and domestic animal, and relationship between people and animal, and people with animals.II: Magic tales: supernatural forces and magic objects.III: Funny Tales to silly, to clever and formula tales.
  107. 107. AUTHORS1.CHARLES PERRAULT: “Sleeping beauti”, “Red Riding Hood”, “Puss in boots”, “Cinderella”…2. JAMES BARRIE: “Peter Pan”2. BROTHERS GRIMM: “Hansel and Gretel”, “The Musicians of Bremen”…
  108. 108. 3. HANS CHRISTIAN ANDERSEN: “The Ugly duck”, “The Brave Tin Soldier”, “The little Mermaid”…4. BEATRIX POTTER: “The Tale of Peter Rabbit” 5. LEWIS CARROL: “Alice in Wonderland”
  109. 109. THE END LAURA RODRÍGUEZ ALCAIDE ADRIÁN SABALETE SUÁREZTHANK YOU! IRENE SÁNCHEZ BARCHINO
  110. 110. 1. Introduction2. Educational aspects of game3. Video4. Danger of game. Game leads to conflict. 1. 2. Excess of didactism in games.5. Personal opinion
  111. 111.  Many years ago, games have been the most important activity to amuse children, but they have educational purpose too. For this, it is one of the tools more used in Childhood Education. For example, in Old Roma, schools were called "ludus“, that it means recreational.
  112. 112.  The methodology of Childhood Education is active and based on the experiences and game. Sometimes, it`s called ‘’recreational methodology’’. Game is considered like spontaneous activity of children, its an specific activity and it should be stimulated by the teacher. Although the school work is based , over all, in serious, systematic and intentional activities, the game should be spontaneous and free.
  113. 113.  Nowadays, school work and game are related. There is quite a lot of controversy between school work and game in schools. Many pedagogues think that it’s necessary to use games and toys like a material-work in class, due to learning and game are closely related.
  114. 114.  There are different theories that show the formal value of game because it produces a better development and it’s very important for learning. For example:  Groos came to the conclusion that recreational activity was a warm-up for serious life.  Claparéde and Stratcham throught game, children carry out enough exercises for muscular and psychic development.
  115. 115.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w4yHvkZMJrI
  116. 116.  Also, there are studies about danger of games which are done and explained wrong. Among analysis more meaningful, we can emphasize: Game leads to conflict Recreational activity, which is very necessary for children’s personality development, can be the origin of problems. Among the problems more common are which take place due to an excess tension.
  117. 117.  Game can be harmful when it isn’t suitable for children, for example games of fear, when we use some materials, when they must imitate adult activities and competitive games. Children aren`t aware of the gravity of some actions and they can transfer that danger to dangerous and not recommend actions. Nowadays, children have many entertainments and knowledge but some aren’t suitable for children because they are based on imitation and are typical of adults.
  118. 118.  These games can be not advisable to use it with children, especially with children in the Childhood Education. It is very important that children know the multitude of games that are in their interests due to it exist a variety of alternative, creative and stimulating games. This may be a function of the family and school.
  119. 119.  Children can be loser because of the use of didactics games constantly. These games should be effective and organized to achieve good outcomes. It’s necessary to avoid routines and also, it’s better to reduce the number of didactics games when children are older.
  120. 120.  Learning and game aren’t always together, but also learning can appear alone like a serious activity which the teacher ought to motivate. The teacher wants to get that pupils work very good in a comfortable environment. Ending, in the childhood education, it doesn’t well such a didactics games. It would be better to alternate the recreational activity with the didactic activity.
  121. 121.  In our opinion, games are an excellent strategy to work with children and, for this reason, we think that all educational activity should be based in game with children. Nowadays, we have a lot of options for children learn playing. For example, computers games, the Internet, traditional games... Add, we think that the violent games shouldnt be encouraged. Many times, these games are learned by TV, videogames…
  122. 122.  Eva Díaz del Campo García Carpintero. Elena García-Fogeda Romero. Rocío Guerrero Ciudad.
  123. 123.  Definition of the Tale The Folktale Folktale Features Relation to the Folktale with other kind of narration Origin of the Tale Classification and Authors
  124. 124.  The story is fictional short narration and character developments simple, made for moral purpose. But there are different interpretations of the story one of that the Grim brothers collectors than they understood the story as remnants of a culture. The story is universal and It has the function of helping people understand their culture. The messages it conveys the story is aimed at all audiences. For children are a source of satisfaction because it enriches the world of understanding, his inner life…
  125. 125.  The stories always have a main character who is usually travelling, which meets obstacles to be overcome and the end is usually always happy. The story has these characteristics:1. Duration not excesive.2. Concentration of the plot.3. Linear structure.4. It is an invention.
  126. 126.  Falktales come from oral tradition. These stories are to be listened. Propp offers 31 functions for stories. But the spanish stories are 9. These functions are:1. Initial problem.2. Call3. Round trip.4. Displays of generosity.5. Donation of a magical.6. Combat7. Testing.8. Journey back9. Recongnition of the hero
  127. 127. a) No description: Things aren’t described, because only they are mentioned. The nouns are very simple.b) Repetitions: The folktale shows many repetitions.c) The characters haven’t “internal world”: They react to external stimuli, such as: advices, problems, duties…d) There isn’t narrator.e) There isn’t time or space. In the folktale, the characters use magic things and that’s why they can do what they want. Fantasy is accepted without any difficulty.
  128. 128.  The myth is a story that happens in an earlier time and it adds a religious meaning. The myth can help to the social order.
  129. 129. - SIMILARITIES: The characters are similar.- DIFFERENCES: Form of transmission. The topic of the myth is fairly simple and the topic can’t happen to other people, however in the folktale what is happening is very normal and regular.
  130. 130. The epic talks aboutthe actions of a hero,who is historic andimaginary. There aresome differences withthe folktale, for example:the epic has a tragicending and however,the folktale is optimisticand looks for a happyending.
  131. 131. Legend is a story that counts as something happened in a particular place. It can be realistic, wonderful or religious. The Legend tells of a historical event generally, so this has more historical truth that for example a tale. But this doesn’t mean that reflect the full historical truth because many details which are narrated in the legend are fictitious. Over time, the curiosity of man heighten the interest in the historical fact that is based on the legend. Finally say about this, that the legend can refer to the natural world or supernatural .
  132. 132. The fable is animal tale with moral and educational purpose.Its extension is generally little, with a brief history, in prose or verse that clearly pointing to a moral teaching. The fable is an allegorical fiction, in which, the animals are fully humanized. In spite of showing a fantastic animal world scene, the extracted lesson applies to real world. The lesson that emerge from the fabule is commonly known like the moral and it usually placed at the end of story. Each fable reflects a different teaching , depending on the actions that to do the protagonist. The pupils could find other solutions using their creativity.
  133. 133. The folktale is anonymous.The tale is adapted, modernized and are eliminated elements that lose meaning. Each tale has its own personality and the narrator’s style. The folktale’s origin can be summarized in two versions: Monogenetic Polygenetic (common origin and (multiple origins after diffusion) depending times, places, thoughts..). Sociologically, the tale is analyzed as a reflection of collective values, forms of sensibility and knowledge of a culture.
  134. 134.  Animal Tales Wonderful Tales Joke Tales Formula Tales Tales without clasification
  135. 135.  Tales: › Wonderful Tales › Realistic Tales › Religious Tales Animal Tales Custom Tales
  136. 136.  Formula Tales (2-5 years) Animal Tales (4-7 years) Wonderful Tales (5-7 years)
  137. 137.  Animals Tales Magic Tales Anecdote and Joke Tales
  138. 138.  Charles Perrault (Little Red Riding Hood, Cinderella…) Grimm Brothers (Hansel and Gretel, Blue beard…) James Barrie (Peter Pan) Beatrix Potter (The Tale of Peter Rabbit) Lewis Carrol (Alice in Wonderland).
  139. 139.  Marta Cedenilla Romero Mª Ángeles Córdoba García-Consuegro Patricia Reíllo Bosquet Beatriz Villa López Didáctica de la Lengua Inglesa en Educación Infantil.
  140. 140. DEFINITIONThe tale is a brief and simple narrative. Itfocuses in the action, time and space.The tale is universal and it has the functionof help to the children to understand theown culture and to understand the world.To the children, the tales don`t only funthem also encourage them the imaginationincreasing positive feelings andpsychological development.The tales transmit knowledge, ways ofthinking about different villages.
  141. 141. FEATURESThe tale presents these features: 1. it`s invented doesn`t is a real story. 2. it`s clear, with a linear structure 3. concentration of the plot 4. short time
  142. 142. FOLK TALEAlso it be called traditional tale because they come from the oral tradition,therefore this type of tales preserved (more than other genres) the features ofthe oral narration. So folk tales have to be heard, more than to be read.About the structure, this tales present simple narrative forms: opening andclosing.Propp proposes 31 functions for that tales, but in Spain we can found only 9: - Initial problem. - The king decide something (about the problem). - Heros trip. - Hero does something. - Magic objetc. - Fight. - Tests. - Heros return. - Heros recognition.
  143. 143. FOLK TALEORIGINIt is anonymous. Initial author could be exist, but he desappears because the talebelongs to the community. Due to its oral nature, the tale changes (it adapts totime and space in which is narrated). Each tale has its own personality, and alsothe storytelling personality. So there is two versions about the origin of this tales: - Monogenetic: common origin. - Poligenetic: multiple origin.Both of them are difficult to demostrate, but it is clear the diffusion in space: wecan found many different versions of the same tale.Sociologically, the tale is a reflection of some values, sensibilities and knowledgeof a culture.
  144. 144. FOLK TALESome features like a simple form: - Mobility of the language, of the characters, of the situations and of the framework (time and space). Its opposite to the fixed. - Generic. Its opposite to the peculiarity. - It can be repeated in our own words.
  145. 145. FEATURES OF FOLK TALENo descriptions: the tales world is plane. Objects are not described, onlymentioned. Nicknames are simple, for example: the prince is brave.Repetitions: its very important, because with repetitions is easier toremember.Characters haven’t inner world. There is no environment. There is no time.There is only external stimulus. The oral tradition is focus in the action, morethan in the description.There is no narrator.The story is temporally and spatially indeterminate. The characters can goto the end of the world, to the bottom of the sea and so on. A trip is notnarrated, only appear fantastic stages that give meaning to the story. Thesupernatural is accepted.
  146. 146. OTHER TYPES OF TALESMYTH is a story in a old world with a heroic and religiousmeaning. In this type, appear natural phenomena andsupernatural forces.The things that happenin myths are uniqueand these can`t happenin other place.
  147. 147. EPIC presents actions and events about aimaginary hero. Through her, community isaware of their problems.It has a tragic and pessimistic tone.
  148. 148. LEGENDLegend is a storywhich happens in aspecific place,realistic, wonderfulor religious.It tells a historical event. When a legend is told,we understand the historical reality and heroesin this place.
  149. 149. FABULAFabula is a story about humanized animals.These are shorts stories in prose or verse.The goal is to teach through problems that theprotagonist has to solve in the story.
  150. 150. CLASSIFICATIONAARNE-THOMPSON: depend on the repetition of topics I: Animal tales II: fairy tales III: Funny Tales IV: Formula tales V: other tales
  151. 151. Other classification, divides tales in 3 groups: I: Typical Tales: Fairy tales Realistic tales religious tales tales about stupid ogre II: Animal tales III: Costums Tales
  152. 152. PELEGRIN: depend on the age of children I: Formula tales (2-5 years) II: Animal tales (4-7 years) III: Fairy Tales (5-7 years)
  153. 153. GIANNI RODARII: Animal tales: wild and domestic animal, and relationship between people and animal, and wild and domestic animals.II: Magic tales: supernatural forces and magic objects.III: Funny Tales to silly, to clever and formula tales.
  154. 154. AUTHORS1.CHARLES PERRAULT: “Sleeping beauti”, “Red Riding Hood”, “Puss in boots”, “Cinderella”…2. JAMES BARRIE: “Peter Pan”2. BROTHERS GRIMM: “Hansel and Gretel”, “The Musicians of Bremen”…
  155. 155. 3. HANS CHRISTIAN ANDERSEN: “The Ugly duck”, “The Brave Tin Soldier”, “The little Mermaid”…4. BEATRIX POTTER: “The Tale of Peter Rabbit” 5. LEWIS CARROL: “Alice in Wonderland”
  156. 156. THE END LAURA RODRÍGUEZ ALCAIDE ADRIÁN SABALETE SUÁREZTHANK YOU! IRENE SÁNCHEZ BARCHINO
  157. 157. Songs, rhymes, chants,games and storybooks
  158. 158. 1. SONGS, RHYMES AND CHANTS Resources Benefits Types 2. GAMES How and when use its? Why use game? Purposes of games Types Factors How to play game?3. STORYBOOKS Why use storybooks? Types Criteria for selecting Reading or telling?
  159. 159. SONGS, RHYMES AND CHANTS
  160. 160. DIFFERENTS RESOURCESLINGUISTIC •Allow new language to be introduced and structures and vocabulary. •Provide natural repetition •Develop all skill in an integrated •Improve all aspect of pronunciationAFECTIVE •The songs, rhymes and chants give confidence to the children. •Are very motivating. •The children can teaching your family or friends. •The children see the language as fun
  161. 161. DIFFERENTS RESOURCESCOGNITIVE •Develop concentration, memory and coordination. •The repetition enables consolidate language items. •We can use for different works with the studentsCULTURAL •The children can compare with the songs, rhymes and chants of your languageSOCIAL •Allow the communication and interaction. •Allow develop all competences. •And we can use with different age groups of students.
  162. 162. BENEFITS OF USING SONGS, RHYMES AND CHANTS  Useful for practicing Pronunciation.  Useful for showing what happens to sounds in connected speech  Help to develop a sense of rhythm and intonation in English  Also is very important develop ear training
  163. 163. TYPES OF SONGS, RHYMES AND CHANTS (Opie and Opie)1. Those which are essential to the regulation of games ad children´s relation ships. For example: dipping and skipping rhymes2. Those that are mere expressions of exuberance. For example: jingles, slongans, nonsense verse…
  164. 164. WHEN AND HOW USE SONGS, RHYMES AND CHANTS?  To introduce new language As transition from one activity to the next  To change the mood  To get everyone´s attention.
  165. 165. EXAMPLE The Rainbow Colors Song http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=tRNy2i75tCc
  166. 166. GAMES
  167. 167. WHY USE GAME? Changing the pace of lesson and increasing motivation Encouraging participation, shy learners can be motivatedto speak Provide hidden practice of specific language patterns,vocabulary and pronunciation Improving attention span, concentration, memory,listening skills and reading skills.
  168. 168. PURPOSE OF GAMEa) Encourage memorization of chunks of languageb) Useful pronunciation practicec) Language may be practiced together with a wider educational or conceptual goald) Language in a game encourage more creative use of language
  169. 169. TYPES OF GAME ACCURACY-FOCUSED GAMES o Focus on comprehension and productiono It provides useful pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar practice o They are also good at training pupil´s memories
  170. 170. TYPES OF GAME FLUENCY-FOCUSED GAMES o We moves from language control to communicationo These games focus on developing fluency and collaboration with others (students and teacher)o Collaboration is achieved by trying to create a context where the putpils’ focus on getting a task done together. o Teacher should pre-teach language by modeling keyvocabulary or sentence patterns and providing rehearsal before pupils play games if not, pupil use their L1 and produce little English
  171. 171. TYPES OF GAME COMPETITIVE AND COOPERATIVE GAMESo Can be organized in teams groups, pairs or individuals. o The first always have a winner.o In the cooperative game the pupils have to work together for reach an objective.
  172. 172. WHEN THE TEACHER CHOOSE A GAME NEEDS TO CONSIDER FACTORS Have simple language, easy to explain, set up and play Everyone in the class should be participated it and It should be fun Instructions can be given in L1 Give students a second chance in order to make the game last longer Games should be integrated with other language work Teachers may sometimes use games for ‘fillers’ and ‘light relief’, but integrated practice is more educationally sound
  173. 173. HOW TO PLAY GAMES? Giving instructions and organizing the class  The instructions must be short, clear and simple  Consider the level of the students  Decide how you will apply the game pair or group work, etc  Use board, pictures, flashcards or other material to demonstrate proceduresThe teacher´s role Observer Monitoring pupils’ language Giving prompts and explanation where necessary Note-taking (some mistakes and errors)
  174. 174. EXAMPLE
  175. 175. STORYBOOKS
  176. 176. WHY USE STORYBOOKS?o It has always been educationally valuable, especiallyteaching English.o Create an acquisition rich environment and ideal learningconditions which provide comprehensible input or language alittle beyond the child’s current level of competenceo Stories provide the starting point for a wide variety ofrelated language and learning activities
  177. 177. TYPES OF STORYBOOKS READERS AUTHENTIC STORYBOOKSStorybooks that are used in The language is not selectedyoung learners ELT classroom or graded were adapted and simplifiedversions of popular fairy tales Offer a rich source of ,fables,nursery rhymes or vocabulary specificially written stories. They are motivating beauseThese books are produced to of the sense of achievement supplement the syllabus of a about worked with a ‘real’ particular course bookThey are intended to be used The quality of illustration isby the pupil working alone to a high standart ,appealing to develop reading skills the young learner
  178. 178. CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STORYBOOKS The language used in the text The length of the story Varied and fun The amount of repetition The use of illustrations and layout Pupils’ conceptual level Ability to concentrate After selecting a story you realize that it doesn’t appeal to your pupils, it is advisable to adapt your plan of work or even abandon the story altogether. A methodology for story-based work is plan-do- review.
  179. 179. READING OR TELLING STORIES? Most of us aren’t natural storytellers but we can all become good storytellers through practice and rehearsal. Try to know the story well enough so that you aren’t reading words directly from the page Look at the pupils frequently It is suggested that, read the stories aloud as possible rather than use a recorded version, especially the first time they hear a story.
  180. 180. EXAMPLEThis example would be perfect if it had only ilustrations
  181. 181. ROCÍO PIQUERAS PARRILLAEVA RABADÁN RUEDASISABEL RAMÍREZ CHICO THANKS YOU!
  182. 182. Blanco Mellado, Sara Cota García, Elena.Del Olmo Reillo, Natalia. Duque Chamero, Marta
  183. 183. Introduction 1. Points of view 1.1 Psychological point of view 1.2. Sociological point of view 1.3 Pedagogical point of view. 2. Game and motivation: attention. 3. The game and exploration.
  184. 184. 1.1 The psychological point of view. The psychological activities are different in each stage of development. The age in each stage can be different according to the culture, socioeconomic context and each one. The two cycles of Infant Education:  First cycle of Infant education: 1º Pre-games 2º Show and Hide games. 3. Functional games that favors the self-confidence and the self-steem.
  185. 185.  Second cycle of Infant Education; In this cycle the game gives the children the opportunity to achieve the next aspects:  The child discovers the other (people).  The child creates his/her own identity.  The child identifies with others.  The child follows the rules.  The child recognizes the leadership.  The child knows that he belongs to a group.
  186. 186. 1.2. The sociological point of view. The game is influenced by the society, the place, and the values of this society. The adult can guide the game of her/his children or let them free play and the adult must encourage the free and spontaneous play.
  187. 187.  The game has the next functions:  Social transmission.  Passage from one age to another.  Release tension.  Integration of the child.  Transmitting guidelines to each other. Girls and boys play different games.  Girls = calm games  Boys = fight games.
  188. 188. 1.3 The pedagogical point of view. Some years ago, the school divided the serious work and the game. Nowaday, teachers and parents know the importance of the game. We have to realize that the game:  Gives us information about the child.  Lets us know affective and intellectual problems.  Reinforces the acquired knowledge.  Favors the community between children.  Helps us to create some intervention strategies.
  189. 189.  The game can have different problems. For this reason, the teacher must know the kind of game and how to adapt this game to the practice. The game has to be spontaneous and they can have some educative objectives. If the game is planned with finality this game isn’t a game anymore.
  190. 190.  The game that is carried out in the school isn´t the same that the game which is carried out in family context. School and family context must work together for advantaging the child development. Now, new technology is advantaging the learning of children.
  191. 191. 2. Game and motivation: attention. The teacher has to know how long children keep the attention when they do an activity. In this age is important to keep and control the attention. The attention favors the intellectual and social achievements. The attention is improved when children are older.
  192. 192. 3. The game and exploration.At the beginning, the exploration has to be visual and then the child has to take part in the exploration. And finally appears a new behavior pattern.The differences between the exploration and game are: The exploration must discover features of the objects while the game must discover how to use the object. The game depends on the child´s motivation while the exploration doesn´t depend on it. The game is optional while the exploration is obligatory.
  193. 193. The teacher must give a good exploration atmosphere.
  194. 194. THE STORY AS ANEDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY MADE BY: Miriam López Gómez Patrycja Zofia Milanowska Ángela Muñoz Caminero Mª Ángeles de la Sierra Llamazares
  195. 195. THE STORY AS AN EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY.Stories and tales are the main key forteaching the children. We can´t forgetthat children must learn enjoying andplaying. In that way, the learning wouldbe more productive. It’s remarkable tosay that family bonds would be stronger ifparents use stories and tales to teachtheir children.
  196. 196. • 1. Creativity development: Children´s imagination can be encouraged stories. They can imagine that they can be whatever they want: pirates, wizards, princes, queens… Teachers should know how to tell the stories so that the pupils could imagine landscapes, places and characters. The account must be slow and adapted to their age.
  197. 197. • 2. Language development: When pupils are hearing a story, they are learning characteristics about the language: they increase their vocabulary; they learn the structure of a text, and, the most important: they learn the communicative use of language.
  198. 198. • 3. Emotional development:• Thanks to the stories and tales, the kids can feel affection for the person who is telling the story. Teachers or parents can bring them up a magic world plenty of charming that makes them feel special feelings and funny experiences.• Furthermore, it´s a good way to know children´s characteristics. We can see in their faces and expressions if the story that is being told is funny or if some of them prefer other kind of literature genre.
  199. 199. • 4. Psychological development:• Tales show situations in which children can see themselves reflected. Social values are taught through the characters.• Children´s literature talks about human conduct such as lies, goodness, happiness, sadness, desire, fear, friendship, family...so it´s very important to choose tales adapted to their age and understanding in such a way that they can find what is the moral and the values that are showed.• The “happy ending” is an essential feature: villains will be unlucky with a bad ending and kind characters will be happy and lucky instead.
  200. 200. • 5. Social development:• All the children must enjoy in these activities in which they will share emotions, feelings and opinions by the hearing and reading of tales.• Tales bring up the opportunity to live others lives and this will help them be unselfish people.
  201. 201. CRITERIA TO SELECT, USE AND TELL STORIES.• 1. AESTHETIC: The story we chose must have quality and have to be literature.• 2. THE CHILDREN’S AGE: Between 1 and 3 years: The tale must be a simple and short story. It has to talk about the daily life because they know it very well. Moreover, it has to contain songs, rhymes…
  202. 202. Between 3 and 5 years: the tales are simpleyet, and the characters used to be animalsthat can think and speak like humans.Between 5 and 7 years: the characters of thestory are children like the students, and theylive amazing adventures with fantasticcharacters. The tale can be longer.
  203. 203. • 3. THE LENGTH: The story have to be 10 or 20 minutes, and we have to achieve the children didn’t bore and paid attention.• 4. THE LANGUAGE: It must be simple, clear and correct. We have to add more vocabulary and reinforce the grammatical structures. Furthermore, we have to use gestures because in this way we express better the emotions.
  204. 204. • 5. STRUCTURES: The perfect structure is the presentation of the characters, the problem and the solution. The repetitions help the children to remember the story.• 6. THE TOPIC: We have to make the story attractive for the children. We must increase their knowledge about the world and society. Moreover, we have to be ready and answer the children’s questions.
  205. 205. • 7. THE PICTURES: The pictures are very important when we tell a story. The children relate the story that we tell them with the pictures and understand it better.
  206. 206. CRITERIA FOR THE USE:• When we are telling a story we could reading it without the help of the text.• We can use our own words and get better attention of our pupils.• When we read a story the language is more correct and has more vocabulary.• To start with, we use a simple stories with many repetitions and rhymes.
  207. 207. NARRATIVE CRITERIA• When we tell a story we should convey the feelings of the characters.• Choose the stories we like and that are apropriate to the age of children.• It´s good to know it by heart.• We can display the characters.• We should to achieve that the children are quiet and relaxed.
  208. 208. • Speak slowly.• Give expression to the voice.• We can imitate sounds.• We can use the things that cause a surprise.• We need to invilve the children.• We should recieve comments from our students about what they have heard.
  209. 209. THE TIME TO TELL A STORY• Should be calm and relaxed.• We should read it after some exercises, activities.• It´s a filler activity.
  210. 210. THE SPACE WHERE WE WILL DO IT:• The space has to be defined.• The class has to be spacious, and our students should be seated in front of the teacher.
  211. 211. ACTIVITIES WITH THE TALES• When we had told the tale, we can do questions about it. It can be important to know if the children had understood the story. We must highlight the tale because it’s more important than the activities. The tale is the principal activity.
  212. 212. ACTIVITIES OF CRATION, RECREATIONAND INTERPRETATION OF THE LITERARY TEXT.• The first activity consists of questions about different situations of the tale.• Other activity is the children continue the story when we had told the tale.• The children have to invent a story with elements that they known of others tales.• Other activity is the realization of mask or puppetry to show the kids when we narrated the story.
  213. 213. • Change the ending of the story.• To express the moods of the tale through voice and gesture.• We can repeat more times the tales but we change the velocity.• Other activity is the children represent the action of the tale.• Memorization of story using objects or pictures.
  214. 214. OTHER ACTIVITIES TO DO WHEN WE HAD TOLD THE TALE1. The children have to do some pictures about the different character of the tale and then we recreate the story using this pictures. Is important that the students know the tale correctly for do this secuences of pictures.2. Other activity is the dramatization of the story. We can use costumes and masks for do it.3. To tell the story with music or different instruments.
  215. 215. • Activities outside the classroom, for example: in the forest, in the park, in a museum, in a zoo, etc.• The family is an important element in this activities because the grandparents can write poems or stories in a book, and other families can write in them too.
  216. 216. THE TALE
  217. 217. Definition of the tale:• The tale is a fictional and short story, it is simple and it has moral or recreational purposes. It is universal and it intended to help understanding the culture and the world.
  218. 218. Fairy folk tales: are storiesof past times of village life andare unreal acts. The supernaturalelements are secondary. The mostimportant is the narration.These tales are funny and encouragethe imagination of children.
  219. 219. •The marvellous tale:The characters are witches, fairies, ogres, etc.Explain topics about the nature, the evil or thegoodness. These tales are pieces of prose, we can´tknow the time or place where happened thestory. The principal character has to get to passobstacles to get a happy end. Children can learnto solve problem.
  220. 220. The folk tale• Folk tale: comes from oral tradition. Is destined to be heard rather than to be read. It has a structure for the beginning and another to the end.
  221. 221. • Propp proposed 31 functions for the tales. After the analysis of us Spanish stories, we can highlight nine:o Problem or initial lacko Callo Tripo Generosityo Doración of a magical objecto Combato Testingo Journey backo Recognition of the hero, etc.Sometimes the stories haven´t all the functions
  222. 222. Characteristics of the folktale:• There aren´t descriptions and figures are easy to distinguish.• The vocabulary is simple• ´The formulas are redundant, rigid and repetitions• The characters haven´t inner world• Characters react to external stimulus• Time never pass for the characters• There isn´t narrator
  223. 223. Relation tale and other types of narrative
  224. 224. 1. Myth and story.• Definition of myth:A myth is a traditional sacred story, typicallyrevolving around the activities of gods andheroes, which purports to explain a naturalphenomenon or cultural practice.• Characteristics:- The myth happens in the past.- The myth can affect humans. It istransmitted orally.- The myth has a religious significance.
  225. 225. • Similarities and differences:- The myth and the tale sharing different things, for example, their characters are similar.- Difference: the myth tells unique stories that can´t happen in other places or to other people and the tale can happen anywhere or anyone.
  226. 226. 2. Tale and epic.• Definition of epic:Epic talks about the actions of a hero, who ishistoric and imaginary.• Characteristics:- The epic talks about imaginary events.- The narrative is objective.- The epic shows different values.- Also it teaches different ways of life.
  227. 227. Differences:• The epic and the tale differ because the tale shows an optimistic point of view and the epic shows a pessimistic point of view.
  228. 228. 3. The legend• Definition:The legend is a traditional and historicaltale popularly regarded as true but usuallyit containing a mixture of fact and fiction.• Characteristics:- The legend can be a realistic,wonderful or religious story.- The legend is between myth andstory.
  229. 229. • Similarities and differences:Sometimes is difficult to differentiatebetween the story and the legend. The bigdifference is that the facts narrated intales are fictitious and the facts narrated inlegends are real.
  230. 230. 4. The fable• The fable is a tale about an animal.• The fables are short stories written in prose or verse and narrated in a very simple form.• The most important thing in the fable is the moral that gives moral teaching.
  231. 231. • The fable doesn´t need a narrator to explain the conclusion because the lesson is narrated in a clear and simple form.• Characters: the fables involved personified animals, inanimate objects and human and divine characters.• The purpose of the fable is to compare the teaching of the fable and the reality that surrounds us.
  232. 232. Origing of the tale• The folktale is anonymous, although it may be an initial author.• The author disappears when the tale is accepted by the community and it becomes the heritage of everybody.• The tale is adaptive, modern and eliminates those elements that become meaningless changes.
  233. 233. • Tales can be merged with other tales to create a new tale.• Each tale has the personality and style of the person who tells the tale.
  234. 234. Studies, classification and authors of the popular tales• We emphasize the classification made by Antti Aarne and Stith Thompson. We know this classification as Aarne-Thompson.• This classification is based on the repetition of the principal topics of popular tales.
  235. 235. Aarne-Thompson´s classification: - Animal tales - Wonderful tales - Religious tales - Humorous tales - Fairy tales - Realistic tales - Custom tales
  236. 236. Pelegrín´s classification Pelegrin makes a classification to each age: - Formula tales ( 2-5 years) - Animal tales (4-7 years) - Wonderful tales (5-7 years)
  237. 237. Gianni Rodari´s classification - Animal tales - Magic tales - Anecdotal tales
  238. 238. Principal authors: Finally we make a list of authors and of their tales:- Charles Perrault: Mother Goose- Brothers Grimm: Hansel and Gretel- Hans Christian Andersen: The Princess and the Pea
  239. 239. - Edith Nesbit: Stories of dragons and treasure hunters- James Barrie: Peter Pan.- Beatrix Potter: The Tale of Peter Rabbit- Lewis Carroll: Alice in Wonderland
  240. 240. • Miriam Calcerrada Castellanos• Isabel Fuentes Ortega• Violeta Gálvez Higuera
  241. 241. THE TALE AS ANEDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY
  242. 242. INDEX1. Educational value of the tales:a) Creativity development.b) Language development.c) Emotional development.d) Physcological development.e) Social development.2. Criteria to select, use and tell oral and written tales.a) Criteria for tales selection.b) Criteria for tales use.c) Criteria to tell tales.3. Activity from the tales.
  243. 243. 1. Educational value of the tales• The tale has an emotional and educational value because it reinforces the relationship between parents and children.• Tales also introduce children to a world of fantasy and imagination and help them to solve their personal conflicts.• Tales are very old because they have been transmitted from parents to children.• The tale is the main character of classrooms.
  244. 244. a) Creativity development• Thanks to the expressiveness of the different characters, scenes and situations, tales help children to develop their imagination and creativity. Too, they help them to decide what would like to be or to do.
  245. 245. b) Language development• Tales help children to learn the language, to order meaningful sentences, to improve their vocabulary, especially affecting the communicative function of language.• In addition, stories allow a first contact with literature and encourage them to have interest in written texts.
  246. 246. c) Emotional development• Thanks to tales, we can meet children.• The story is a simple and effective way to establish close relationships between teller and listener. They are an extraordinary means to meet children.• There are many different types of tales, each child prefers a different tale like adventurous stories, fairy tales, animals stories, fantasy stories…
  247. 247. d) Psycological development• Moreover with the tales, children learn different values such as respect, obedience, sincerity, friendship ...• Children help to solve small conflicts and to identify their feelings.• Children are able to identify with the characters and thus they can feel safe, so the end of the stories should be happy.• Stories also stimulate childrens memory and facilitate the development of childrens minds because the story is an ordered structure of events in time.
  248. 248. e) Social development• The child at this age is egocentric, therefore we should not lose the occasion to be interested in other children and in their behavior...• They extend their world views and build spaces that allow them to acquire new knowledge.• Literature is a great way that allows us to share feelings, to learn aspects about other worlds, cultures, so it is very important to read tales from different places.• The environment ,where they read and enjoy these tales, should be calm and relaxed to favour good learning.
  249. 249. 2. Criteria for selection, use and tell oral and written tales.a) Criteria for tales selectionIn order to select a tale, we have to consider the followingcriteria:- Aesthetic criteria.- The age of children.- Length.- Language.- Structure.- Topics.- Pictures.
  250. 250. Aesthetic criteria:Tales must be quality.The age of the children:From 1 to 3 years old- Tales have to be short and simple. The stories focus on daily life and in themthere are rhymes, repetitions, poems…-Books have to be hard material and with rounded corners,too.From 3 to 5 years oldChildren usually tend to give life to the characters. They are interested inanimal topics and they prefer simple short stories, with few characters.In this stage the language develops.
  251. 251. From 5 to 7 years old- Children like animals and fantasy tales and they are interested in thewonderful world.- In addiction, puzzles, the humor and wordplay attract them. These tales are longer.Length:- Tales have to last between ten and twenty minutes, that is to say, they have to be short and they have to be adapted to avoid distractions.Language:- Language must be simple, clear and correct in order to favour their vocabulary and grammar.- We have to use different types of story as classic as modern stories.- When we are telling a story to the children we must be pretty expressive in language and gestures.
  252. 252. Structure:- The structure must be linear:o Presentation of characters.o Conflict.o Resolution.- The action should resolve around a main character. There should not be a large number of characters.Topic:- It is very important that children are integrated into tale topics and characters have to be attractive.- Thanks to stories children are able to reflect on social issues such as family,injustice, violence, culture and so on.
  253. 253. Pictures:- Pictures have an important role. Thanks to the relation between the text and the pictures, children can know the adult words through matches the pictures with the texts.- Albums are very large books where the reading is done through two different ways: Through picture and text.- Picture should have bright colours and attract the attention and interest of children.
  254. 254. b) Criteria for tales use. use.- In accordance with the teaching objectives, tales can be used toread, to tell, to manipulate, to represent…It is better that mothers, teachers etc. tell the story than read it.At first, we have to use simple stories, and they should be alwaysin a place accessible to them, such as the classroom library.
  255. 255. c) Criteria for telling talesWhen teachers have to tell children a tale, they should take intoaccount the following criteria:- Choosing tales that they like children and they have to beappropriate with children age.- Establishing a relaxed atmosphere in class.- Using a soft voice and gestures.- Asking the children about the tale that have been reading.- Allowing children to manipulate stories.- The space, where we will tell the story, should be suitable tothe number of children, it should have good conditions and bedimly lit.
  256. 256. 3. Activity from the tales- From tale we can do many activities with children. First, teacher should dialogue with the children, asking questions related to the story to find out whether children have understood the plot.- We have to tell the story with pictures, puppets, masks... in order to express different feelings.- Repeating the story by varying the speed.- Narrating the story while children are representing the action.
  257. 257. - Some activities that we can do are: illustrating the tale, namely that children draw a picture of what they have understood.- Role play where children act out the story.- We can tell musical stories playing musical instruments.- And finally, we can do activities outside the classroomand activities with families.
  258. 258. o To conclude, tales are a great and funny way to teach children.
  259. 259. By:By:• Teresa María Caba López.• Laura Fdez-Pacheco Fdez-Medina.• María García Berezo.

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